Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus has a long standing history of bacterial plant ferret relationship as a symbiotic entophyte capable of fixing atmospheric nitrogen.In the present study, 20 isolates of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus were isolated from the root, bud, stem and leaves of sugarcane. The effect of co-inoculation of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Gad B2 Glomus fasciculatum on growth nutrient uptake and yield of sugar cane was studied in pot culture experiment at different NP levels. The result of the pot culture experiment revealed that the co-inoculation of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Gad B2 in combination with Arbuscular Mycorrhizal fungus Glomus fasciculatum 50, 75 and 100 per cent NP levels increased the germination percentage, vigour index, plant biomass, number of tillers, internodes, number of leaves, cane girth, leaf nitrogen per cent, soil nitrogen per cent, Arbuscular Mycorrhizal colonization, Arbuscular Mycorrhizal spore count and yield parameters like number of millable spore canes and weight of cane were determined. Thus the scope saving 25% N and 25% P when the biofertilizer treatment as adopted as one of the package in the sugarcane cultivation
The purpose of this book is to explain and summarize the beneficial role of AM fungi during normal and abiotic stresses. Now days due to increasing use of chemical fertilizer the soil became saline and barren. Another major problem is low rainfall which increasing drought prone areas. These two things directly affecting yield as well as human health. To overcome these problem microbial inoculants such as Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi is the best solution. Role of AM fungi during abiotic stress and growth in Allium sativum. Book covering number of aspect like isolation and culturing of AM fungal species for inoculation to garlic plants, presymbiotic response during AM inoculation, beneficial role in growth, antioxidant defence response during abiotic stress and beneficial role in increasing yield. Role of AM fungi during abiotic stress and growth in Allium sativum is the only book available to inoculate and see the beneficial role of AM fungi during drought, salinity and under field conditions. It is essential reading for researchers to take methodology for using AM fungi under field conditions and also reclamation of saline and drought prone areas.
This book is based on applied research whose main objectives were: 1- To study the effect of co-inoculation of Rhizobium and PGPRs on growth and yield of soybean and 2- To investigate the effect of co-inoculation of Rhizobium and PGPRs on nodulation and N2-fixation of soybean by employing xylem ureide technique. In the research experiment we conclude that different parameters such as plant density, nodule number, yield, N content, and N2-fixed were investigated to confirm whether the PGPRs improved N2- fixation capacity of soybean along with chemical fertilizer as compare to application of chemical fertilizer alone and control.
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi are ubiquitous in soil habitats and form beneficial symbiosis with the roots of angiosperms and other plants. Most terrestrial plants associate with root colonizing mycorrhizal fungi, which improve the fitness of both the fungal and plant associates. Distribution and abundance of AM fungi vary greatly among different sites like natural and manmade ecosystems. Natural soil offers consortium of indigenous mycorrhizal fungi and often used as source of inoculam. AM fungi can be produced on a large scale by pot culture technique. It was suggested for the commercial production of AM fungi in agricultural field management. They are also environment friendly fertilizers and do not cause the pollution of any sort.
Sugarcane farming is an important economic activity in Kenya and other parts of the world. As sucrose and other products from sugarcane processing such as ethanol, bagasse, and hydo electric power become important industrial products, sugarcane production is on the rise. As a result, several agronomic activities are employed including use of high nitrogenous fertilizers like diammonium phosphate and urea. Use of high amounts of nitrogenous fertilizers has been documented to have an effect on soil Chemistry of the receiving soils. Alloway in 1995, demonstrated serious soil effects from fertilizer use. Based on this scientific knowledge, it is necessary to study the effect of continuous use of nitrogenous fertilizers have on the soil and the aquatic systems flowing through them.
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi are widespread and agronomically important plant symbiont and often stimulate plant uptake of nutrients such as P, Zn, Cu, and Fe in deficient soils and increases resistance of plants to heavy metals and salts. Plants with coarsely branched roots and with few or no root hairs are expected to be more dependent on mycorrhizal fungi than are plants with finely branched root systems. Scanty information is available on the role of AM fungi on the growth and nutrient uptake of maize especially in soils of India which are generally phosphorus deficient or have an insoluble form. AM mycorrhizae are involved in P nutrition of maize and an understanding of their functioning will assist us in modifying management practices to maximize economic returns through increased fertilizer efficiency. Despite the fact that AM fungal colonization promotes P or N nutrition of host plants independently, the interaction between P and N has been rarely studied in the maize- mycorrhizal system. Hence, an attempt is made to study the influence of graded levels of inorganic (N,P) fertilizers and mycorrhizal inoculum in increasing the productivity and the quality of hybrid maize.
This book is basically based on applied research whose main objectives were: 1.To isolate Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) from mash bean rhizosphere. 2.To determine the effect of co-inoculation of Rhizobium sp. with PGPR on growth, nodulation and nitrogen fixation of mash bean. In the course of this research experiment, we concluded that nitrogen fixation and yield of mash bean was enhanced by the application of PGPR. Response of mash bean was more pronounced to the inoculation of PGPR along with chemical fertilizer as compared to application of chemical fertilizer alone and control.
Sugarcane plantations in Ethiopia are one of the most mechanized farms in the country. Operation of farm machineries has a long term effect on physicochemical properties of the soil. Ameliorative effect of FPM application on soil physicochemical properties was studied in laboratory and field condition at Wonji/Shoa sugarcane plantation, which is the first sugarcane plantation in Ethiopia established in 1954.
Abstract A field study was carried out during a three-year period (2008 to 2010) in order to investigate on response of Coker 347 (flue-cured) Tobacco plant (Nicotiana tabacum L.) in vegetative growth stages to inoculation with Azotobacter chroococcum at various levels of Nitrogen (N) fertilization.Results revealed that the effect of year of experiment was significant on quantitative characteristics (except leaf length), N uptake and qualitative characteristics (except nicotine in priming). Application of N had significant effect on quantitative characteristics (except number and width of Leaf), N uptake and qualitative characteristics. Inoculation of roots with bacterium had significant effect on Cured leaf weight of cutter, yield, N uptake and qualitative characteristics. Furthermore In general, Azotobacter chroococcum is a suitable inoculant for tobacco cultivation and it could be a strategy to achieve sustainable agriculture.
Enzymatic saccharification and fermentation study was conducted in two steps to produce bio-ethanol from pea hulls and banana peels. In second effect of fermentation on pH, reducing sugar and bio-ethanol estimation was studied. The parameters considered in first step were incubation temperature (40°C) cellulose enzyme concentration (0.06ml/g slurry), time of treatment (48 h) and temperature (40°C). Inoculation level (4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 %), pH (4) and Time (36, and 48h) were used during fermentation. All the independent variables i.e. fermentation time, inoculation level and slurry ratio had significant effect on bio-ethanol yield. The optimum values of independent variables i.e inoculation time, inoculation level and slurry ratio to obtain minimum pH values are 43.6598 hr, 5.2675% and 47.2184% respectively To obtain maximum bio-ethanol yield the optimum values of inoculation time, inoculation level and slurry ratio are -80.892 hr, 10.94% and 633.7211% respectively. The optimum values of independent variables i. e inoculation time, inoculation level and slurry ratio to obtain minimum reducing sugar are 57.6462 hr, 9.9173% and -79.7462% respectively.
White rot fungi produces various isoforms of extracellular enzymes including laccase, manganese peroxidase and lignin peroxidase that can degrade the pollutants and, thus, can be used to treat wastewater, including landfill leachate. In this research, the treatment of leachate by using white rot fungi, namely Trametes versicolor BCC 8725 and Flavodon flavus BCC 17421 was studied. Four types of leachate were collected in different time period and different source from Nonthaburi solid waste disposal site, Thailand. Leachate differs in terms of color, BOD, COD. The fungi were immobilized on polyurethane foam (PUF). Glucose, corn starch and cassava were used as a co-substrate and were varied at different concentration. Batch experiments were done to determine the optimum pH, cosubstrate and effect of contact time. Continuous experiments were carried out using vertical flow baffled reactor to observe the effect of organic loading, reuse of fungi in various cycles and its possibility to use in large scale leachate treatment. The effect of biomass growth was observed by immobilizing fungi on PUF for different time periods (for 4 and 15 days initially in Potato Dextrose Broth (PDB)..
This study was conducted to determine the optimum inorganic and organic nutrient sources and rates for sugarcane production. A set of experiments were designed and conducted at Sugarcane Section, Agriculture Research Institute, Tandojam, Pakistan, located at 25o25’60’N 68o31’ 60E during 2008-09 and 2009-10. In all the experiments, Thatta-10 sugarcane variety was sown. In the light of findings it is concluded that integrated nutrient management recorded 25% saving in inorganic NPK fertilizers due to application of FYM and or press mud applied at 20 t ha-1. The residual effect of FYM and press mud showed significant effect on subsequent ratoon crop. The residual FYM and or press mud at 20 t ha-1 + supplemental application of 25% less inorganic NPK fertilizer was found sufficient nutrient level. This study recommends that organic and inorganic nutrients should be applied to enhance growth, yield, quality and nutrient uptake of both plant and ratoon sugarcane. Residual effects were seen on the subsequent ratoon crop due to FYM and press mud applications. Therefore, application of FYM and or press mud at 20 t ha-1 once in a two year with 25% less NPK fertilizer is recommended.
The decline problem is becoming very common and severe in the mango and guava orchards of Pakistan. It causes substantial losses to the orchards.The overall effect of decline with accordance to incidence and severity on mango was more than that of guava. The average disease incidence varied with varieties of mango and guava. There are some pathogenic fungi which isolated from soil samples of mango and guava declined orchards. These include Ceratocystis fimbriata, Botryodiplodia theobromae, Fusarium solani, Nattrassia mangiferae and Fusarium oxysporum f.sp psidii. These fungi were identified on the basis of spores, hyphae, conidia and conidiophores etc. by using florescent microscope. All these fungi proved to be pathogenic when inoculated on mango and guava plants. The fungus Trichoderma harzianum proved to be the best retardant against all the isolated pathogenic fungi.
This book describes research finding on seed health, quality test and effect of different plant extract on the germination capability of selected rice varieties. The findings of the research would help to our research community that seed-borne fungi are threat to health of rice seeds and chemical is hazardous to our ecology, serious threat to our terrestrial and aquatic species of animal, so use of plant extract for reducing seed-borne fungi is essential for maintaining sustainable environmental condition.
Sugarcane is an important commercial crop in Ethiopia. Despite, importance of sugarcane in the country, diseases, weeds and insect pests are among the major constraints of sugarcane production. In Ethiopia, sugarcane smut (Ustilago scitaminea Syd.) was first recorded immediately after commercial sugarcane plantation was established at Wonji-Shoa in 1954. This work entails on the current economic importance of sugarcane smut, the pathogenic variability and its management through fungicides in the three sugarcane plantations of Ethiopia (namely Wonji-Shoa, Metahara and Finchaa).