Tested and proven strategy to develop optimal automated process fault analyzers Process fault analyzers monitor process operations in order to identify the underlying causes of operational problems. Several diagnostic strategies exist for automating process fault analysis; however, automated fault analysis is still not widely used within the processing industries due to problems of cost and performance as well as the difficulty of modeling process behavior at needed levels of detail. In response, this book presents the method of minimal evidence (MOME), a model-based diagnostic strategy that facilitates the development and implementation of optimal automated process fault analyzers. MOME was created at the University of Delaware by the researchers who developed the FALCON system, a real-time, online process fault analyzer. The authors demonstrate how MOME is used to diagnose single and multiple fault situations, determine the strategic placement of process sensors, and distribute fault analyzers within large processing systems. Optimal Automated Process Fault Analysis begins by exploring the need to automate process fault analysis. Next, the book examines: Logic of model-based reasoning as used in MOME MOME logic for performing single and multiple fault diagnoses Fuzzy logic algorithms for automating MOME Distributing process fault analyzers throughout large processing systems Virtual SPC analysis and its use in FALCONEER IV Process state transition logic and its use in FALCONEER IV The book concludes with a summary of the lessons learned by employing FALCONEER IV in actual process applications, including the benefits of «intelligent supervision» of process operations. With this book as their guide, readers have a powerful new tool for ensuring the safety and reliability of any chemical processing system.
This book covers the most essential techniques for designing and building dependable distributed systems. Instead of covering a broad range of research works for each dependability strategy, the book focuses only a selected few (usually the most seminal works, the most practical approaches, or the first publication of each approach) are included and explained in depth, usually with a comprehensive set of examples. The goal is to dissect each technique thoroughly so that readers who are not familiar with dependable distributed computing can actually grasp the technique after studying the book. The book contains eight chapters. The first chapter introduces the basic concepts and terminologies of dependable distributed computing, and also provide an overview of the primary means for achieving dependability. The second chapter describes in detail the checkpointing and logging mechanisms, which are the most commonly used means to achieve limited degree of fault tolerance. Such mechanisms also serve as the foundation for more sophisticated dependability solutions. Chapter three covers the works on recovery-oriented computing, which focus on the practical techniques that reduce the fault detection and recovery times for Internet-based applications. Chapter four outlines the replication techniques for data and service fault tolerance. This chapter also pays particular attention to optimistic replication and the CAP theorem. Chapter five explains a few seminal works on group communication systems. Chapter six introduces the distributed consensus problem and covers a number of Paxos family algorithms in depth. Chapter seven introduces the Byzantine generals problem and its latest solutions, including the seminal Practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance (PBFT) algorithm and a number of its derivatives. The final chapter covers the latest research results on application-aware Byzantine fault tolerance, which is an important step forward towards practical use of Byzantine fault tolerance techniques.
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Fault-tolerant control theory is a well-studied topic but the use of the sets in detection, isolation and/or reconfiguration is rather tangential. The authors of this book propose a systematic analysis of the set-theoretic elements and devise approaches which exploit advanced elements within the field. The main idea is to translate fault detection and isolation conditions into those conditions involving sets. Furthermore, these are to be computed efficiently using positive invariance and reachability notions. Constraints imposed by exact fault control are used to define feasible references (which impose persistent excitation and, thus, non-convex feasible sets). Particular attention is given to the reciprocal influences between fault detection and isolation on the one hand, and control reconfiguration on the other. Contents 1. State of the Art in Fault-tolerant Control 2. Fault Detection and Isolation in Multisensor Systems 3. Residual Generation and Reference Governor Design 4. Reconfiguration of the Control Mechanism for Fault-tolerant Control 5. Related Problems and Applications About the Authors Florin Stoican received a B.E. degree from the “Politehnica” University of Bucharest, Romania, in 2008 and his PhD from SUPELEC, France in 2011. He held an ERCIM Postdoctoral Fellowship with NTNU Trondheim, Norway, in 2012, and is currently Assistant Professor at “Politehnica” University of Bucharest. His main interest is the fault tolerant control of dynamical systems through the prism of set theoretic elements. His current work involves further results in set theory and constrained optimization problems. Sorin Olaru received an M.S. degree from the “Politehnica” University of Bucharest, Romania, and both his PhD and Habilitation from University Paris XI, France, being awarded the European Commission Archimedes Prize in 2002. Since 2001 he has held different positions at INRIA and SUPELEC in France and visiting appointments at the University of Newcastle, Australia and NTNU Trondheim, Norway. He is currently Professor at SUPELEC, a member of the INRIA Disco team and senior member of IEEE. His research interests include optimization-based control design and the set-theoretic characterization of constrained dynamical systems.
In recent years, control systems have become more sophisticated in order to meet increased performance and safety requirements for modern technological systems. Engineers are becoming more aware that conventional feedback control design for a complex system may result in unsatisfactory performance, or even instability, in the event of malfunctions in actuators, sensors or other system components. In order to circumvent such weaknesses, new approaches to control system design have emerged which can tolerate component malfunctions while maintaining acceptable stability and performance. These types of control systems are often known as fault-tolerant control systems (FTCS). More precisely, FTCS are control systems which possess the ability to accommodate component failure automatically. Analysis and Synthesis of Fault-Tolerant Control Systems comprehensively covers the analysis and synthesis methods of fault tolerant control systems. It unifies the methods for developing controllers and filters for a wide class of dynamical systems and reports on the recent technical advances in design methodologies. MATLAB® is used throughout the book, to demonstrate methods of analysis and design. Key features: • Provides advanced theoretical methods and typical practical applications • Provides access to a spectrum of control design methods applied to industrial systems • Includes case studies and illustrative examples • Contains end-of-chapter problems Analysis and Synthesis of Fault-Tolerant Control Systems is a comprehensive reference for researchers and practitioners working in this area, and is also a valuable source of information for graduates and senior undergraduates in control, mechanical, aerospace, electrical and mechatronics engineering departments.