In this book a dynamic models have been developed for the following: variable speed wind energy conversion systems and power electronic interfacing devices. These dynamic models are suitable for both detailed fast transient and large time scale performance evaluation studies. They can be used to expedite the research processes in the related alternative energy areas, such as system control, performance optimization studies and diagnosis. One of the original points is that this work is the use of a new the fault detection and isolation method (FDI). The proposed method avoids the exploration of all the combinations for its application to the diagnostic of this system operation. The causal paths are used to generate the analytical redundancy relations (ARR) at each computation step based on the constitutive and structural junction relations. This is shown through an algorithm for monitoring the system by sensors placements on the corresponding bond graph model.
This book deals with the analysis, modeling and control system for permanent magnet synchronous generator based wind turbine connected to the grid. A wind energy conversion using DC-DC Buck- Boost Converter for permanent magnet synchronous generator based variable speed wind energy conversion system has been integrated with grid using five-level diode clamped multilevel inverter. In this work the instantaneous values of input side current and voltage of DC-DC buck-boost converter are utilized for implementing the PID controller.
Wind energy conversion systems are now occupying important space in the research of renewable energy sources. There is a need for further research on Wind Generators and Power Integration Topologies. In this work we are using Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG) for wind power generation and the behavior of PMSG when subjected to different wind speeds is being studied in MATLAB. This also provides a comparison of different power converter topologies used in Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS).
The primary task of a wind turbine is to generate electricity from the wind and to supply the produced power to the user. Control of a wind turbine is an integral part of the wind power generation system for proficient operation of the wind turbine, to ensure the maximum power production and finally, maximum energy capture from a wind turbine system. In order to avoid problems at installation, it is required to test the power electronics and study the performance of the controller in a laboratory environment. The aim of this book is therefore to propose and validate maximum power point control strategies for wind turbine and most importantly, to develop a prototype of a small wind energy conversion system that emulates the steady state and dynamic behavior in a laboratory environment.
This book is very useful for the researchers who are working on wind, PV or Wind-PV hybrid power plants. Renewable energy from wind turbine and solar photovoltaic are the most environment-friendly type of energy to use. Because of combined benefits of renewable energy and hybrid system, a considerable interest has emerged in ‘renewable hybrid’ energy systems. This book, therefore, provides the case study of Wind, PV and Wind-PV hybrid system in different environmental conditions. The modeling of the system components and power control scheme is done using MATLAB/SIMULINK.
In the time of current trend of increasing energy consumption, the wind-power engineering may compensate considerable part of required electric energy. Rapid wind-power engineering development is considered to be one of the important sources of human need satisfaction. Conventional wind turbine control strategies are dedicated to ensure high energy conversion efficiency under varying wind conditions. The challenge in wind power control engineering is to design an adaptive wind turbine control strategy, which provides the dynamic system stability and the effectiveness of energy conversion. The aim of this book is to design and implement the control algorithm, which implies the electromagnetic torque control in order to adapt the rotor speed and keep high energy conversion efficiency. Wind turbine operation is considered in the partial-load regime. The stability of the purposed control system is studied using linear control theory concepts. The effectiveness of the wind energy conversion is proved by the simulation results in MATLAB Simulink environment.
The use of renewable energy is growing significantly around the world. In front of the growing demand for electricity essentially for the remote and deserted locations needs. Photovoltaic systems, especially water pumping systems, begin to find great applications. Unfortunately these systems have encountered a number of problems even nowadays: a problem of maintenance. Various modeling techniques are developed by researchers to model components of renewable energy systems. Performance of individual component is either modeled by deterministic or probabilistic approaches; in this book we propose the graphical methods (bond graph) for modeling, fault detection and isolation of energy production systems. This book can be interesting to readers looking for a deeper knowledge in MPPT tracking or those looking for an introduction to PV power generation, because it includes a review of the general concepts related to PV power generation.
In the small wind energy domain, the existing knowledge of the system of a Permanent Magnet Generator (PMG)-based small wind turbine system design and performance is quite rich. In sharp contrast, studies with emphasis on the system of Wound Rotor Induction Generator (WRIG)-based small wind turbine system are very few. However, despite such rapid growth of the PMG-based system, it is difficult to predict the future for both systems. This is because ideas borrowed from other fields or other applications could have profound effects on future penetration. In this context, this research presents a performance and reliability investigation of both systems with a special focus on the power electronics and led the future of wind energy conversion system in an unique direction.
This book presents a comprehensive methodology of modeling the interaction of mechanical and hydraulic dynamics of a hydro-mechanical multi-body system using the relatively new bond graph tool. A low duty excavating manipulator with three degrees of freedom is used as a case study. Bond graph method is chosen as the modeling tool because, firstly, it is a domain-independent graphical method of representing the dynamics of physical systems. Therefore, systems from different engineering disciplines can be described in the same way. Secondly, the available literature shows that the method being relatively new, has not been thoroughly applied to model the dynamics of nonlinear systems such as excavators. The models are developed from first principles, and hence this work can be used as an educational tool on bond graphs by undergaduate and graduate students, and as a literature material by researchers. Based on the developed and validated bond graph model of the excavator, methodologies to optimize the hydraulic system design and to simulate the transient and steady-state responses of the system are presented.
In the field of electrical power generation, the wind energy is one of the important sources of renewable energy. The main problem with this type of energy is the variable nature of the wind speed. The wound rotor induction generator is used to handle this speed variations by adequate voltage injections in the rotor circuit to maintain the stator voltage and frequency constant irrespective to speed or load variations. This book deals with the analysis, steady state modeling, and control of the wound rotor induction generator that can be used in wind energy applications. Moreover the linear control strategy used is analyzed in terms of all its operating conditions and output quality. The theory was validated via experimental setup to compare theoretical, simulation and practical results to evaluate the usefulness and effectiveness of the system.
The development of advanced energy management systems for efficient and environment friendly society require proper design. Modeling and simulations are performed on the design models for their validity in real time applications. The book presents the modeling of the hybrid wind and fuel cell energy systems using MATLAB SIMULINK toolbox. The wind turbine coupled to doubly fed induction generators combined with the Solid Oxide Fuel Cell to meet the load demand. The fluctuations in the output of the Wind Turbine due to wind speed variations are taken care of by the Solid Oxide Fuel Cell. CUK converter is used to increase the voltage from the non-conventional energy sources. The inverter converts DC voltage to the variable AC voltage given to the load. The main advantage of the hybrid system is to provide Continuous power supply to the load.
The destructive phenomenon of global warming is developing to more critical and obvious index that causes the melting of polar ice caps and higher sea levels resulting in less land for an increasing population, along with the severe changes in climate. Essentially, the growth of this harsh trend is primarily due to the increase of the greenhouse gases concentration from burning of the fossil fuels. So, traditional approach of producing energy to fulfill the human demand is no longer appropriate; meanwhile, inception of wind energy electrical power systems will be the alternative technologies to bring a better future for all mankind. This book provides a comprehensive explanation of the wind energy potential evaluation technique and a robust sensorless MPPT controller for variable speed PMSG wind turbine stand-alone system modeled in Matlab/Simulink environment which shows the feasibility of the technologies compared to the conventional electrical power generation. The study of the WECS will assist the professionals in wind electrical power generation system, global academic researchers, industrial engineers, or those who may consider in implementing this system
In spite of the energy crisis, population and environment degradation issues, the use of automobiles has been going up. This call for continuing the efforts towards developing more efficient, environmentally friendly, safer and more controllable vehicles. This often translates into developing better models and increasing the use of onboard computers. The use of computers for control invariably requires models which execute faster and are reliable even in extreme conditions. Bond graph based techniques allow the development of continuously extensible models and easier integration with control systems.The present work deals with the development of the so called half car models using Bond graph based approaches to study the response of the vehicle while passing over a ramp or uneven surface.A successful compilation of the Bond graph on the Bond graph package Symbol Shakti shows that the model has been created with logical correctness.More extensive validation may be needed before it can be taken up for testing its utility for online control.
In this work, simulation and optimizations for stand-alone hybrid Photovoltaic (PV)/Wind energy systems were carried out for two local Jordanian climate conditions. Using hybrid PV/wind system makes better utilization of mainly available types of renewable energy resources, which are solar and wind energy resources, than single energy systems. The major problem that arises is by how much each of the energies should be relied upon. In order to get the optimal design and sizing for a hybrid PV/wind energy system, optimization processes must be developed to get best economical and reliable design for the proposed system. The proposed system should always satisfy all constraints such as meeting load demands along the year and any other limitations. The optimization problem was solved as an Integer Programming problem and using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO).
This book proposes systemic design methodologies applied to electrical energy systems, in particular analysis and system management, modeling and sizing tools. It includes 8 chapters: after an introduction to the systemic approach (history, basics & fundamental issues, index terms) for designing energy systems, this book presents two different graphical formalisms especially dedicated to multidisciplinary devices modeling, synthesis and analysis: Bond Graph and COG/EMR. Other systemic analysis approaches for quality and stability of systems, as well as for safety and robustness analysis tools are also proposed. One chapter is dedicated to energy management and another is focused on Monte Carlo algorithms for electrical systems and networks sizing. The aim of this book is to summarize design methodologies based in particular on a systemic viewpoint, by considering the system as a whole. These methods and tools are proposed by the most important French research laboratories, which have many scientific partnerships with other European and international research institutions. Scientists and engineers in the field of electrical engineering, especially teachers/researchers because of the focus on methodological issues, will find this book extremely useful, as will PhD and Masters students in this field.