Excipients are additives, used to convert active pharmaceutical ingredients into pharmaceutical dosage form suitable for administration to patients. New and improved excipients continue to be developed for conventional drug delivery systems and also to meet the needs of modern and better formulations. Mucilages are most commonly used adjuvants in the manufacturing of different pharmaceutical dosage forms. They possess variety of pharmaceutical applications with suspending agent property among others. The natural sources, but not limited to, for mucilage are different species of cactus, a plant that belongs to cactaceae family, which grows in arid and semi arid regions of the globe. This book, hence, compares the physicochemical properties of mucilages extracted from Opuntia ficus indica and Opuntia Strica species of cactus. Moreover, it evaluates the effect of electrolyte, pH and concentration of mucilage on the suspending ability of the extracted mucilages, as compared with sodium carboxylmethyl cellulose as reference suspending agent, in paracetamol suspension.
This book emphasizes the importance of natural products in Pharmaceutical industry. It tells about the use of a naturally available ingredient in a tablet formulation. The main objective of this book is to explain the role of mucilage in Pharmaceutical formulations. This can definitely help the students and industrial person to get an idea about use of natural ingredient and reducing the cost of production of formulation.
The objective of the present investigation was to isolate, characterize and compare the Pharmaceutical applications of mucilage isolated from flax seed (Linum Usitatissimum L.) and fenugreek seed (Trigonella foenum graceum L.). Flax is an annual plant of the linaceae family and fenugreek is an annual herb of leguminosae family. These plants have been used since very long time for their medicinal values. Both these plants contain natural polysaccharides which have been employed as food and pharmaceutical excipients because of their bio-compatibility, biodegradability, easy availability and low cost. Fenugreek seeds and flax seeds produce high viscosity mucilage at low concentration levels. The FNM and FXM can be incorporated as a binder, disintegrant, suspending agent, emulsifying agent, direct compression polymer, matrixing agent in novel drug delivery systems.
This book has been designed to act as a useful resource for researchers working on Anti dermatophytes. Lactic acids are used as excipients in pharma industries. Nosocomial lactic acid may also be used as an effective drug active or as an excipient in pharmaceutical preparations against the dermatophytic strains. The dermatomycoses are a serious threat to human health. Although hundreds of pharmaceutical preparations are being marketed, but bacterial produced lactic acids are not included in their dosage forms. This book endeavours to provide insights on the incorporation of nosocomial lactic acid or its drug active form in the pharmaceutical preparations to combat the dreaded dermatomycotic infections through formulation of a cost effective and reliable pharmaceutical preparation against the dermatomycoses, in addition to serving as a source of a bioprospective study for the 'bad guys' of Hospitals.
Artocarpus heterophyllus found wild in the forest region, fruit are multiple seeded containing mucilage. Acetone precipitation method is used to isolate mucilage. The physicochemical characteristic of mucilage has performed such as swelling index, solubility, LOD. This study was carried out to compare the binding effects of isolated mucilage with starch. Granule properties such as angle of repose, moisture content, bulk and tapped densities, Hausner’s ratio, Carr’s index and tablet properties using standard methods. Mucilage of varying concentrations of 4, 6 and 8%w/w were used to produce paracetamol granules by wet granulation method and compressed. An increase in binder concentration led to decrease in friability and increase in disintegration time of the tablets. The results indicate that mucilage obtained from Artocarpus heterophyllus fruit possesses comparable binding properties.
Natural materials have attracted considerable attention for drug delivery applications due to their abundant availability, compatibility with environment and degradation under natural or physiological conditions. Natural gum resins have been used since ancient times for a wide range of applications: varnishes, sealant, binding media and waterproofing. The most commonly used resins for plant and varnishes are Rosin, Sandarac, Dammar, Mastic and Copal. Gum Dammar is a natural resinous material of plant Shorea javanica, family – Dipterocarpaceae. It contains about 40% alpha-resin (resin that dissolves in alcohol), 22% beta-resin, 23% dammarol acid and 2.5% water. This book deals with the research carried out on Dammar gum for its utility as pharmaceutical excipient. The various chapters of the book deals with characterization of dammar gum, its use as film forming, coating & microencapsulating agent, along with its biodegradation, biocompatibility and drug interaction studies.
The formulation of drugs into tablets has remained a research focus for many Pharmaceutical researchers because of the prominence of tablets as a dosage form. This has led to the introduction of newer methods of tableting like Direct Compression as well as the development of robust excipients that meets the requirement for the Direct Compression process. In this book, the principles of developing novel excipients from existing excipients by modification to improve its functionality have been highlighted. Methods of characterizing the modified product to evaluate its potential for Direct compression have been well defined. A wide range of novel excipients can be developed by exploring modification. This book will serve as a relevant resource to pharmaceutical students, lecturers who teach Solid dosage forms in Pharmaceutics and for Pharmaceutical researchers who are involved in excipient development.
Starch is the most abundant storage reserve carbohydrate on the planet earth. It is used since a long time as excipient in pharmaceutical preparations. Native starches, however, are inherently unsuitable for most applications and; therefore, must be modified chemically and/or physically to enhance their positive attributes and/or to minimize their defects. Pregelatinized starch is a common type of physically modified starch with wide applications. This book sets as its main goal to prepare and study the physico-chemical properties of pregelatinized enset starch and to evaluate its potential as a binder and disintegrant in tablet formulation. The book is useful for professionals in pharmaceutical industries and academia.
Many extraction techniques have been used for obtaining bioactive compounds from plant origins nowadays. Conventional extraction is usually performed at reflux temperature for several hours, and this method is very time consuming and requires relatively large quantities of solvents. Over the last decade, the demand for new extraction techniques has encouraged the development of alternative extraction techniques. Microwave-assisted extraction is the simplest and the most economical technique for extraction of many plant derived compounds. Microwave assisted extraction can reduce both the extraction time and solvent consumption compared to conventional methods. This book provides details about isolation of mucilage by microwave technology and its pharmaceutical application as a binder.