In this book a dynamic models have been developed for the following: variable speed wind energy conversion systems and power electronic interfacing devices. These dynamic models are suitable for both detailed fast transient and large time scale performance evaluation studies. They can be used to expedite the research processes in the related alternative energy areas, such as system control, performance optimization studies and diagnosis. One of the original points is that this work is the use of a new the fault detection and isolation method (FDI). The proposed method avoids the exploration of all the combinations for its application to the diagnostic of this system operation. The causal paths are used to generate the analytical redundancy relations (ARR) at each computation step based on the constitutive and structural junction relations. This is shown through an algorithm for monitoring the system by sensors placements on the corresponding bond graph model.
The destructive phenomenon of global warming is developing to more critical and obvious index that causes the melting of polar ice caps and higher sea levels resulting in less land for an increasing population, along with the severe changes in climate. Essentially, the growth of this harsh trend is primarily due to the increase of the greenhouse gases concentration from burning of the fossil fuels. So, traditional approach of producing energy to fulfill the human demand is no longer appropriate; meanwhile, inception of wind energy electrical power systems will be the alternative technologies to bring a better future for all mankind. This book provides a comprehensive explanation of the wind energy potential evaluation technique and a robust sensorless MPPT controller for variable speed PMSG wind turbine stand-alone system modeled in Matlab/Simulink environment which shows the feasibility of the technologies compared to the conventional electrical power generation. The study of the WECS will assist the professionals in wind electrical power generation system, global academic researchers, industrial engineers, or those who may consider in implementing this system
In spite of the energy crisis, population and environment degradation issues, the use of automobiles has been going up. This call for continuing the efforts towards developing more efficient, environmentally friendly, safer and more controllable vehicles. This often translates into developing better models and increasing the use of onboard computers. The use of computers for control invariably requires models which execute faster and are reliable even in extreme conditions. Bond graph based techniques allow the development of continuously extensible models and easier integration with control systems.The present work deals with the development of the so called half car models using Bond graph based approaches to study the response of the vehicle while passing over a ramp or uneven surface.A successful compilation of the Bond graph on the Bond graph package Symbol Shakti shows that the model has been created with logical correctness.More extensive validation may be needed before it can be taken up for testing its utility for online control.
The primary task of a wind turbine is to generate electricity from the wind and to supply the produced power to the user. Control of a wind turbine is an integral part of the wind power generation system for proficient operation of the wind turbine, to ensure the maximum power production and finally, maximum energy capture from a wind turbine system. In order to avoid problems at installation, it is required to test the power electronics and study the performance of the controller in a laboratory environment. The aim of this book is therefore to propose and validate maximum power point control strategies for wind turbine and most importantly, to develop a prototype of a small wind energy conversion system that emulates the steady state and dynamic behavior in a laboratory environment.
Wind energy conversion systems are now occupying important space in the research of renewable energy sources. There is a need for further research on Wind Generators and Power Integration Topologies. In this work we are using Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG) for wind power generation and the behavior of PMSG when subjected to different wind speeds is being studied in MATLAB. This also provides a comparison of different power converter topologies used in Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS).
In the time of current trend of increasing energy consumption, the wind-power engineering may compensate considerable part of required electric energy. Rapid wind-power engineering development is considered to be one of the important sources of human need satisfaction. Conventional wind turbine control strategies are dedicated to ensure high energy conversion efficiency under varying wind conditions. The challenge in wind power control engineering is to design an adaptive wind turbine control strategy, which provides the dynamic system stability and the effectiveness of energy conversion. The aim of this book is to design and implement the control algorithm, which implies the electromagnetic torque control in order to adapt the rotor speed and keep high energy conversion efficiency. Wind turbine operation is considered in the partial-load regime. The stability of the purposed control system is studied using linear control theory concepts. The effectiveness of the wind energy conversion is proved by the simulation results in MATLAB Simulink environment.
The content of the Work is aimed at the topical issue - integration of increasing infeed of wind power into a power system, in particular its impact on the transmission networks and electricity market. In power system development horizons where forward-looking planning tasks are formed, proper instruments that are able to assess those impacts in progressive stages, comprehensive understanding of the impacts on the entire system operation, electricity markets as well as generating and transmission infrastructural requirements are indispensable for proper decisions of policy makers and planners. The main part therefore focuses on methods and elaboration of approaches for bulk wind power production modelling and simulation primarily intended for infrastructural planning purposes, while technical/economic as well as regulatory aspects of the environment are taken into consideration. The research is carried out within the framework of the European Energy Research Alliance (EERA), Joint Research Programme on Smart Grids, Transmission Planning with the main target focusing on R&D of the next generation of smart grid technologies and system development.
The use of renewable energy is growing significantly around the world. In front of the growing demand for electricity essentially for the remote and deserted locations needs. Photovoltaic systems, especially water pumping systems, begin to find great applications. Unfortunately these systems have encountered a number of problems even nowadays: a problem of maintenance. Various modeling techniques are developed by researchers to model components of renewable energy systems. Performance of individual component is either modeled by deterministic or probabilistic approaches; in this book we propose the graphical methods (bond graph) for modeling, fault detection and isolation of energy production systems. This book can be interesting to readers looking for a deeper knowledge in MPPT tracking or those looking for an introduction to PV power generation, because it includes a review of the general concepts related to PV power generation.
In this book shows a novel control approach of a three phase grid connected wind energy conversion system, incorporating a maximum power point tracker for dynamic active power generation jointly with reactive power compensation of distribution utility systems has been presented. Thus the five level multilevel inverter topology were chosen based on what has gone before, even if that topology may not be the best choice for the application. Several multilevel voltage source inverters and their modulation topologies are introduced. The cascaded-inverter with separated dc sources is discussed in detail with results to verify the proposed concepts. The improved capabilities of the grid-connected WECS to rapidly exchange active power with the electric system, simultaneously and independently of the reactive power exchange, permit to greatly enhance the operation and control of the electric system.
ABSTRACT The demand for electric energy is increasing day by day that has resulted in exploration of more and more alternate energy sources. Among the available alternate energy sources, wind energy, solar energy and fuel cells have drawn considerable attention. Further, all of these alternate energy sources are also of renewable nature. Among the mentioned alternate energy sources, wind power generation systems have been the most cost competitive alternative among all the environmentally clean and safe renewable energy sources in the world. Both fixed-speed squirrel-cage induction generator and variable speed double fed induction generator have been proposed in the literature for wind turbine generation technology. Since the direction and speed of winds may vary from location to location and time to time, the variable speed wind turbine technology offers inherent advantages over the fixed-speed one. The doubly fed induction-generator (DFIG) is used in tandem with the wind turbine to produce electric energy. The DFIG with the help of the two back to back converters: rotor side and grid side converters, is able to deal with wide variation of wind speed.
This book is very useful for the researchers who are working on wind, PV or Wind-PV hybrid power plants. Renewable energy from wind turbine and solar photovoltaic are the most environment-friendly type of energy to use. Because of combined benefits of renewable energy and hybrid system, a considerable interest has emerged in ‘renewable hybrid’ energy systems. This book, therefore, provides the case study of Wind, PV and Wind-PV hybrid system in different environmental conditions. The modeling of the system components and power control scheme is done using MATLAB/SIMULINK.
Today, the rapid decrease in energy resources caused by the large-scale consumption of fossil fuels has become serious. Accordingly renewable energy resources are attracting a great deal of attention, and solar energy is one of the most promising future energy resources. The photochemical production of electricity has attracted the attention of many scientists as a viable media for solar energy conversion. In this book, we studied the photogalvanic effect using iron acetyl acetonate complex and Rose dye as photosensitizer. The first system consists of iron acetyl acetonate complex – Oxalic acid – Tween 80 System and the second one containing Rose Bengal-Oxilc acid-Cetryl hexadecyl ammonium bromide. The photopotential and photocurrent obtained from the first system were 404.20 mV and 35.0 ?A respectively. The observed power of the cell was 12.69 ?W at power point. The conversion efficiency and fill factor was determined as 0.04% and 0.33 respectively. The cell performance was 35.0 min in dark. The generated photopotential and photocurrent of the second system were 550.0 mV and 75.0 ?A respectively. The observed power of the cell was 41. 3 ?W at power point.
The use of hydrogen storage enables long term energy storage in hybrid wind-fuel cell energy system. The aim of this research is to study the feasibility of a wind-hydrogen energy system that produces electricity to households,health post, grinding facility, schools and water pumps in rural areas. The system consists mainly of wind turbines, fuel cells, electrolyzers and hydrogen tanks. The wind resource in the country was studied after selecting five representative cities that are geographically different. These are Addis Ababa, Nazareth, Mekelle, Debre Brehan and Dire Dawa.The system The best system is chosen for each location based on net present cost(NPC) and detail analysis of system performance. The results indicate that the system enables high renewable fraction with up to 8 days of energy autonomy only at moderate increase in NPC over a wind-diesel-battery system.
In the field of electrical power generation, the wind energy is one of the important sources of renewable energy. The main problem with this type of energy is the variable nature of the wind speed. The wound rotor induction generator is used to handle this speed variations by adequate voltage injections in the rotor circuit to maintain the stator voltage and frequency constant irrespective to speed or load variations. This book deals with the analysis, steady state modeling, and control of the wound rotor induction generator that can be used in wind energy applications. Moreover the linear control strategy used is analyzed in terms of all its operating conditions and output quality. The theory was validated via experimental setup to compare theoretical, simulation and practical results to evaluate the usefulness and effectiveness of the system.
The development of advanced energy management systems for efficient and environment friendly society require proper design. Modeling and simulations are performed on the design models for their validity in real time applications. The book presents the modeling of the hybrid wind and fuel cell energy systems using MATLAB SIMULINK toolbox. The wind turbine coupled to doubly fed induction generators combined with the Solid Oxide Fuel Cell to meet the load demand. The fluctuations in the output of the Wind Turbine due to wind speed variations are taken care of by the Solid Oxide Fuel Cell. CUK converter is used to increase the voltage from the non-conventional energy sources. The inverter converts DC voltage to the variable AC voltage given to the load. The main advantage of the hybrid system is to provide Continuous power supply to the load.