In Ethiopia many medicinal plants are used for the treatment of malaria including Dodonaea angustifolia seed without considering their side effects. The side effect of those medicinal plants can be evaluated by the use of the chronic treatment or acute treatment. In such a case laboratory animals were administered with the crude extracts of the plant through the oral route using oral gavage for at least six weeks at different doses. At the end of the experiment, all mice under treatment were sacrificed after blood collection for hematological and biochemical analysis and liver and kidney sections were randomly taken for tissue processing. The results of hematological and biochemical analysis as well as the microscopic examinations of the liver and kidney sections were compared with control groups.
Acetaminophen is widely used as an analgesic and antipyretic drug. Prolong daily use or overdose of this drug may cause acute liver and kidney damage. This book was designed to assist in the diagnosis of patients with liver and kidney damage of indeterminate etiology for which acetaminophen is suspected. Thus, this book intends to add to the list of drugs that can possibly be used in treatment of acetaminophen overdose.
Doxorubicin (Adriamycin) is a well known anticancer drug used to cause cardiac damage in rats. In this book, combination of Enalapril and fenofibrate were assessed for cardioprotective effect. Parameters evaluated were ECG, blood pressure, serum markers viz. LDH, CK-MB, SGPT, SGOT, ALP, serum urea and serum creatinine. Tissue antioxidant markers viz. CAT and SOD, lipid peroxidation (MDA) for heart, liver and kidney and histopathological study of heart, liver and kidney. Parameters such as body weight, organ weight (heart, liver and kidney) and organ/body weight ratio were also evaluated.
Nearly everyone has been suffering from liver disorder and disease by higher intake of various medicines, beverages, alcohol, junk food and accidentally inhalation of chemicals, toxins etc. The liver plays a key role in metabolism and clearance of food and drugs which are susceptible to toxicity. Certain medicines, when taken in overdoses and sometimes introduced within therapeutic ranges, may lead to liver toxicity. More than 900 drugs and toxins have been reported to cause liver injury and several herbal remedies are administered to cure liver from these toxicity. Various drugs from plant sources traditionally used to protect liver and given in jaundice in many tribes all over the world. In India, People of Himalayan region traditionally use aerial parts of Roylea elegans (titpati) for protect their liver and crushed leaves are given to infants against jaundice.
Leukemia is a broad term covering a spectrum of diseases. It is a part of the even broader group of diseases called hematological neoplasm. This study was undertaken to clarify the hematological and biochemical changes accompanied with leukemia induced experimentally in rats with benzene administration and its treatment using certain anticancer drugs such as Methotrexate and Doxorubicin. The biochemical parameters were widely investigated. The obtained results illustrated that some chemicals have a toxic effect on blood cells, bone marrow and body organs. such as liver, kidney and heart. Uses of anticancer drugs such as Methotrexate and Aldoxeirobsin in the treatment of blood cancer lead to liver toxicity and adverse effect on heart and increased rates of kidney functions, increase in some types of fat, lower rates for other natural and a lack of hemoglobin and increased oxidation of fat. Therefore we recommend avoiding toxic chemicals, especially benzene as possible and the work of analysis to complete blood sugar and liver function, kidney and fat and cardiac enzymes and analysis of the thyroid on a regular basis for patients with leukemia and cancer.
Cyclosporin ‘A'' is the major component of the Cyclosporins, a group of nonpolar cyclic oligopeptides possessing immunosuppressive activity. Cyclosporin ‘A'' is used extensively in the prevention and treatment of graft-versus-host reactions in bone marrow transplantation and for the prevention of rejection of kidney, heart, and liver transplants. As its role in transplantation surgery increases, the demand on industry to improved yields intensifies. In order to obtain and maintain a competitive economic position for new and existing fermentation respectively, it is also necessary to find means for increasing the yields of the fermentation product. The present study has been designed to enhance production capability of Cyclosporin ‘A'' by local isolates of Aspergillus terreus by mutating the cultures with UV radiation and mutagenic chemicals.
This book is comprised of different chapters on such topics as floral biology, reproductive system in crop plants, seed development and maturation, seed testing, seed processing, seed treatment for quality enhancement and dormancy breaking, application of traditional and modern methods of genetic purity testing. This text is a valuable and worthwhile contribution to the literature on seed Science and technology. Indeed, this practical manual of Seed science and technology delivers one’s expectations from the title. The book’s value is in the breadth of topics, directed toward the Seed technology practical applications in the laboratory and brought together in one volume. It will be particularly valuable for bachelor courses and other postgraduate teaching.
Treatment with melatonin and /or DHEA showed therapeutic effects with fluctuated ameliorative percentages in all investigated biochemical parameters ,through markedly accelerated liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy, attenuated DMN- induced liver injury by their ROS scavenging activities, modulated liver injury and liver ?brosis by inhibiting in?ammatory cytokines and oxidative stress, stimulated hepatocyte mitosis, that consequently leads to the survival of rats with a high risk of postoperative liver failure after hepatectomy. These results ascertained scavenging free radicals and antioxidant activities of both drugs in enhancement regenerating liver after partial hepatectomy, DMN –induced cirrhosis and cirrhotic –partially hepatectomized liver.
CCl4 is a halogen aliphatic hydrocarbon derived from methane with an aromatic sweet odor, and heavier than water in which it is sparingly soluble. Its use is very much restricted on account of the fact that its toxicity can manifest itself after simple inhaling. CCl4 has been widely used as a dry-cleaning solvent and in-fire-extinguishers because it is a non-flammable liquid. The experimental model of CCl4 treatment in rats has been extensively used to study liver fibrogensis. The bio-activation of CCl4 is complex and implicated both reductive and oxidative pathways. CCl4 is widely used to treat animals as a liver injury model because damage by CCl4 is regarded as the analogue of liver damage caused by a variety of hepatotoxins in humans. Liver disease is a worldwide problem; conventional drugs used in the treatment of liver disease are sometimes inadequate and can have serious adverse effects. It is; therefore, necessary to search for alternative drugs for treatment of liver disease to replace currently used drugs of doubtful efficacy and safety, so there is a worldwide trend to go back to traditional medicinal plants in use for treatment of liver ailments.
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of pesticide permethrin against frog Rana tigrina. After preliminary experiments of the under test compound, two different doses were selected for the studies. These were 1 and 0.1%. Mortality count was made at 24 hours of post-treatment, untreated frogs was also kept as well. Estimation of protein content and cholinesterase has been carried out in treated frogs and compared with untreated. It was observed that at the dose of 1 and 0.1% permethrin treated frogs, a total reduction in protein contents was found to be 61, 16% in kidney and 89 and 87% in liver, respectively. While cholinesterase was found to be inhibited by 35 and 6.76% in kidney and 29 and 23% in liver, respectively, when frog were treated with permethrin at aforesaid doses. On the basis of present study, it is concluded that the permethrin reduced protein contents and enzyme cholinesterase activity after 24 hours treatment in the liver and kidney frog Rana tigrina. The research techniques and information are helpful for graduate and research students of Biological Sciences and wildlife.
Kamilari is a poly herbal liver care product. It has been used to protect and treat those suffering from various stages of liver diseases such as Alcoholic Liver Cirrhosis, Hepatitis, Jaundice and Fatty liver. Alcoholic hepatitis is another early stage of liver disease due to high intake of alcohol.It is either consumed as medicine and/or supplement to protect or recover from liver related aliments.
Bangladhonia (Eryngium foetdum L.) is a highly priced aromatic and medicinal culinary herb increasingly cultivated world wide. Seed - its production, rapid viability degradation and low germination rate limits its dissemination and cultivation. Experiments were conducted by the author at the Horticulture Field Laboratory of BSMRAU, Bangladesh to study morphology, fresh herb and seed production potentiality, seed storage and viability improvement. The dissertation includes method of Eryngium cultivation, morphological study, fresh herb and seed production, seed storage, viability and germination enhancement using growth regulators with different plant spacing. The highest seed yield (136.3kg/ha), gross return(BD Tk. 0.75 million/ha) and BCR (4.76) was recorded in 10?10 cm plant spacing. Seed treated with growth regulator solution (GA3 500ppm + Kinetin 50ppm) gave the maximum germination (31.23%), fresh yield (55.90 t/ha), gross return (BD Tk. 1.37 million/ha), gross margin (BD Tk. 1.18 million/ha) and BCR (8.52) with 20 kg seed/ha in broadcasting sowing system. Low temperature (4-5 deg.C) storage with air tight sealed polyethylene bag packaging was found better for storage of seeds.
In a search for better antidotes of metallic pollutants, many chemical (drugs) were evaluated. The aim of the present study was the evaluation and comparison the efficacy of two familiar antidotes DMSA and DMPS used for treatment of lead toxicity. The current study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of both DMSA and DMPS in treatment of long-term lead toxicity through assessment of hematological, biochemical, histopathological and levels of lead in some tissues (liver, kidney and brain) of exposed rats. One hundred twenty male albino rats were divided into four groups (30 each). The first group (C) was used as control, the 2nd, 3rd and 4th (L, D and P) were exposed to lead acetate in drinking water (100 ppm) for 12 weeks. Both D and P groups were treated with DMSA and DMPS respectively after 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 weeks 24 hours prior to sampling. The investigated parameters were hematological picture, biochemical parameters (total protein, ALT, AST, ?–GT, LPO, NO and SOD), lead levels (liver, kidney and brain) and histopathological examination.
Maize is one of the most important cereal crops. Maize seed may be infected by various organisms before or after harvest, affecting seeds in storage and seed germination, which results in lower plant population in field and yield loss. Seed samples of 23 maize genotypes were collected in different parts of Karnataka and seed mycoflora were observed from the seeds. Nine seed samples of maize were collected from Mandya and screened for seed mycoflora. 10 fungi were recorded, among them Penicillium sp. and Fusarium sp. were predominantly observed in most of the seed samples. Among the four incubation methods tested, blotter method was effective for enumeration of mycoflora from maize seed followed by water agar, deep freezing and potato dextrose agar method. Rolled paper towel method study revealed that majority of abnormal seedlings and dead seeds were recorded due to association with A. flavus, Fusarium sp. and A. niger. Hot water treatment at 40 C? for 30 minutes was found to be the best seed treatment among the physical seed treatment followed by solar heat treatment at 12-14 h for the management of seed mycoflroa and improvement of seed germination.
A study was conducted to assess some macrominerals level in some organs of camels; they were selected for slaughtering in AlGenana slaughterhouse. Ten samples of Liver, spleen and kidney were collected from each male and female camel. All samples were laboratory analyzed using a flam Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The average percent of Ca, Mg and P level in male liver are 0.041, 0.0124 and 0.46 and in female liver are 0.0228, 0.00694 and 0.276 respectively. Whereas average percent of Ca, Mg and P in male spleen are 0.083, 0.033and 0.36 and in female spleen are 0.0304, 0.0158 and 0.148 respectively. While, average percent of Ca, Mg and P level in male kidney are 0.025, 0.077and 0.86 and in female kidney are 0.02, 0.0056 and 0.264, respectively. The results revealed that organs meat contained higher level of P either in male or female camel. Whereas, study was observed that, higher level of macrominerals found in organs tissues of male camel compared to that in female camel and high significant correlation between all macrominerals, those stored in kidney compared to significant correlation between Ca and Mg in liver. This may be associated with bioavailability of macromineral