The Handbook of Translation and Cognition is a pioneering, state-of-the-art investigation of cognitive approaches to translation and interpreting studies (TIS). Offers timely and cutting-edge coverage of the most important theoretical frameworks and methodological innovations Contains original contributions from a global group of leading researchers from 18 countries Explores topics related to translator and workplace characteristics including machine translation, creativity, ergonomic perspectives, and cognitive effort, and competence, training, and interpreting such as multimodal processing, neurocognitive optimization, process-oriented pedagogies, and conceptual change Maps out future directions for cognition and translation studies, as well as areas in need of more research within this dynamic field
A language like Gikuyu is the result of human cognition whose structure and function is based on people''s experiences. Some human experiences are too dysphemistic to be discussed without linguistic interdiction. Therefore, a clear understanding of euphemisms will help us uncover how a speaker''s mind works in a cognitive context. This book also identifies the semantic and lexical processes involved in the formation of euphemisms and how these processes blunt the impact of the language to omit specific implication that would unequivocally identify the referent. In addition, this book also looks at the influence of gender in the usage of Gikuyu euphemisms and also accounts for the analysis of euphemisms using the Conceptual Metaphor Theory (CMT). The findings of this study indicate that in spite of a few violations of the tenets of Conceptual Metaphor Theory, CMT gives us insights into the cognitive perspective of euphemisms as a way to attenuate the target domains of death; sexual intercourse; diseases; excretion and body effluvia and anatomy. The findings of this research may be of importance to teachers, court interpreters, media practitioners, counsellors and sex educators.
В книге рассматриваются различные проявления принципа естественной классификации в сфере грамматики. Понятие «естественная классификация», известное в общей теории научного познания, предполагает ориентацию на представленные в предмете анализа отношения, включающие элементы неоднородности. Работа содержит разделы, посвященные проблемам естественной категоризации, взаимосвязям грамматики и лексики, классификациям различных типов высказываний, типологическому анализу грамматических форм и конструкций. Особая часть книги посвящена естественным классам в детской речи. Во всех разделах коллективного труда анализ системно-языковых и речевых оснований естественной классификации связывается с теоретической проблематикой и конкретными вопросами функциональной грамматики. Книга предназначена для читателей, интересующихся теорией и методологией грамматических исследований, а также интерпретацией спорных вопросов в сфере морфологии и синтаксиса русского и ряда других языков. The monograph is a collection of papers analyzing different manifestations of the principle of natural classification in grammar. The notion «natural classification», known as the general theory of cognition, presupposes an orientation to the relationships presented in the object of analysis, which are characterized by elements of heterogeneity. The chapters within the monograph deal with the problems of natural classification, lexicon-grammar interaction, classification of various types of utterances, typological analysis of grammatical forms and constructions. A dedicated part of the book examines natural classes in child speech. All chapters of the collective monograph present an analysis of both systemic (language-specific) and speech properties (principles and characteristics) of natural classification and this analysis is connected with both theoretical and real problems of Functional Grammar. The monograph is addressed to linguists interested in the theory and methodology of grammatical research as well as the analysis of debatable problems of the morphology and syntax of Russian and a number of other languages.
Нож с фиксированным клинком Kirk Rexroat O.S.S. (Office of Strategic Services) Thumb Dagger, Solid Damascus 4.8 см.
The book attempts to make a sociocultural analysis of Chinese (re)translations of classic English novels in mainland China in the past six decades (1949-2009) through a case study of Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen and David Copperfield by Charles Dickens. The findings show that the retranslations done in the 1990s are not necessarily closer to the original than are the translations and retranslations done in the 1950s; a canonical translation does not necessarily stop the retranslation cycle, since it can be overriden by the commercial criteria of publishers; in addition, choice of translation strategies may be associated with translators' own preferences or idiosyncrasies, not necessarily with the universally acknowledged norms of the times; further, the 1990s translations do not improve considerably in translation quality; and finally in this case, more retranslations tend to appear when the target culture becomes more prosperous.
Although new ventures’ competitive positioning and their founders’ social networks are both recognized as important in the context of transition economies, not much is known about their multiplicative effect on performance. We build on the strategic management literature and social network theory to develop theoretical predictions about the role of competitive strategies and social capital for entrepreneurial performance. These are tested with survey data from Bulgaria. We find that both the venture’s competitive strategic positioning and the founder’s networking positively influence performance. The hypothesized moderating effect of networking for the relationship between differentiation strategy and performance received only tentative support. Contrary to expectations, we find a negative moderating effect of networking for the relationship of cost leadership with performance. These results suggest that the entrepreneur’s network plays a role in shaping how strategies influence performance by possibly upholding differentiation and deemphasizing cost leadership strategy. Implications for managerial practice and public policy are discussed.
In this article we present a technique of data analysis applied to three-dimensional tables as, for instance, matrix-valued time-series. The main goal of the method is to describe the evolution of the statistical units with respect to time in a space summarizing the set of matrices. Moreover, our technique points out similar statistical units provided by a classification of their trajectories.
Legal authorities alone are helpless in the interpretation of certain lexical items in legal drafting.Legal knowlege is dependent substantially on linguistic knowledge in spite of the long held view of legal authorities that the law should not be made subservient to grammar. In this compelling book, the author highlights the centrality of modal verbs to the understanding of constitutional provisions, using the 1979 constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria as example. The study relies on the pragmatic insights of speech acts and the deontic/epistemic components of syntax to show that understanding the orientation and direction of the communication in a modal verb is a neccesary requirement for the interpretation of its constitutional import. The book asserts that the nature of authoritative assertiveness of the state in every modern democracy makes the use of modals such as ''shall'', ''will'' and ''may'', which are draconian in provision essential and useful.
Double- double of double tone potentiometer with switch group A50K another group B10K
This paper develops an econometric methodology devised to analyze a sample of time unbalanced panel data on residential water consumption in the French island La Reunion with the purpose to bring out the main determinants of household water consumption and estimate the importance of water consumption by uses. For this purpose, we specify a daily panel econometric model and derive, by performing a time aggregation, a general linear regression model accounting for water consumption data recorded on periods of any calendar date and time length. To estimate efficiently the parameters of this model we develop a feasible two step generalized least square method. Using the principle of best linear unbiaised prediction, we finally develop an approach allowing to consistenly break down the volume of water consumption recorded on household water bills by uses, namely by enforcing this estimated decomposition to add up to the observed total. The application of this methodology to a sample of 437 unbalanced panel observations shows the scope of this approach for the empirical analysis of actual data.