Originally published in 1921, this book was written by Major Leonard Darwin (1850–1943), a son of Charles Darwin who was involved in numerous fields, including politics, economics and eugenics. The text presents a personal perspective on evolution, produced in the hope of inducing 'some competent biologist to write a book suitable for the general reader in which recent changes of opinion in regard to organic evolution are clearly discussed and wisely criticised'. This book will be of value to anyone with an interest in the development of evolutionary theory.
All his life, Charles Darwin hated controversy. Yet he takes his place among the Giants of Science for what remains an immensely controversial subject: the theory of evolution. Darwin began piecing together his explanation for how all living things change or adapt during his five-year voyage on HMS Beagle. But it took him twenty years to go public, for fear of the backlash his theory would cause. Once again, Kathleen Krull delivers a witty and astute picture of one of history's greatest scientists.
Darwinism as Religion argues that the theory of evolution given by Charles Darwin in the nineteenth century has always functioned as much as a secular form of religion as anything purely scientific. Through the words of novelists and poets, Michael Ruse argues that Darwin took us from the secure world of Christian faith into a darker, less friendly world of chance and lack of meaning.
The definitive work on the philosophical nature and impact of the theories of Charles Darwin, written by a well-known authority on the history and philosophy of Darwinism. Broadly explores the theories of Charles Darwin and Darwin studies Incorporates much information about modern Biology Offers a comprehensive discussion of Darwinism and Christianity – including Creationism – by one of the leading authorities in the field Written in clear, concise, user-friendly language supplemented with quality illustrations Examines the status of evolutionary theory as a genuine theory and its implications for philosophy, epistemology and ethics Provides a strong understanding of the philosophical nature and impact of Darwin's thought Holds wide appeal for general audiences outside the world of academic philosophy Strongly supports Darwinism and fully explores modern naturalistic explanations of religion
A re-interpretation of Darwin''s work has led to the emergence of some new thoughts on the degree of influence cooperative or altruistic behavior had on human and animal evolution. Now, we are beginning to realize the importance of cooperation within and between species during the course of animal and plant evolution. As we learn more about how significant cooperative behavior has been during evolution, we can disabuse ourselves of the misconceptions that the term "survival of the fittest" can arouse.
Evolution since Darwin: The First 150 Years comprises 22 chapters and eight shorter commentaries that emerged from a symposium held in November 2009 at Stony Brook University, USA. Thirty-nine authors from 22 universities and two museums in five countries write on areas of evolutionary biology and related topics on which their research focuses. Their essays cover the history of evolutionary biology, populations, genes and genomes, evolution of form, adaptation and speciation, diversification and phylogeny, paleobiology, human cultural and biological evolution, and applied evolution. The volume summarizes progress in major areas of research in evolutionary biology since Darwin, reviewing the current state of knowledge and active research in those areas, and looking toward the future of the broader field.
The idea of biological evolution has derived as a philosophical idea since the Ancient Greek and Roman eras. However, the scientific formulations of the idea did not arise until the 18th and 19th C. A hypothesized mechanism for biological descent with modification was proposed by Jean-Baptist Lamarck, who suggested that organisms inherit the characteristics acquired by their parents during the course of life. 'Darwinism' was first publicly put forth by Charles Darwin and discussed in great details in Darwin's later publications, including his most famous exposition of the theory, ‘On the Origin of Species’. Despite the details of his work Darwin fail to explain the mechanism of evolution. The first person to begin to give answers to the question that Darwin and other naturalists of his time failed to understand, i.e. the mechanisms of evolution, was an Austrian Monk named Gregor Mendel.
This project concerns Evolution Equations in Banach spaces and lies at the interface between Functional Analysis, Dynamical Systems, Modeling Theory and Natural Sciences. We present the fundamental theory of abstract Evolution Equations by using the semigroup approach (which arises naturally from well-posed Cauchy problems) and Fixed-point methods. To this end, firstly we review the basic notions of Functional Analysis and Differential Analysis, secondly we study the theory of semigroups of bounded linear operators, and thirdly we consider Linear Evolution Equations (with emphasis on the difference between the finite dimensional and the infinite dimensional cases). Moreover we give existence results (in appropriate sense) for Semilinear Evolution Equations and show the existence of solutions to some Homogeneous Heat Equations, classical Wave equations, nonlinear Heat Equation and some nonlinear Wave equation.
Leading scholars from a wide range of disciplines addressed the 'educated layman' in reviewing contemporary (1909) attitudes towards the work of Charles Darwin and its far-reaching consequences in this first-centenary volume. The diversity of views among them regarding both evolution and directions for further research is clearly evident.
Physicists have been exploring, debating, and questioning the general theory of relativity ever since Albert Einstein first presented it in 1915. In this sweeping narrative of science and culture, astrophysicist Pedro Ferreira brings general relativity to life through the story of the brilliant physicists, mathematicians, and astronomers who have taken up its challenge. Over the course of a century, their studies of general relativity have delivered key insights into our understanding of the origin of time and the evolution of all the stars and galaxies in the cosmos. Now, as scientists look farther and more clearly into space than ever before, The Perfect Theory reveals the greater relevance of general relativity, showing us where it started, where it has led, and where it can still take us.
This book, first published in 2008, brings together important essays by one of the leading philosophers of science at work today. Elisabeth A. Lloyd examines several of the central topics in philosophy of biology, including the structure of evolutionary theory, units of selection, and evolutionary psychology, as well as the Science Wars, feminism and science, and sexuality and objectivity. Lloyd challenges the current evolutionary accounts of the female orgasm and analyses them for bias. She also offers an innovative analysis of the concept of objectivity. Lloyd analyses the structure of evolutionary theory and unlocks the puzzle of the units of selection debates into four distinct aspects, illuminating several mysteries in the biology literature. Central to all essays in this book is the author's abiding concern for evidence and empirical data.
Evolution is a theory. Theory has been tested and subjected to verification through accumulated evidence. The theory of biological evolution has been supported by a mounting body of fossils, anatomical, embryological, biochemical, biogeographical and genetic evidences. There are also many scientists with fascinating ideas that explain how the universe, our galaxy, primitive earth, biological macromolecules and life originated, but there is very little that we know for sure. However, current understanding on the area shows that the evolutionary unit is a population and the change in gene frequencies of population over time traces evolution. The forces that drive change in gene frequencies in population includes:natural selection, mutation, migration and genetic drift. These evolutionary forces through time causes reproductive isolation, and result evolution of new species.
Charles Darwin's masterpiece, "On the Origin of Species", shook society to its core on publication in 1859. Darwin was only too aware of the storm his theory of evolution would provoke but he would surely have raised an incredulous eyebrow at the controversy still raging a century and a half later. Evolution is accepted as scientific fact by all reputable scientists and indeed theologians, yet millions of people continue to question its veracity. In "The Greatest Show on Earth" Richard Dawkins takes on creationists, including followers of 'Intelligent Design' and all those who question the fact of evolution through natural selection. Like a detective arriving on the scene of a crime, he sifts through fascinating layers of scientific facts and disciplines to build a cast-iron case: from the living examples of natural selection in birds and insects; the 'time clocks' of trees and radioactive dating that calibrate a timescale for evolution; the fossil record and the traces of our earliest ancestors; to confirmation from molecular biology and genetics. All of this, and much more, bears witness to the truth of evolution. "The Greatest Show on Earth" comes at a critical time: systematic opposition to the fact of evolution is now flourishing as never before, especially in America. In Britain and elsewhere in the world, teachers witness insidious attempts to undermine the status of science in their classrooms. Richard Dawkins provides unequivocal evidence that boldly and comprehensively rebuts such nonsense. At the same time he shares with us his palpable love of the natural world and the essential role that science plays in its interpretation. Written with elegance, wit and passion, it is hard-hitting, absorbing and totally convincing.
This thesis contains a history of ideas and an examination of the change in theories about musical expressiveness; including cognitivism vs. emotivism, the theory of association of ideas, the arousal speech theory of musical expressiveness, and the cognitive speech theory of musical expressiveness. Also included in this study is an introductory exploration of ideas of Johann Mattheson, Peter Kivy, Colin Radford, and Aniruddh Patel. The purpose of this study is to give a chronology of ideas of major scholars in this area. In the interest of space, the focus will be on four scholars whom I believe have had the biggest impact on this topic. As we approach the end of this study, the future of musical expressiveness will be discussed, as well as the possibilities this topic holds for the future.
Since their inception, the Perspectives in Logic and Lecture Notes in Logic series have published seminal works by leading logicians. Many of the original books in the series have been unavailable for years, but they are now in print once again. This volume, the eleventh publication in the Lecture Notes in Logic series, collects the proceedings of the Annual European Summer Meeting of the Association for Symbolic Logic, held in 1995. It includes papers in the core areas of set theory, model theory, proof theory and recursion theory, as well as the more recent topics of finite model theory and non-monotonic logic. It also includes a tutorial on interactive proofs, zero-knowledge and computationally sound proofs that reported on recent developments in theoretical computer science, and three plenary lectures dedicated to the foundational and technical evolution of set theory over the past 100 years.