Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus has a long standing history of bacterial plant ferret relationship as a symbiotic entophyte capable of fixing atmospheric nitrogen.In the present study, 20 isolates of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus were isolated from the root, bud, stem and leaves of sugarcane. The effect of co-inoculation of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Gad B2 Glomus fasciculatum on growth nutrient uptake and yield of sugar cane was studied in pot culture experiment at different NP levels. The result of the pot culture experiment revealed that the co-inoculation of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Gad B2 in combination with Arbuscular Mycorrhizal fungus Glomus fasciculatum 50, 75 and 100 per cent NP levels increased the germination percentage, vigour index, plant biomass, number of tillers, internodes, number of leaves, cane girth, leaf nitrogen per cent, soil nitrogen per cent, Arbuscular Mycorrhizal colonization, Arbuscular Mycorrhizal spore count and yield parameters like number of millable spore canes and weight of cane were determined. Thus the scope saving 25% N and 25% P when the biofertilizer treatment as adopted as one of the package in the sugarcane cultivation
The purpose of this book is to explain and summarize the beneficial role of AM fungi during normal and abiotic stresses. Now days due to increasing use of chemical fertilizer the soil became saline and barren. Another major problem is low rainfall which increasing drought prone areas. These two things directly affecting yield as well as human health. To overcome these problem microbial inoculants such as Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi is the best solution. Role of AM fungi during abiotic stress and growth in Allium sativum. Book covering number of aspect like isolation and culturing of AM fungal species for inoculation to garlic plants, presymbiotic response during AM inoculation, beneficial role in growth, antioxidant defence response during abiotic stress and beneficial role in increasing yield. Role of AM fungi during abiotic stress and growth in Allium sativum is the only book available to inoculate and see the beneficial role of AM fungi during drought, salinity and under field conditions. It is essential reading for researchers to take methodology for using AM fungi under field conditions and also reclamation of saline and drought prone areas.
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi are widespread and agronomically important plant symbiont and often stimulate plant uptake of nutrients such as P, Zn, Cu, and Fe in deficient soils and increases resistance of plants to heavy metals and salts. Plants with coarsely branched roots and with few or no root hairs are expected to be more dependent on mycorrhizal fungi than are plants with finely branched root systems. Scanty information is available on the role of AM fungi on the growth and nutrient uptake of maize especially in soils of India which are generally phosphorus deficient or have an insoluble form. AM mycorrhizae are involved in P nutrition of maize and an understanding of their functioning will assist us in modifying management practices to maximize economic returns through increased fertilizer efficiency. Despite the fact that AM fungal colonization promotes P or N nutrition of host plants independently, the interaction between P and N has been rarely studied in the maize- mycorrhizal system. Hence, an attempt is made to study the influence of graded levels of inorganic (N,P) fertilizers and mycorrhizal inoculum in increasing the productivity and the quality of hybrid maize.
This book is based on applied research whose main objectives were: 1- To study the effect of co-inoculation of Rhizobium and PGPRs on growth and yield of soybean and 2- To investigate the effect of co-inoculation of Rhizobium and PGPRs on nodulation and N2-fixation of soybean by employing xylem ureide technique. In the research experiment we conclude that different parameters such as plant density, nodule number, yield, N content, and N2-fixed were investigated to confirm whether the PGPRs improved N2- fixation capacity of soybean along with chemical fertilizer as compare to application of chemical fertilizer alone and control.
The chemical control shows many disadvantages. The use of plant extract in the management of plant diseases is an important tool. The weeds are the unwanted plants naturally growing in agricultural fields . If we get success in finding the antifungal property of weeds and used against crop disease management then it is safe, cost free, eco-friendly and social way in advanced agriculture. Now a days some farmers agree with use of leaf extracts of various plants, but they didn't have correct knowledge of it.The researchers have responsibility that they give the eco-friendly way of crop disease management.
This study was conducted to determine the optimum inorganic and organic nutrient sources and rates for sugarcane production. A set of experiments were designed and conducted at Sugarcane Section, Agriculture Research Institute, Tandojam, Pakistan, located at 25o25’60’N 68o31’ 60E during 2008-09 and 2009-10. In all the experiments, Thatta-10 sugarcane variety was sown. In the light of findings it is concluded that integrated nutrient management recorded 25% saving in inorganic NPK fertilizers due to application of FYM and or press mud applied at 20 t ha-1. The residual effect of FYM and press mud showed significant effect on subsequent ratoon crop. The residual FYM and or press mud at 20 t ha-1 + supplemental application of 25% less inorganic NPK fertilizer was found sufficient nutrient level. This study recommends that organic and inorganic nutrients should be applied to enhance growth, yield, quality and nutrient uptake of both plant and ratoon sugarcane. Residual effects were seen on the subsequent ratoon crop due to FYM and press mud applications. Therefore, application of FYM and or press mud at 20 t ha-1 once in a two year with 25% less NPK fertilizer is recommended.
This book is basically based on applied research whose main objectives were: 1.To isolate Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) from mash bean rhizosphere. 2.To determine the effect of co-inoculation of Rhizobium sp. with PGPR on growth, nodulation and nitrogen fixation of mash bean. In the course of this research experiment, we concluded that nitrogen fixation and yield of mash bean was enhanced by the application of PGPR. Response of mash bean was more pronounced to the inoculation of PGPR along with chemical fertilizer as compared to application of chemical fertilizer alone and control.
The major limitations of using these residues as ruminant feeds are low content in their nutrients such as protein content and vitamins and they are rich in fibers with low digestibility, or law palatability and high lignin contents. The degree of lignifications is relatively more important in controlling hydrolysis rate in animal digestive tract. Therefore, chemical and biological treatments are used for increasing the nutritional value of many by-products, because they have significant concentrations of simple carbohydrates, such as mono-and disaccharides. For these reasons the chemical and microbial conversion of these wastes can improve their nutritional value and transforming them into higher quality animal feed . Many efforts have been employed to remove the lignin or to break up the linkages between lignin and carbohydrates and to increase their feed values by chemical and biological treatments . The possibility of biological methods of straw treatment has a great appeal as an alternative to the use of expensive (in terms of money and energy) chemicals and pollution would also be reduced.
Entomopathogenic fungi have been largely neglected in the past as biological control agents, yet they represent a promising alternative to agrochemicals especially, against important sugarcane insect pests such as Sesamia calamistis. The recent report indicated that this pest has caused a tremendous cane and sugar losses in commercial sugarcane plantations of Ethiopia. Entomopathogenic fungi surveys that were carried out in the country indicated that from 205 soil sampls ten different fungal agents were isolated and identified. Out of the ten indigenous EPF obtained, only four Metarhizium sp. and six Beauveria sp. were identified.The indigenous EPF isolates identified from the commercial sugarcane fields showed the potential for the management of S. calamistis in an eco-friendly and sustainable manner and it can also be used as an alternative for the synthetic pesticides. Moreover, it can avoid any pesticide resistance development and create a competitive market advantage by reducing the associated problems of agrochemicals at large. This finding do have a great evidence to commercial sugarcane plantation experts, students, teachers and agricultural researchers.
This work contains the detailed study of some fungi, their characters,their growth on selected media,and their response to different chemicals were studied extensively.I hope this book will be the direction to the learner, researcher, scientist,pharmaceuticals,chemist,doctors,dermatologists,intensive care takers of different fields.I further and definitely viewing that this work will be the small boon for those who work on designing of drugs for several medicines, they definatly benefited through this small work of research.
Vermiculture has emerged as an efficient and novel option in bio dynamic farming. Vermicomposting is a simple biotechnological process of composting in which earthworms are used to enhance the process of waste conversion and produce a better end product. Agricultural residue composting is a complex process mediated by microorganisms through lignocellulolytic enzyme system. Further nutritive value of compost can be augmented through the use of earthworm, nutrient supplementation and microbial inoculation. Enriched vermicomposts obtained by macro and micro nutrient supplementation, lignocellulolytic micro organisms inoculation, nitrogen fixing and phosphate solubilizing bacterial inoculation had highest N, P, K, Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn nutrients and lowest C : N ratio, indicating high degree of enrichment and superiority over simple compost i.e. FYM. During vermicomposting, vermicompost also had higher cellulase activity and bacterial population. Enriched vermicomposts were found superior in enhancing vegetative growth, yield and yield attributing characteristics and quality characteristics of fruits of pomegranate.
White rot fungi produces various isoforms of extracellular enzymes including laccase, manganese peroxidase and lignin peroxidase that can degrade the pollutants and, thus, can be used to treat wastewater, including landfill leachate. In this research, the treatment of leachate by using white rot fungi, namely Trametes versicolor BCC 8725 and Flavodon flavus BCC 17421 was studied. Four types of leachate were collected in different time period and different source from Nonthaburi solid waste disposal site, Thailand. Leachate differs in terms of color, BOD, COD. The fungi were immobilized on polyurethane foam (PUF). Glucose, corn starch and cassava were used as a co-substrate and were varied at different concentration. Batch experiments were done to determine the optimum pH, cosubstrate and effect of contact time. Continuous experiments were carried out using vertical flow baffled reactor to observe the effect of organic loading, reuse of fungi in various cycles and its possibility to use in large scale leachate treatment. The effect of biomass growth was observed by immobilizing fungi on PUF for different time periods (for 4 and 15 days initially in Potato Dextrose Broth (PDB)..
Sugarcane farming is an important economic activity in Kenya and other parts of the world. As sucrose and other products from sugarcane processing such as ethanol, bagasse, and hydo electric power become important industrial products, sugarcane production is on the rise. As a result, several agronomic activities are employed including use of high nitrogenous fertilizers like diammonium phosphate and urea. Use of high amounts of nitrogenous fertilizers has been documented to have an effect on soil Chemistry of the receiving soils. Alloway in 1995, demonstrated serious soil effects from fertilizer use. Based on this scientific knowledge, it is necessary to study the effect of continuous use of nitrogenous fertilizers have on the soil and the aquatic systems flowing through them.
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi are ubiquitous in soil habitats and form beneficial symbiosis with the roots of angiosperms and other plants. Most terrestrial plants associate with root colonizing mycorrhizal fungi, which improve the fitness of both the fungal and plant associates. Distribution and abundance of AM fungi vary greatly among different sites like natural and manmade ecosystems. Natural soil offers consortium of indigenous mycorrhizal fungi and often used as source of inoculam. AM fungi can be produced on a large scale by pot culture technique. It was suggested for the commercial production of AM fungi in agricultural field management. They are also environment friendly fertilizers and do not cause the pollution of any sort.
In order to evaluate the impact of cattle manure and mycorrhiza fungi on pumpkin plants (cucurbita pepo con Var.styriaca) under water deficit stress conditions, a split-factorial design was conducted as base of randomized complete block design with four replications. Irrigation interval (at three levels: 60, 120 and 180 mm based on cumulative evaporation from class A pan) as main plots that exerted on pre-flowering, cattle manure (at three levels: 0, 15 and 30 t/ha) and mycorrhiza fungi (at two levels: with and without application) as sub plots were considered. The results showed that irrigation factor had significant effect on grain number, grain yield, fruit yield, fruit diameter and fruit pericarp diameter. so that irrigation after 60 mm evaporation caused to increase fruit yield and fruit pericarp diameter. Whereas irrigation after 120 mm evaporation had most grain number and grain yield. The manure treatment had significant affect on fruit yield and fruit pericarp diameter. So that consumption of 30 t/ha manure led to significant increase on these traits. Mycorrhiza fungi had significant effect on grain number and grain yield.