Featuring authors from academia as well as industry, this book provides a broad view of carbohydrates influencing digestive health. Part 1 is a general overview of carbohydrates that function as prebiotics or fermentable carbohydrates. Part 2 is a more in depth examination of specific carbohydrates for digestive health and applications. This book provides an in-depth review and thorough foundation for food scientists, product developers and nutrition scientists seeking to understand the digestive health implications of carbohydrates. Key features: Analyzes the most active fields of research currently performed on nondigestible carbohydrates Focuses on the growing opportunity to deliver digestive health benefits through fibers and other novel carbohydrates Authors include highly recognized researchers from academe and industry experts Explores new possibilities in prebiotics and fermentable carbohydrates
This book is the first to be dedicated to the bioinformatics of carbohydrates and glycoproteins. It provides an introduction to this emerging field of science both for the experimentalist working in glycobiology and glycomics, and also for the computer scientist looking for background information for the development of highly sophisticated algorithmic approaches. The book provides an overview of the state-of-the-art in the field, with reviews on databases, and the tools in use for analysis, interpretation, and prediction of the structures of complex carbohydrates, and demonstrates the value of bioinformatics for glycobiology. The availability of comprehensive databases and corresponding bioinformatics tools, to access and analyse the large amounts of experimental data relating to the structure of carbohydrates, will be a prerequisite for the success of the large-scale glycomics projects that aim to decipher new, so far unknown, biological functions of glycans. Efficient bioinformatics descriptions and tools can considerably enhance the efficiency of glycomics research, in terms of data quality, analysis and experimental costs. For a complete understanding of the molecular processes in which carbohydrates are involved, such as protein–carbohydrate interactions and the impact of glycosylation on protein function, knowledge of the 3D structure of the carbohydrate, the protein–carbohydrate complex, or the glycoprotein is often indispensable. This book provides a thorough introduction into methods used for conformational analysis of carbohydrates. Key features: Describes bioinformatic approaches to handle carbohydrate-active enzymes and glycosylation. Provides an overview on bioinformatics tools that facilitate analysis of carbohydrate structures. Gives introduction into molecular modelling of carbohydrate 3D structure and carbohydrates contained in the Protein Databank. Assumes only a basic knowledge of biology and bioinformatics.
The fields of glycochemistry and glycoscience are rich and varied and where much can be learned from Nature. As Nature is not always able to produce carbohydrates in quantities useful for not only in research but also as therapeutic agents, new ways need to be found to optimize the yield. This book presents an overview of the latest developments in the field of carbohydrates, ranging from de-novo approaches via cyclodextrin chemistry to the synthesis of such highly complex glycoconjugates as glycosphingolipids and GPI anchors. The main emphasis remains on the synthetic aspects making the book an excellent source of information for those already involved in carbohydrate chemistry, as well as for those organic chemists who are beginners in this field. Equally of interest to synthetic chemists, as well as medicinal chemists and biochemists.
The fundamental science and the latest developments in carbohydrate-based vaccines The relatively new field of glycoimmunology has emerged from the marriage of glycobiology and immunology, in recognition of the important role carbohydrates play as antigenic determinants. Carbohydrate-Based Vaccines and Immunotherapies comprehensively reviews the state of this exciting field, offering a single source for both the fundamental science and the latest developments. With contributions by leading experts, this resource covers the design, synthesis, evaluation, and applications of various carbohydrate-based vaccines, including polysaccharides, neoglycoproteins, and neoglycolipids. The text approaches vaccine design from a chemical and molecular focus, staying in line with current advances. Key topics covered by Carbohydrate-Based Vaccines and Immunotherapies include: Recent developments towards clinically useful vaccines against bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi Using adjuvants to improve immunogenicity and/or immunological properties of vaccines Choosing and designing proper adjuvants for specific targets Abnormal carbohydrates expressed by tumors Carbohydrate-based therapeutic cancer vaccines or cancer immunotherapy Clinical trials results for synthetic cancer vaccines Glycoengineering of cell surface carborhydrates and its anticancer applications Using cell surface carbohydrates for disease diagnosis A single, convenient source of state-of-the-art information from leading authorities in the field, Carbohydrate-Based Vaccines and Immunotherapies is an essential reference for organic chemists and biochemists, academic researchers, and other students and professionals involved in vaccine design.
Closing a gap in the literature, this comprehensive book presents the utility of carbohydrate derivatives as chiral auxiliaries, reagents, complex ligands and organocatalysts, together with details of their preparation, as well as their successful application in stereoselective synthesis. Divided into four parts: * Carbohydrate Auxiliaries * Carbohydrate Reagents * Carbohydrate Ligands * Carbohydrate Organocatalysts It is an indispensable source for every organic chemist.
Get proven results from this safe, effective, and easy-to-follow diet The glycemic load is a ranking system for carbohydrate-rich food that measures the amount of carbohydrates in a serving. The glycemic index indicates how rapidly a carbohydrate is digested and released as glucose (sugar) into the bloodstream. Using the Glycemic Index is a proven method for calculating the way carbohydrates act in your body to help you lose weight, safely, quickly, and effectively. The second edition of The Glycemic Index Diet For Dummies presents this system in an easy-to-apply manner, giving you the tools and tips you need to shed unwanted pounds and improve your overall health. You'll not only discover how to apply the glycemic index to your existing diet plan, but you'll also get new and updated information on how to develop a healthy lifestyle. Recommends foods that boost metabolism, promote weight loss, and provide longer-lasting energy Features delicious GI recipes for glycemic-friendly cooking at home Includes exercises for maintaining glycemic index weight loss and promoting physical fitness Offers guidance on shopping for food as well as eating at restaurants and away from home Glycemic Index Diet For Dummies, 2nd Edition is for anyone looking for an easy-to-apply guide to making the switch to this healthy lifestyle.
Illustrated thoroughly, Biomolecular Archaeology is the first book to clearly guide students through the study of ancient DNA: how to analyze biomolecular evidence (DNA, proteins, lipids and carbohydrates) to address important archaeological questions. The first book to address the scope and methods of this new cross-disciplinary area of research for archaeologists Offers a completely up-to-date overview of the latest research in this innovative subject Guides students who wish to become biomolecular archaeologists through the complexities of both the scientific methods and archaeological goals. Provides an essential component to undergraduate and graduate archaeological research
Beginning with a general overview of nanocomposites, Bionanocomposites: Integrating Biological Processes for Bio-inspired Nanotechnologies details the systems available in nature (nucleic acids, proteins, carbohydrates, lipids) that can be integrated within suitable inorganic matrices for specific applications. Describing the relationship between architecture, hierarchy and function, this book aims at pointing out how bio-systems can be key components of nanocomposites. The text then reviews the design principles, structures, functions and applications of bionanocomposites. It also includes a section presenting related technical methods to help readers identify and understand the most widely used analytical tools such as mass spectrometry, calorimetry, and impedance spectroscopy, among others.
This book on click reactions to focus on organic synthesis, this reference work describes the click concept and underlying mechanisms as well as the main applications in various fields. As such, the chapters cover green chemical synthesis, metal-free click reactions, synthesis of pharmaceuticals, peptides, carbohydrates, DNA, macrocycles, dendrimers, polymers, and supramolecular architectures. By filling a gap in the market, this is the ultimate reference for synthetic chemists in academia and industry aiming for a fast and simple design and synthesis of novel compounds with useful properties.
Lays the foundation for new methods and applications of carbohydrate click chemistry Introduced by K. Barry Sharpless of The Scripps Research Institute in 2001, click chemistry mimics nature, giving researchers the tools needed to generate new substances quickly and reliably by joining small units together. With contributions from more than thirty pioneering researchers in the field, this text explores the many promising applications of click chemistry in glycoscience. Readers will learn both the basic concepts of carbohydrate click chemistry as well as its many biomedical applications, including synthetic antigens, analogs of cell-surface receptors, immobilized enzymes, targeted drug delivery systems, and multivalent cancer vaccines. Click Chemistry in Glycoscience examines a broad range of methodologies and strategies that have emerged from this rapidly evolving field. Each chapter describes new approaches, ideas, consequences, and applications resulting from the introduction of click processes. Divided into four sections, the book covers: Click chemistry strategies and decoupling Thio-click chemistry of carbohydrates Carbohydrate click chemistry for novel synthetic targets Carbohydrate click chemistry in biomedical sciences Thoroughly researched, the book reflects the most recent findings published in the literature. Diagrams and figures throughout the book enable readers to more easily grasp complex concepts and reaction processes. At the end of each chapter, references lead to the primary literature for further investigation of individual topics. The application of click chemistry to carbohydrates has tremendous implications for research. With this book as their guide, researchers have a solid foundation from which they can develop new methods and applications of carbohydrate click chemistry, including new carbohydrate-based therapeutics.
The discovery of resistant starch is considered one of the major developments in our understanding of the importance of carbohydrates for health in the past twenty years. Resistant starch, which is resistant to digestion and absorption in the human small intestine with complete or partial fermentation in the large intestine, is naturally present in foods. Resistant Starch: Sources, Applications and Health Benefits covers the intrinsic and extrinsic sources of resistant starch in foods, and compares different methods of measuring resistant starch and their strengths and limitations. Applications in different food categories are fully covered, with descriptions of how resistant starch performs in bakery, dairy, snack, breakfast cereals, pasta, noodles, confectionery, meat, processed food and beverage products.
Introducing the emerging field carbohydrate nanostructures, this book will be a unique resource for interested researchers to learn a range of methods of applying the field to their own work. Greater access, as well as greater collaboration, to this new interdisciplinary field is intended for both synthetic carbohydrate chemists and researchers in nanoscience related fields. It covers: the main types of nanostructures presently under investigation for modification by carbohydrates, including nanoparticles, nanorods, magnetic particles, dendrimers, nanoporous, and surface confined structures overview and introduction to the field of carbohydrate nanotechnology, and especially its applications to its biological systems Provides a unique resource for researchers to learn about the techniques used to characterize the physical and biological properties of carbohydrate-modified nanostructures
Metabolism at a Glance presents a concise, illustrated summary of metabolism in health and disease. This essential text is progressively appropriate for introductory through to advanced medical and biochemistry courses. It also provides a succinct review of inborn errors of metabolism, and reference for postgraduate medical practitioners and biomedical scientists who need a resource to quickly refresh their knowledge. Fully updated and extensively illustrated, this new edition of Metabolism at a Glance is now in full colour throughout, and includes new coverage of sports biochemistry; the metabolism of lipids, carbohydrates and cholesterol; glyceroneogenesis, α-oxidation and ω-oxidation of fatty acids. It also features the overlooked “Krebs Uric Acid Cycle”. Metabolism at a Glance offers an accessible introduction to metabolism, and is ideal as a revision aid for students preparing for undergraduate and USMLE Step 1 exams.
Not since «Sugar Chemistry» by Shallenberger and Birch (1975) has a text clearly presented and applied basic carbohydrate chemistry to the quality attributes and functional properties of foods. Now in Food Carbohydrate Chemistry, author Wrolstad emphasizes the application of carbohydrate chemistry to understanding the chemistry, physical and functional properties of food carbohydrates. Structure and nomenclature of sugars and sugar derivatives are covered, focusing on those derivatives that exist naturally in foods or are used as food additives. Chemical reactions emphasize those that have an impact on food quality and occur under processing and storage conditions. Coverage includes: how chemical and physical properties of sugars and polysaccharides affect the functional properties of foods; taste properties and non-enzymic browning reactions; the nutritional roles of carbohydrates from a food chemist's perspective; basic principles, advantages, and limitations of selected carbohydrate analytical methods. An appendix includes descriptions of proven laboratory exercises and demonstrations. Applications are emphasized, and anecdotal examples and case studies are presented. Laboratory units, homework exercises, and lecture demonstrations are included in the appendix. In addition to a complete list of cited references, a listing of key references is included with brief annotations describing their important features. Students and professionals alike will benefit from this latest addition to the IFT Press book series. In Food Carbohydrate Chemistry, upper undergraduate and graduate students will find a clear explanation of how basic principles of carbohydrate chemistry can account for and predict functional properties such as sweetness, browning potential, and solubility properties. Professionals working in product development and technical sales will value Food Carbohydrate Chemistry as a needed resource to help them understand the functionality of carbohydrate ingredients. And persons in research and quality assurance will rely upon Food Carbohydrate Chemistry for understanding the principles of carbohydrate analytical methods and the physical and chemical properties of sugars and polysaccharides.
Asymmetric Synthesis of Natural Products, 2nd Edition introduces students to this rapidly growing field of organic chemistry. The initial chapters present the foundations of asymmetric synthesis, including the theory and applications of individual asymmetric reactions. This is followed by chapters on each of the major individual classes of natural products; their structures, biosynthesis and interrelationships as well as examples of asymmetric syntheses and the practical value of these compounds. Natural product classes covered include carbohydrates, amino acids, peptides, proteins, nucleosides, nucleotides, nucleic acids, polyketides, isoprenoids, shikamic acid derivatives and alkaloids. For this second edition the text has been thoroughly updated and expanded, and includes new discussions and examples covering atom and redox economies, practical aspects and environmental awareness. Organocatalysis has emerged completely in the last ten years, and has been fully integrated into this new edition.