This book “Crop Residue Management in Rice-Wheat Cropping System” has written for plant nutrient management in rice - wheat cropping system with nitrogen and potassium fertilizers. The rice-wheat cropping system is one of most widely practiced cropping system in India as well as across the world. The nutrient management in this system is a big task; both crops are heavy nutrient feeder. It requires nutrient cycling from organic residues to maintain nutrient balance in soil. Addition of organic matter to the soil through the return of crop residues also improves soil structure, influences soil water, air and temperature relation, helps to control runoff and erosion and makes tillage easier. Therefore, use of renewable organic sources would be essential for sustainability of the rice-wheat system. This book provides the information about NPK nutrient balance and crop performance under crop residue management practices.
Conclusions drawn on the basis of the results obtained in the present investigation are stated below: 1. Combined application of N150 P60 K120 S40 B5 Mn20 Zn25 (kg ha-1) was the best dose of nutrients in hybrid rice under rice-wheat cropping system which produced highest grain yield (78.91and 75.00 qha-1durng both the years, respectively). It also improved soil fertility status measured as the available N,P,K,S and Zn. 2. For wheat after hybrid rice crop, the application of N150P60K120 kg ha-1 was found most suitable 3. Application of N150 P60 K120 S40 B5 Mn20 Zn25 kg ha-1 in rice showed residual effect on succeeding wheat crop as reflected in respect to grain and straw yields and all the nutrient treatment also improved soil fertility. 4. Application of N150 P60 K120 S40 B5 Mn20 Zn25 kg ha-1 in rice and N150 P60 K120 kg ha-1 in wheat (T1) increased soil available nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, sulphur and zinc after harvest of each crop. 5. Application of N150 P60 K120 S40 B5 Mn0 Zn25 kg ha-1 in rice and N150 P60 K120 kg ha-1 in wheat (T8) was the best treatment and found most economical followed by T1.
Asian subtropics occupies 21 million hectares of rice-wheat cropping system on their fertile soils. This system carried out on 15 million hectares with highly significant impact for food safety in the area, providing staple food for more than 415 million people.Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) has the highest position in food grains in Pakistan: 66% of the total area under food grains is wheat and it contributes 74% of the total food grain production.Tillage is done according to the soil types. Delay in wheat sowing is the result of 6-8 ploughing with planking and loss of high energy.Timely wheat planting after rice ensured in 10 percent higher wheat grain yield in a rice-wheat cropping system.Drilling of wheat in to rice residue using zero tillage has eliminated the time for land preparation and improved crop stand establishment.So,this study has, therefore, been planned to achieve the most economical method for sowing wheat in a rice-wheat cropping system and Quantify the nutrient losses to soil fertility of burning rice straw. Mushtaq Ahmad Gill is the founder of zero tillage and laser land leveling technology in Pakistan and contributed a lot for this research and book.
The rice (Oryza sativa L.) - wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cropping system occupies about 28.8 million hectares mainly spread over Asia’s five countries, namely, India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh and China. Organic farming offers alternative system for sustainable production and natural resource system. The aim of nutrient management in organic systems is to optimize the use of on–farm resources and minimize losses. Organic materials such as farmyard manure, compost, vermicompost, biogas slurry, green manures, crop residues, biofertilizers and cover crops are other valuable source of nutrients to improve the growth and yield attributes, yields, nutrient uptake, grain quality and soil fertility. The present book is a part of studies which is conducted to determine the optimum combination organic manures crop residues and biofertilizers for meeting nutritional requierment of rice-wheat and rice-wheat-mungbean cropping systems. It also focuses on studying the impact of organic farming practices on the health of soil, quality of organically grown products in order to find out economics of organic farming of rice-based cropping systems.
Rice-Wheat cropping system covers about 11 m ha in India, is the backbone of India's food security. This cropping system produces as high as 12.8 to 17.0 t/ha/annum at different levels of cultivation and is highly nutrient depleting but the factors responsible for success of this system are good economic return, market infrastructural support and very little risk making increasingly popular with the farmers over the years. The introduction of the non-sensitive, input responsive, relatively early maturing varieties of rice and wheat in the mid 60's enabled farmers to intensify land use and increased the acreage under this important cropping system. In recent years, there is a problem to sustain the high yield levels of rice-wheat in India. Several factors including attack of insect pests and diseases are considered responsible for stagnation in productivity of this cropping system. The present investigations were, therefore, carried out with a view to monitor insect pests, diseases and natural enemies operating in rice and wheat ecosystems and to develop an effective bio intensive management strategy to contain population buildup of major insect pests and diseases of rice and wheat.
Present study is in progress since 1990-91 at Crop Research Centre of G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, U.S.Nagar (Uttaranchal) to study the long term effects of herbicide use in rice-wheat system. Treatments consisted of combinations of butachlor at 1.5 kg ha-1,hand weeding (30 and 60 days after transplanting) and weedy check in rice and each kharif season treatment followed by isoproturon at 1.0 kg ha-1,hand weeding twice (30 and 60 days after sowing) and weedy check in wheat. Experiment was laid out in randomized block design, with nine treatments and three replications. The soil of experimental plot was sandy loam in texture, medium in organic carbon, low in available nitrogen and medium in available phosphorus and potassium with neutral soil reaction. The various studies conducted during Kharif and rabi season of 2003-04 and 2004-05 are presented here.
Dr. Y.V.Singh, Senior Scientist (Agronomy), IARI,New Delhi, India, has developed protocol for Basmati rice cultivation through organic management for sustainable productivity and better quality. In this protocol he used four (Blue green algae @ 2.0 kg/ha, Azolla @ 1.0t/ha/ Azotobacter @ 0.5 kg/ha, vermicompost @ 5.0 t/ha and Farm yard manure @ 5.0 t/ha) organic inoculants to meet the nutrient requirement of organic Basmati rice-wheat-green gram system and got
Survival of Little Seed Canary Grass: The little seed canary grass is one of the notorious weeds in the rice-wheat cropping systems in the Indo-Gangetic Plains and elsewhere. The management practices advised to farmers have often failed to control this weed. With significant impact on wheat yields, the weed has become news in the popular and scientific media. In order to design and implement an effective weed management regime, it is very important that the biology of the weed is well understood. In this respect, the survival mechanism of the little seed canary grass and its seed is studied in the rice- wheat cropping conditions where alternative drying and wetting conditions prevail. Designed to understand the seed survival and germination patterns under different soil and cropping conditions, this study, has provided valuable insights into the seed survival conditions for the little seed canary grass and could provide a means to design better crop management practices. This book will be useful for students, researchers and practitioners who are interested in the subject of weed management in general and in rice-wheat cropping systems in specific.
Banana is an important staple commodity for developing countries, apart from wheat,rice or corn, hence its relevance for food security.Being adapted to grow under low light intensities, banana plants can withstand shade and hence are highly suitable for high density planting.The spatial arrangement of plants in a plantation is very important & usually involves a choice between physiological efficiency and practical utility.Increasing spacing between pits and planting more than one sucker per pit will help to reduce the cost of cultivation &enable inter cropping thereby improving total returns.Selection of crops for inter cropping and the geometry of planting should be designed in such a way that land, water & solar energy are fully utilized. Banana being a heavy remover of nutrients, high yields of quality bananas can only be sustained through application of optimal doses of nutrients in balanced proportion. Existing technologies of nutrient supply are to be refined for judicious use to enhance the profitability under double sucker planting as increased manurial dose may not be required for increased number of suckers per pit.Modified HDP with efficient use of inputs are explored.
Soil,despite being the most basic of all natural resources is severely neglected these days.Quality of soil is determined much by it's organic matter content. Carbon Sequestration is a management strategy which maintains organic matter in soils,at the same time prevents the loss of Carbon as Carbon Dioxide into the atmosphere. Carbon Sequestration practices can therefore enrich soil quality and can also give a negative feed back to global warming. Residue producing cropping systems,recycling of crop residues to soil,reduction in tillage etc favours Carbon Sequestration in soils and were experimented in the present study.Coconut-Pineapple cropping system which generated pineapple residue with high lignin content could well improve the organic matter and organic carbon status of soil and thus could bring overall improvement in soil properties. Surface mulching of crop residues and reduction in tillage practices could also sequester more of organic matter in soil. Besides, the coconut- pineapple cropping system was more economical compared to other systems.
Wheat crop being the world''s leading cereal crop has the major role in the hunger reduction from the mushrooming world population. With the development of high yielding varieties and new technologies, the production and productivity since late 1970s has increased significantly up to this date. Still there are various yield limiting factors and one of them is the late-sowing condition especially in the agro-zones where rice-wheat system prevails. In the recent context of climate change and global warming, the production practices of many crops have been pushed to gradually change. In the rice-wheat system of cropping pattern, late sowing of wheat is becoming a common phenomenon and for any reason of late sowing, suitable variety/genotype selection with proper fertilization especially only nitrogen management can be the boon to greatly boost up the production and net returns from wheat cultivation. This book is especially important to those who are willing to conduct research activity in the field of crop science & wheat agronomy, farmers, students, academicians and development professionals.
Diversification and intensification of cropping systems has been area of interest for many research students throughout the world.Rice based cropping systems are the most prevalent and many experiments are done with these both technically and by patterns in farming. This is a book on one such case study carried out on intensification and diversification of rice based cropping system in Kymore plateau and Satpura hill zones in central India.Traditionally the region practices rice-wheat or rice-chickpea cropping systems which have affected soil fertility, productivity etc in an adverse manner. This book covers a system where leguminous crops,oilseed crops, spices etc are included to diversify the cropping system. Also it studies intensification by taking more than two crops annually. This book should be a great read for research students and scholars working on cropping systems.
Rice-wheat cropping system in Pakistan covers almost 2 million hectares and pre-dominantly spreads across districts of Gujranwala, Sialkot, Norowal and Shiekhupura in Punjab. The present study was taken up as a start of a long-term study of fungal pathogens in rice-wheat cropping system in Pakistan in order to understand the biology of these, so that the knowledge so gained could be used to develop a strong disease management based largely on the host resistance. The study concentrated on root rot and foliar blight and associated fungi that were common to rice and wheat primarily. It has provided basic information on the prevalence and incidence of these diseases in the main four districts of rice-wheat areas of Punjab namely Gujranwala, Sheikhupura, Narowal and Sialkot. Fungi from root, foliage and soil in both wheat and rice crop were isolated and identified and their aggressiveness studied using pathogenicity analysis. Isolates of these fungi were genetically characterized using RAPD''s. The investigations were based on two surveys of wheat one in 1999 and other in 2000 done at the booting and heading stage of the crop covering 21 and 20 key locations of the area, respectively.
The book evaluate the performance of canal irrigation system by using special scientific tools like Remote Sensing and Geographical Information System, so that proper measurements could be taken for the sustainable agriculture and water management. Different performance evaluation parameters had been calculated.The purposed data was gathered from field investigation and different government and private organizations. According to the calculations,organic matter ranges from 0.19% (low value) to 0.76% (high value). In comparison of flat and bed irrigation system in wheat crop,the water saving per acre varies from 46.51 to 56.5% of time. The average range of irrigation water saving at site was 51.37%, which provides evidence of 50% water saving in bed planting. Similarly, in rice crop, the range of water saving is 28.91 to 45% which happens due to over irrigation even in bed planting by same farmers. Results showed that on an average percentage yield increase in wheat bed planting fields varies from 11.83 to 29.4 % while 22.27 % increase in yield was obtained from rice bed planting in comparison with flat sowing.
Field experiments were conducted at Cropping Systems Research Centre, Karamana, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala during summer/third crop/puncha season in 2007 and 2008 to find out the effect of nutrient sources under different management systems. The experiment was laid out in split plot design with four replications. The treatments consisted of four management systems viz., System of Rice Intensification SRI (M1), Integrated Crop Establishment Method (ICM) (M2), Package of practices (PoP) (M3) of Kerala Agricultural University and Conventional management practices (M4) in main plot. Nutrient sources viz., organic sources (S1), integrated nutrient sources (S2) and inorganic sources (S3) were the sub plot treatments.