Language learning strategies received great interest from researchers since the 1970s. The relationship between strategy use, strategy instruction and language proficiency has attracted much attention and debate over the years. Strategy instruction research is expected to produce different results in different parts of the world largely because of the effect of different educational systems and cultural values. This study attempted at investigating strategy instruction within the Saudi context as a contribution to the growing global picture of cross-cultural strategy use and instruction. This accumulation of findings from research around the world will be useful for language teachers, researchers and program designers. The study targeted Saudi female English majors at King Saud university to investigate the relationship between explicit first language strategy instruction and language learning examining whether there will be a difference in strategy use after strategy instruction. Moreover, the study also investigated the effect of the strategy course on subjects’ language proficiency level by the end of the semester in three different skills reading, writing, and listening.
Although new ventures’ competitive positioning and their founders’ social networks are both recognized as important in the context of transition economies, not much is known about their multiplicative effect on performance. We build on the strategic management literature and social network theory to develop theoretical predictions about the role of competitive strategies and social capital for entrepreneurial performance. These are tested with survey data from Bulgaria. We find that both the venture’s competitive strategic positioning and the founder’s networking positively influence performance. The hypothesized moderating effect of networking for the relationship between differentiation strategy and performance received only tentative support. Contrary to expectations, we find a negative moderating effect of networking for the relationship of cost leadership with performance. These results suggest that the entrepreneur’s network plays a role in shaping how strategies influence performance by possibly upholding differentiation and deemphasizing cost leadership strategy. Implications for managerial practice and public policy are discussed.
The third and last novel of Feist's successful collaborative series. From the endlessly inventive mind of one of fantasy's all time greats comes a spellbinding new adventure of high magic, treachery and bloody war. This time in conjunction with master of alternative history, Steve Stirling, Feist returns to tell the full tale of one of his fans' favourite most colourful Riftwar characters, pickpocket, mountebank and confidence trickster Jimmy the Hand.