The definitive work on the philosophical nature and impact of the theories of Charles Darwin, written by a well-known authority on the history and philosophy of Darwinism. Broadly explores the theories of Charles Darwin and Darwin studies Incorporates much information about modern Biology Offers a comprehensive discussion of Darwinism and Christianity – including Creationism – by one of the leading authorities in the field Written in clear, concise, user-friendly language supplemented with quality illustrations Examines the status of evolutionary theory as a genuine theory and its implications for philosophy, epistemology and ethics Provides a strong understanding of the philosophical nature and impact of Darwin's thought Holds wide appeal for general audiences outside the world of academic philosophy Strongly supports Darwinism and fully explores modern naturalistic explanations of religion

Leading scholars from a wide range of disciplines addressed the 'educated layman' in reviewing contemporary (1909) attitudes towards the work of Charles Darwin and its far-reaching consequences in this first-centenary volume. The diversity of views among them regarding both evolution and directions for further research is clearly evident.

Reviews the evolution and theory of Sustainability Footprints e.g. carbon footprint and examines the critical success factors and contributions to small to medium sized enterprises (SME) growth • Assist firms in achieving sustainable growth in four key areas Innovation Impact, Cost Impact, Environmental Impact, and Stakeholder Impact • Identifies the challenges and Critical Success Factors (CSFs) in the use of sustainability footprint methodology within small businesses by the use of case studies • Proposes a strategic model suitable for the deployment of sustainability strategy and initiatives within business

Praise for Driven to Lead «A powerful scientific framework, grounded in evolutionary biology, that helps us think about leadership successes and failures throughout history and how we might address humanity's need for better leadership going forward.» —Nitin Nohria, Dean, Harvard Business School «Brilliant insights—straightforward, easy to comprehend, and extremely useful to anyone in business. I predict the four-drives model will replace Maslow's hierarchy of needs as the accepted way of describing human behavior.» —David N. Burt, chairman emeritus, Supply Chain Management Institute, University of San Diego «Paul Lawrence is back! Driven to Lead is the most comprehensive general theory of leadership ever created. By digging deeply into Darwin, Lawrence offers a practical guide for authentic leaders to excel in today's challenging world.» —Bill George, professor of management practice, Harvard Business School, and former chair and CEO, Medtronic «If Darwin had written a book about leadership in the twenty-first century, this would be it.» —Ranjay Gulati, Jaime and Josefina Chua Tiampo Professor of Business Administration, Harvard Business School «It's the E = mc2 of human behavior.» —Malcolm DeLeo, Vice President of Innovation, Daymon Worldwide «This book presents a rigorous and novel theory on how evolution and the human brain can produce effective and ineffective leadership. The writing is clear. It is accessible to practitioners as well as to researchers.» —Chris Argyris, professor emeritus, Harvard Business School

Полный вариант заголовка: «Interesting account of the early voyages : made by the Portuguese, Spaniards, &. : to Affrica, East and West-Indies : the discovery of numerous Islands : with particulars of the Lives of those eminent navigators : including the life and voyages of Columbus : to which is perpixed the life of that great circumnavigator Captain Cook : with particulars of his death / extracted from Dr. Kipps's».

Explore the evolution of organization theory in the health care sector Advances in Health Care Organization Theory, 2nd Edition, introduces students in health administration to the fields of organization theory and organizational behavior and their application to the management of health care organizations. The book explores the major health care developments over the past decade and demonstrates the contribution of organization theory to a deeper understanding of the changes in the delivery system, including the historic passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010. Taking both a micro and macro view, editors Stephen S. Mick and Patrick D. Shay, collaborate with a roster of contributing experts to compile a comprehensive volume that covers the latest in organization theory. Topics include: Institutional and neo-institutional theory Patient-centered practices and organizational culture change Design and implementation of patient-centered care management teams Hospital-based clusters as new organizational structures Application of social network theory to health care

A simplified, yet rigorous treatment of scattering theory methods and their applications Dispersion Decay and Scattering Theory provides thorough, easy-to-understand guidance on the application of scattering theory methods to modern problems in mathematics, quantum physics, and mathematical physics. Introducing spectral methods with applications to dispersion time-decay and scattering theory, this book presents, for the first time, the Agmon-Jensen-Kato spectral theory for the Schr?dinger equation, extending the theory to the Klein-Gordon equation. The dispersion decay plays a crucial role in the modern application to asymptotic stability of solitons of nonlinear Schr?dinger and Klein-Gordon equations. The authors clearly explain the fundamental concepts and formulas of the Schr?dinger operators, discuss the basic properties of the Schr?dinger equation, and offer in-depth coverage of Agmon-Jensen-Kato theory of the dispersion decay in the weighted Sobolev norms. The book also details the application of dispersion decay to scattering and spectral theories, the scattering cross section, and the weighted energy decay for 3D Klein-Gordon and wave equations. Complete streamlined proofs for key areas of the Agmon-Jensen-Kato approach, such as the high-energy decay of the resolvent and the limiting absorption principle are also included. Dispersion Decay and Scattering Theory is a suitable book for courses on scattering theory, partial differential equations, and functional analysis at the graduate level. The book also serves as an excellent resource for researchers, professionals, and academics in the fields of mathematics, mathematical physics, and quantum physics who would like to better understand scattering theory and partial differential equations and gain problem-solving skills in diverse areas, from high-energy physics to wave propagation and hydrodynamics.

In 1837 a young Charles Darwin took his notebook, wrote «I think» and then sketched a rudimentary, stick-like tree. Each branch of Darwin's tree of life told a story of survival and adaptation – adaptation of animals and plants not just to the environment but also to life with other living things. However, more than 150 years since Darwin published his singular idea of natural selection, the science of ecology has yet to account for how contrasting evolutionary outcomes affect the ability of organisms to coexist in communities and to regulate ecosystem functioning. In this book Philip Grime and Simon Pierce explain how evidence from across the world is revealing that, beneath the wealth of apparently limitless and bewildering variation in detailed structure and functioning, the essential biology of all organisms is subject to the same set of basic interacting constraints on life-history and physiology. The inescapable resulting predicament during the evolution of every species is that, according to habitat, each must adopt a predictable compromise with regard to how they use the resources at their disposal in order to survive. The compromise involves the investment of resources in either the effort to acquire more resources, the tolerance of factors that reduce metabolic performance, or reproduction. This three-way trade-off is the irreducible core of the universal adaptive strategy theory which Grime and Pierce use to investigate how two environmental filters selecting, respectively, for convergence and divergence in organism function determine the identity of organisms in communities, and ultimately how different evolutionary strategies affect the functioning of ecosystems. This book reflects an historic phase in which evolutionary processes are finally moving centre stage in the effort to unify ecological theory, and animal, plant and microbial ecology have begun to find a common theoretical framework. Visit www.wiley.com/go/grime/evolutionarystrategies to access the artwork from the book.

The three-electron theory of communication accepted for granted the existence of threeelectron bonds (one axiom), everything else is derived logically. And if think… reflect the existence of three-electron bond directly from the theory of resonance (resonance structures do not exist, in reality there is something average between them – and now think that should really be the basis of this, some real structure?.. of course the three-electron bond!!!).

Advanced research reference examining the closed and open quantum systems Control of Quantum Systems: Theory and Methods provides an insight into the modern approaches to control of quantum systems evolution, with a focus on both closed and open (dissipative) quantum systems. The topic is timely covering the newest research in the field, and presents and summarizes practical methods and addresses the more theoretical aspects of control, which are of high current interest, but which are not covered at this level in other text books. The quantum control theory and methods written in the book are the results of combination of macro-control theory and microscopic quantum system features. As the development of the nanotechnology progresses, the quantum control theory and methods proposed today are expected to be useful in real quantum systems within five years. The progress of the quantum control theory and methods will promote the progress and development of quantum information, quantum computing, and quantum communication. Equips readers with the potential theories and advanced methods to solve existing problems in quantum optics/information/computing, mesoscopic systems, spin systems, superconducting devices, nano-mechanical devices, precision metrology. Ideal for researchers, academics and engineers in quantum engineering, quantum computing, quantum information, quantum communication, quantum physics, and quantum chemistry, whose research interests are quantum systems control.

November, 1942: Japanese and American forces had been fighting for control of Guadalcanal. Amid a seeming stalemate, a group of U.S. Navy carrier airmen helped form the Cactus Air Force, a motley assemblage of Marine, Air Force, and carrier-less Navy airmen tasked with holding the line. Under constant assault by the Japanese, pilots and gunners rarely lasted more than a few weeks. Yet when the Japanese attempted to take the island once and for all, these men miraculously turned back a warship armada, fighter planes, and a convoy of troops.

The Evolution of Plant Form is an exceptional new volume in Wiley-Blackwell’s highly successful and well established Annual Plant Reviews. Written by recognised and respected researchers, this book delivers a comprehensive guide to the diverse range of scientific perspectives in land plant evolution, from morphological evolution to the studies of the mechanisms of evolutionary change and the tools with which they can be studied. This title distinguishes itself from others in plant evolution through its synthesis of these ideas, which then provides a framework for future studies and exciting new developments in this field. The first chapter explores the origins of the major morphological innovations in land plants and the following chapters provide an exciting, in depth analysis of the morphological evolution of land plant groups including bryophytes, lycophytes, ferns, gymnosperms and angiosperms. The second half of the book focuses on evolutionary studies in land plants including genomics, adaptation, development and phenotypic plasticity. The final chapter provides a summary and perspective for future studies in the evolution of plant form. The Evolution of Plant Form provides essential information for plant scientists and evolutionary biologists. All libraries and research establishments, where biological and agricultural sciences are studied and taught, will find this important work a vital addition to their shelves.

Praise for the First Edition «…complete, up-to-date coverage of computational complexity theory…the book promises to become the standard reference on computational complexity.» -Zentralblatt MATH A thorough revision based on advances in the field of computational complexity and readers’ feedback, the Second Edition of Theory of Computational Complexity presents updates to the principles and applications essential to understanding modern computational complexity theory. The new edition continues to serve as a comprehensive resource on the use of software and computational approaches for solving algorithmic problems and the related difficulties that can be encountered. Maintaining extensive and detailed coverage, Theory of Computational Complexity, Second Edition, examines the theory and methods behind complexity theory, such as computational models, decision tree complexity, circuit complexity, and probabilistic complexity. The Second Edition also features recent developments on areas such as NP-completeness theory, as well as: A new combinatorial proof of the PCP theorem based on the notion of expander graphs, a research area in the field of computer science Additional exercises at varying levels of difficulty to further test comprehension of the presented material End-of-chapter literature reviews that summarize each topic and offer additional sources for further study Theory of Computational Complexity, Second Edition, is an excellent textbook for courses on computational theory and complexity at the graduate level. The book is also a useful reference for practitioners in the fields of computer science, engineering, and mathematics who utilize state-of-the-art software and computational methods to conduct research. A thorough revision based on advances in the field of computational complexity and readers’feedback, the Second Edition of Theory of Computational Complexity presents updates to theprinciples and applications essential to understanding modern computational complexitytheory. The new edition continues to serve as a comprehensive resource on the use of softwareand computational approaches for solving algorithmic problems and the related difficulties thatcan be encountered.Maintaining extensive and detailed coverage, Theory of Computational Complexity, SecondEdition, examines the theory and methods behind complexity theory, such as computationalmodels, decision tree complexity, circuit complexity, and probabilistic complexity. The SecondEdition also features recent dev

A ground-breaking and practical treatment of probability and stochastic processes A Modern Theory of Random Variation is a new and radical re-formulation of the mathematical underpinnings of subjects as diverse as investment, communication engineering, and quantum mechanics. Setting aside the classical theory of probability measure spaces, the book utilizes a mathematically rigorous version of the theory of random variation that bases itself exclusively on finitely additive probability distribution functions. In place of twentieth century Lebesgue integration and measure theory, the author uses the simpler concept of Riemann sums, and the non-absolute Riemann-type integration of Henstock. Readers are supplied with an accessible approach to standard elements of probability theory such as the central limmit theorem and Brownian motion as well as remarkable, new results on Feynman diagrams and stochastic integrals. Throughout the book, detailed numerical demonstrations accompany the discussions of abstract mathematical theory, from the simplest elements of the subject to the most complex. In addition, an array of numerical examples and vivid illustrations showcase how the presented methods and applications can be undertaken at various levels of complexity. A Modern Theory of Random Variation is a suitable book for courses on mathematical analysis, probability theory, and mathematical finance at the upper-undergraduate and graduate levels. The book is also an indispensible resource for researchers and practitioners who are seeking new concepts, techniques and methodologies in data analysis, numerical calculation, and financial asset valuation. Patrick Muldowney, PhD, served as lecturer at the Magee Business School of the UNiversity of Ulster for over twenty years. Dr. Muldowney has published extensively in his areas of research, including integration theory, financial mathematics, and random variation.

An exciting approach to the history and mathematics of number theory “. . . the author’s style is totally lucid and very easy to read . . .the result is indeed a wonderful story.” —Mathematical Reviews Written in a unique and accessible style for readers of varied mathematical backgrounds, the Second Edition of Primes of the Form p = x2+ ny2 details the history behind how Pierre de Fermat’s work ultimately gave birth to quadratic reciprocity and the genus theory of quadratic forms. The book also illustrates how results of Euler and Gauss can be fully understood only in the context of class field theory, and in addition, explores a selection of the magnificent formulas of complex multiplication. Primes of the Form p = x2 + ny2, Second Edition focuses on addressing the question of when a prime p is of the form x2 + ny2, which serves as the basis for further discussion of various mathematical topics. This updated edition has several new notable features, including: • A well-motivated introduction to the classical formulation of class field theory • Illustrations of explicit numerical examples to demonstrate the power of basic theorems in various situations • An elementary treatment of quadratic forms and genus theory • Simultaneous treatment of elementary and advanced aspects of number theory • New coverage of the Shimura reciprocity law and a selection of recent work in an updated bibliography Primes of the Form p = x2 + ny2, Second Edition is both a useful reference for number theory theorists and an excellent text for undergraduate and graduate-level courses in number and Galois theory.

## darwin s armada – four voyages and the battle for the theory of evolution в наличии / купить интернет-магазине

## Michael Ruse Charles Darwin

The definitive work on the philosophical nature and impact of the theories of Charles Darwin, written by a well-known authority on the history and philosophy of Darwinism. Broadly explores the theories of Charles Darwin and Darwin studies Incorporates much information about modern Biology Offers a comprehensive discussion of Darwinism and Christianity – including Creationism – by one of the leading authorities in the field Written in clear, concise, user-friendly language supplemented with quality illustrations Examines the status of evolutionary theory as a genuine theory and its implications for philosophy, epistemology and ethics Provides a strong understanding of the philosophical nature and impact of Darwin's thought Holds wide appeal for general audiences outside the world of academic philosophy Strongly supports Darwinism and fully explores modern naturalistic explanations of religion

## Darwin and Modern Science

Leading scholars from a wide range of disciplines addressed the 'educated layman' in reviewing contemporary (1909) attitudes towards the work of Charles Darwin and its far-reaching consequences in this first-centenary volume. The diversity of views among them regarding both evolution and directions for further research is clearly evident.

## Lowellyne James Sustainability Footprints in SMEs. Strategy and Case Studies for Entrepreneurs and Small Business

Reviews the evolution and theory of Sustainability Footprints e.g. carbon footprint and examines the critical success factors and contributions to small to medium sized enterprises (SME) growth • Assist firms in achieving sustainable growth in four key areas Innovation Impact, Cost Impact, Environmental Impact, and Stakeholder Impact • Identifies the challenges and Critical Success Factors (CSFs) in the use of sustainability footprint methodology within small businesses by the use of case studies • Proposes a strategic model suitable for the deployment of sustainability strategy and initiatives within business

## Paul R. Lawrence Driven to Lead. Good, Bad, and Misguided Leadership

Praise for Driven to Lead «A powerful scientific framework, grounded in evolutionary biology, that helps us think about leadership successes and failures throughout history and how we might address humanity's need for better leadership going forward.» —Nitin Nohria, Dean, Harvard Business School «Brilliant insights—straightforward, easy to comprehend, and extremely useful to anyone in business. I predict the four-drives model will replace Maslow's hierarchy of needs as the accepted way of describing human behavior.» —David N. Burt, chairman emeritus, Supply Chain Management Institute, University of San Diego «Paul Lawrence is back! Driven to Lead is the most comprehensive general theory of leadership ever created. By digging deeply into Darwin, Lawrence offers a practical guide for authentic leaders to excel in today's challenging world.» —Bill George, professor of management practice, Harvard Business School, and former chair and CEO, Medtronic «If Darwin had written a book about leadership in the twenty-first century, this would be it.» —Ranjay Gulati, Jaime and Josefina Chua Tiampo Professor of Business Administration, Harvard Business School «It's the E = mc2 of human behavior.» —Malcolm DeLeo, Vice President of Innovation, Daymon Worldwide «This book presents a rigorous and novel theory on how evolution and the human brain can produce effective and ineffective leadership. The writing is clear. It is accessible to practitioners as well as to researchers.» —Chris Argyris, professor emeritus, Harvard Business School

## Отсутствует Interesting account of the early voyages

Полный вариант заголовка: «Interesting account of the early voyages : made by the Portuguese, Spaniards, &. : to Affrica, East and West-Indies : the discovery of numerous Islands : with particulars of the Lives of those eminent navigators : including the life and voyages of Columbus : to which is perpixed the life of that great circumnavigator Captain Cook : with particulars of his death / extracted from Dr. Kipps's».

## Shay Patrick D. Advances in Health Care Organization Theory

Explore the evolution of organization theory in the health care sector Advances in Health Care Organization Theory, 2nd Edition, introduces students in health administration to the fields of organization theory and organizational behavior and their application to the management of health care organizations. The book explores the major health care developments over the past decade and demonstrates the contribution of organization theory to a deeper understanding of the changes in the delivery system, including the historic passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010. Taking both a micro and macro view, editors Stephen S. Mick and Patrick D. Shay, collaborate with a roster of contributing experts to compile a comprehensive volume that covers the latest in organization theory. Topics include: Institutional and neo-institutional theory Patient-centered practices and organizational culture change Design and implementation of patient-centered care management teams Hospital-based clusters as new organizational structures Application of social network theory to health care

## Kopylova Elena Dispersion Decay and Scattering Theory

A simplified, yet rigorous treatment of scattering theory methods and their applications Dispersion Decay and Scattering Theory provides thorough, easy-to-understand guidance on the application of scattering theory methods to modern problems in mathematics, quantum physics, and mathematical physics. Introducing spectral methods with applications to dispersion time-decay and scattering theory, this book presents, for the first time, the Agmon-Jensen-Kato spectral theory for the Schr?dinger equation, extending the theory to the Klein-Gordon equation. The dispersion decay plays a crucial role in the modern application to asymptotic stability of solitons of nonlinear Schr?dinger and Klein-Gordon equations. The authors clearly explain the fundamental concepts and formulas of the Schr?dinger operators, discuss the basic properties of the Schr?dinger equation, and offer in-depth coverage of Agmon-Jensen-Kato theory of the dispersion decay in the weighted Sobolev norms. The book also details the application of dispersion decay to scattering and spectral theories, the scattering cross section, and the weighted energy decay for 3D Klein-Gordon and wave equations. Complete streamlined proofs for key areas of the Agmon-Jensen-Kato approach, such as the high-energy decay of the resolvent and the limiting absorption principle are also included. Dispersion Decay and Scattering Theory is a suitable book for courses on scattering theory, partial differential equations, and functional analysis at the graduate level. The book also serves as an excellent resource for researchers, professionals, and academics in the fields of mathematics, mathematical physics, and quantum physics who would like to better understand scattering theory and partial differential equations and gain problem-solving skills in diverse areas, from high-energy physics to wave propagation and hydrodynamics.

## Grime J. Philip The Evolutionary Strategies that Shape Ecosystems

In 1837 a young Charles Darwin took his notebook, wrote «I think» and then sketched a rudimentary, stick-like tree. Each branch of Darwin's tree of life told a story of survival and adaptation – adaptation of animals and plants not just to the environment but also to life with other living things. However, more than 150 years since Darwin published his singular idea of natural selection, the science of ecology has yet to account for how contrasting evolutionary outcomes affect the ability of organisms to coexist in communities and to regulate ecosystem functioning. In this book Philip Grime and Simon Pierce explain how evidence from across the world is revealing that, beneath the wealth of apparently limitless and bewildering variation in detailed structure and functioning, the essential biology of all organisms is subject to the same set of basic interacting constraints on life-history and physiology. The inescapable resulting predicament during the evolution of every species is that, according to habitat, each must adopt a predictable compromise with regard to how they use the resources at their disposal in order to survive. The compromise involves the investment of resources in either the effort to acquire more resources, the tolerance of factors that reduce metabolic performance, or reproduction. This three-way trade-off is the irreducible core of the universal adaptive strategy theory which Grime and Pierce use to investigate how two environmental filters selecting, respectively, for convergence and divergence in organism function determine the identity of organisms in communities, and ultimately how different evolutionary strategies affect the functioning of ecosystems. This book reflects an historic phase in which evolutionary processes are finally moving centre stage in the effort to unify ecological theory, and animal, plant and microbial ecology have begun to find a common theoretical framework. Visit www.wiley.com/go/grime/evolutionarystrategies to access the artwork from the book.

## Volodymyr Bezverkhniy Theory of three-electrone bond in the four works with brief comments

The three-electron theory of communication accepted for granted the existence of threeelectron bonds (one axiom), everything else is derived logically. And if think… reflect the existence of three-electron bond directly from the theory of resonance (resonance structures do not exist, in reality there is something average between them – and now think that should really be the basis of this, some real structure?.. of course the three-electron bond!!!).

## Shuang Cong Control of Quantum Systems. Theory and Methods

Advanced research reference examining the closed and open quantum systems Control of Quantum Systems: Theory and Methods provides an insight into the modern approaches to control of quantum systems evolution, with a focus on both closed and open (dissipative) quantum systems. The topic is timely covering the newest research in the field, and presents and summarizes practical methods and addresses the more theoretical aspects of control, which are of high current interest, but which are not covered at this level in other text books. The quantum control theory and methods written in the book are the results of combination of macro-control theory and microscopic quantum system features. As the development of the nanotechnology progresses, the quantum control theory and methods proposed today are expected to be useful in real quantum systems within five years. The progress of the quantum control theory and methods will promote the progress and development of quantum information, quantum computing, and quantum communication. Equips readers with the potential theories and advanced methods to solve existing problems in quantum optics/information/computing, mesoscopic systems, spin systems, superconducting devices, nano-mechanical devices, precision metrology. Ideal for researchers, academics and engineers in quantum engineering, quantum computing, quantum information, quantum communication, quantum physics, and quantum chemistry, whose research interests are quantum systems control.

## BATTLE FOR HELL'S ISLAND

November, 1942: Japanese and American forces had been fighting for control of Guadalcanal. Amid a seeming stalemate, a group of U.S. Navy carrier airmen helped form the Cactus Air Force, a motley assemblage of Marine, Air Force, and carrier-less Navy airmen tasked with holding the line. Under constant assault by the Japanese, pilots and gunners rarely lasted more than a few weeks. Yet when the Japanese attempted to take the island once and for all, these men miraculously turned back a warship armada, fighter planes, and a convoy of troops.

## Ambrose Barbara A. Annual Plant Reviews, The Evolution of Plant Form

The Evolution of Plant Form is an exceptional new volume in Wiley-Blackwell’s highly successful and well established Annual Plant Reviews. Written by recognised and respected researchers, this book delivers a comprehensive guide to the diverse range of scientific perspectives in land plant evolution, from morphological evolution to the studies of the mechanisms of evolutionary change and the tools with which they can be studied. This title distinguishes itself from others in plant evolution through its synthesis of these ideas, which then provides a framework for future studies and exciting new developments in this field. The first chapter explores the origins of the major morphological innovations in land plants and the following chapters provide an exciting, in depth analysis of the morphological evolution of land plant groups including bryophytes, lycophytes, ferns, gymnosperms and angiosperms. The second half of the book focuses on evolutionary studies in land plants including genomics, adaptation, development and phenotypic plasticity. The final chapter provides a summary and perspective for future studies in the evolution of plant form. The Evolution of Plant Form provides essential information for plant scientists and evolutionary biologists. All libraries and research establishments, where biological and agricultural sciences are studied and taught, will find this important work a vital addition to their shelves.

## Ko Ker-I Theory of Computational Complexity

Praise for the First Edition «…complete, up-to-date coverage of computational complexity theory…the book promises to become the standard reference on computational complexity.» -Zentralblatt MATH A thorough revision based on advances in the field of computational complexity and readers’ feedback, the Second Edition of Theory of Computational Complexity presents updates to the principles and applications essential to understanding modern computational complexity theory. The new edition continues to serve as a comprehensive resource on the use of software and computational approaches for solving algorithmic problems and the related difficulties that can be encountered. Maintaining extensive and detailed coverage, Theory of Computational Complexity, Second Edition, examines the theory and methods behind complexity theory, such as computational models, decision tree complexity, circuit complexity, and probabilistic complexity. The Second Edition also features recent developments on areas such as NP-completeness theory, as well as: A new combinatorial proof of the PCP theorem based on the notion of expander graphs, a research area in the field of computer science Additional exercises at varying levels of difficulty to further test comprehension of the presented material End-of-chapter literature reviews that summarize each topic and offer additional sources for further study Theory of Computational Complexity, Second Edition, is an excellent textbook for courses on computational theory and complexity at the graduate level. The book is also a useful reference for practitioners in the fields of computer science, engineering, and mathematics who utilize state-of-the-art software and computational methods to conduct research. A thorough revision based on advances in the field of computational complexity and readers’feedback, the Second Edition of Theory of Computational Complexity presents updates to theprinciples and applications essential to understanding modern computational complexitytheory. The new edition continues to serve as a comprehensive resource on the use of softwareand computational approaches for solving algorithmic problems and the related difficulties thatcan be encountered.Maintaining extensive and detailed coverage, Theory of Computational Complexity, SecondEdition, examines the theory and methods behind complexity theory, such as computationalmodels, decision tree complexity, circuit complexity, and probabilistic complexity. The SecondEdition also features recent dev

## Patrick Muldowney A Modern Theory of Random Variation. With Applications in Stochastic Calculus, Financial Mathematics, and Feynman Integration

A ground-breaking and practical treatment of probability and stochastic processes A Modern Theory of Random Variation is a new and radical re-formulation of the mathematical underpinnings of subjects as diverse as investment, communication engineering, and quantum mechanics. Setting aside the classical theory of probability measure spaces, the book utilizes a mathematically rigorous version of the theory of random variation that bases itself exclusively on finitely additive probability distribution functions. In place of twentieth century Lebesgue integration and measure theory, the author uses the simpler concept of Riemann sums, and the non-absolute Riemann-type integration of Henstock. Readers are supplied with an accessible approach to standard elements of probability theory such as the central limmit theorem and Brownian motion as well as remarkable, new results on Feynman diagrams and stochastic integrals. Throughout the book, detailed numerical demonstrations accompany the discussions of abstract mathematical theory, from the simplest elements of the subject to the most complex. In addition, an array of numerical examples and vivid illustrations showcase how the presented methods and applications can be undertaken at various levels of complexity. A Modern Theory of Random Variation is a suitable book for courses on mathematical analysis, probability theory, and mathematical finance at the upper-undergraduate and graduate levels. The book is also an indispensible resource for researchers and practitioners who are seeking new concepts, techniques and methodologies in data analysis, numerical calculation, and financial asset valuation. Patrick Muldowney, PhD, served as lecturer at the Magee Business School of the UNiversity of Ulster for over twenty years. Dr. Muldowney has published extensively in his areas of research, including integration theory, financial mathematics, and random variation.

## David Cox A. Primes of the Form x2+ny2. Fermat, Class Field Theory, and Complex Multiplication

An exciting approach to the history and mathematics of number theory “. . . the author’s style is totally lucid and very easy to read . . .the result is indeed a wonderful story.” —Mathematical Reviews Written in a unique and accessible style for readers of varied mathematical backgrounds, the Second Edition of Primes of the Form p = x2+ ny2 details the history behind how Pierre de Fermat’s work ultimately gave birth to quadratic reciprocity and the genus theory of quadratic forms. The book also illustrates how results of Euler and Gauss can be fully understood only in the context of class field theory, and in addition, explores a selection of the magnificent formulas of complex multiplication. Primes of the Form p = x2 + ny2, Second Edition focuses on addressing the question of when a prime p is of the form x2 + ny2, which serves as the basis for further discussion of various mathematical topics. This updated edition has several new notable features, including: • A well-motivated introduction to the classical formulation of class field theory • Illustrations of explicit numerical examples to demonstrate the power of basic theorems in various situations • An elementary treatment of quadratic forms and genus theory • Simultaneous treatment of elementary and advanced aspects of number theory • New coverage of the Shimura reciprocity law and a selection of recent work in an updated bibliography Primes of the Form p = x2 + ny2, Second Edition is both a useful reference for number theory theorists and an excellent text for undergraduate and graduate-level courses in number and Galois theory.