Modern flavours and fragrances are complex formulated products, containing blends of aroma compounds with auxiliary materials, enabling desirable flavours or fragrances to be added to a huge range of products. From the identification and synthesis of materials such as cinnamaldehyde and vanillin in the 19th Century to the current application of advanced analytical techniques for identification of trace aroma compounds present in natural materials, the flavour and fragrance industry has developed as a key part of the worldwide specialty chemicals industry. With contributions mainly coming from industry based experts, Chemistry & Technology of Flavours and Fragrances provides a detailed overview of the synthesis, chemistry and application technology of the major classes aroma compounds. With separate chapters covering important technical aspects such as the stability of aroma compounds, structure – odour relationships and identification of aroma compounds, this book will be essential reading for both experienced and graduate level entrants to the flavour & fragrance industry. It will also serve as an important introduction to the subject for chemists and technologists in those industries that use flavours and fragrances, eg food, cosmetics & toiletries, and household products. David Rowe is Technical Manager at De Monchy Aromatics Ltd., Poole UK
Modern flavours and fragrances are complex formulated products containing blends of aroma compounds with auxiliary materials, enabling desirable flavours or fragrances to be added to a huge range of products. The flavour and fragrance industry is a key part of the worldwide specialty chemicals industry, yet most technical recruits have minimal exposure to flavours and fragrances before recruitment. The analytical chemistry of flavour and fragrance materials presents specific challenges to the analytical chemist, as most of the chemicals involved are highly volatile, present in very small amounts and in complex mixtures. Analytical Methods for Flavor and Fragrance Materials covers the most important methods in the analysis of flavour and fragrance materials, including traditional and newly emerging methodologies. It discusses the capabilities of the various analytical methods for flavour and fragrance analysis and guides the newcomer to the most appropriate techniques for specific analytical problems.
Coming to a conclusion, this wonderful, informative and very interesting book presents an excellent overview of small volatile organic compounds and their role in our life and environment. Really fascinating is the entirety of scientific disciplines which were addressed by this book. –Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 2011 «… this book deserves to be a well-used reference in the library of any laboratory specialising in VOC». –Chemistry World, 2011 Volatile compounds are molecules with a relatively low molecular weight allowing for an efficient evaporation into the air. They are found in many areas of our everyday-life: they are responsible for the communication between species such as plants, insects or mammals; they serve as flavours or fragrances in many food products or perfumed consumer articles; and they play an important role in atmospheric chemistry. This book takes an interdisciplinary approach to volatile molecules. Review-style introductions to the main topics in volatile chemistry and biology are provided by international experts, building into a broad overview of this fascinating field. Topics covered include: The structural variety of volatile compounds Biogeneration of volatiles Synthesis of natural and non-natural volatiles Analysis of volatiles Volatile compounds as semiochemicals in plant-plant or plant-insect interactions Volatiles in pest control Pheromones and the influence of volatiles on mammals Olfaction and human perception Volatiles as fragrances The generation of flavours and food aroma compounds Stabilisation and controlled release of volatiles The impact of volatiles on the environment and the atmosphere
The manual is intended for the 5th year students of the Polymer Faculty of 020015 «Chemical Technology» course. The manual reflects the current state of the elastomers science and production technologies. The focus is on technological methods, based on the scientific understanding of the chemistry in the synthesis of general-purpose and special rubbers, their properties and applications.The content of the manual corresponds to the program of the course «Technology of Elastomers». Published by the decision of the Editing and Publishing Board of Kazan National Research Technological University
An updated overview of the rapidly developing field of green engineering techniques for organic synthesis and medicinal chemistry Green chemistry remains a high priority in modern organic synthesis and pharmaceutical R&D, with important environmental and economic implications. This book presents comprehensive coverage of green chemistry techniques for organic and medicinal chemistry applications, summarizing the available new technologies, analyzing each technique’s features and green chemistry characteristics, and providing examples to demonstrate applications for green organic synthesis and medicinal chemistry. The extensively revised edition of Green Techniques for Organic Synthesis and Medicinal Chemistry includes 7 entirely new chapters on topics including green chemistry and innovation, green chemistry metrics, green chemistry and biological drugs, and the business case for green chemistry in the generic pharmaceutical industry. It is divided into 4 parts. The first part introduces readers to the concepts of green chemistry and green engineering, global environmental regulations, green analytical chemistry, green solvents, and green chemistry metrics. The other three sections cover green catalysis, green synthetic techniques, and green techniques and strategies in the pharmaceutical industry. Includes more than 30% new and updated material—plus seven brand new chapters Edited by highly regarded experts in the field (Berkeley Cue is one of the fathers of Green Chemistry in Pharma) with backgrounds in academia and industry Brings together a team of international authors from academia, industry, government agencies, and consultancies (including John Warner, one of the founders of the field of Green Chemistry) Green Techniques for Organic Synthesis and Medicinal Chemistry, Second Edition is an essential resource on green chemistry technologies for academic researchers, R&D professionals, and students working in organic chemistry and medicinal chemistry.
A comprehensive treatment of the chemistry and physics of mechanical hardness Chemistry and Physics of Mechanical Hardness presents a general introduction to hardness measurement and the connections between hardness and fundamental materials properties. Beginning with an introduction on the importance of hardness in the development of technology, the book systematically covers: Indentation Chemical bonding Plastic deformation Covalent semiconductors Simple metals and alloys Transition metals Intermetallic compounds Ionic crystals Metal-metalloids Oxides Molecular crystals Polymers Glasses Hot hardness Chemical hardness Super-hard materials Chemistry and Physics of Mechanical Hardness is essential reading for materials scientists, mechanical engineers, metallurgists, ceramists, chemists, and physicists who are interested in learning how hardness is related to other properties and to the building blocks of everyday matter.
Discover the science of beer and beer making Ever wondered just how grain and water are transformed into an effervescent, alcoholic beverage? From prehistory to our own time, beer has evoked awe and fascination; it seems to have a life of its own. Whether you're a home brewer, a professional brewer, or just someone who enjoys a beer, The Chemistry of Beer will take you on a fascinating journey, explaining the underlying science and chemistry at every stage of the beer making process. All the science is explained in clear, non-technical language, so you don't need to be a PhD scientist to read this book and develop a greater appreciation for the world's most popular alcoholic drink. The Chemistry of Beer begins with an introduction to the history of beer and beer making. Author Roger Barth, an accomplished home brewer and chemistry professor, then discusses beer ingredients and the brewing process. Next, he explores some core concepts underlying beer making. You'll learn chemistry basics such as atoms, chemical bonding, and chemical reactions. Then you'll explore organic chemistry as well as the chemistry of water and carbohydrates. Armed with a background in chemistry principles, you'll learn about the chemistry of brewing, flavor, and individual beer styles. The book offers several features to help you grasp all the key concepts, including: Hundreds of original photographs and line drawings Chemical structures of key beer compounds Glossary with nearly 1,000 entries Reference tables Questions at the end of each chapter The final chapter discusses brewing at home, including safety issues and some basic recipes you can use to brew your own beer. There's more to The Chemistry of Beer than beer. It's also a fun way to learn about the science behind our technology and environment. This book brings life to chemistry and chemistry to life.
Vanilla is the world's most commonly-used flavour and fragrance, used in foods, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and other products and is therefore of considerable economic importance. This book provides a comprehensive overview of the science and technology used in the production and supply chain of vanilla products. A wide range of international authors cover topics which include agricultural production, global markets, analytical methods, sensory analysis, food and fragrance applications, organic and fair trade vanilla, diseases that affect vanilla, and novel uses. It is of interest to academic researchers in this field and is also an important resource for the vanilla industry and those companies that use vanilla and vanillin as flavours and fragrances worldwide. Key Features: The only book to cover such a wide range of topics on this most commercially valuable of flavour ingredients Includes an analysis of the current vanilla markets in the US and Europe Edited by experts who hold roles in the flavour industry and academic research
Fruit and Vegetable Phytochemicals: Chemistry, Nutritional Value and Stability provides scientists in the areas of food technology and nutrition with accessible and up-to-date information about the chemical nature, classification and analysis of the main phytochemicals present in fruits and vegetables – polyphenols and carotenoids. Special care is taken to analyze the health benefits of these compounds, their interaction with fiber, antioxidant and other biological activities, as well as the degradation processes that occur after harvest and minimal processing.
Arsenic, antimony and bismuth, three related elements of group 15, are all found in trace quantities in nature and have interesting biological properties and uses. While arsenic is most well known as a poison – and indeed the contamination of groundwater by arsenic is becoming a major health problem in Asia – it also has uses for the treatment of blood cancer and has long been used in traditional chinese medicine. Antimony and bismuth compounds are used in the clinic for the treatment of parasitic and bacterial infections. Biological Chemistry of Arsenic, Antimony and Bismuth is an essential overview of the biological chemistry of these three elements, with contributions from an international panel of experts. Topics covered include: chemistry of As, Sb and Bi biological chemistry of arsenic biological chemistry of Sb and Bi arsenic and antimony speciation in environmental and biological samples arsenic in traditional chinese medicine arsenic in aquifers biomethylation of As, Sb and Bi uptake of metalloids by cells bismuth complexes of porphyrins and their potential in medical applications Helicobacter pylori and bismuth metabolism of arsenic trioxide in blood of the acute promyelocytic leukemia patients anticancer properties of As, Sb and Bi radio-Bi in cancer therapy genotoxicity of As, Sb and Bi metallomics as a new technique for As, Sb and Bi metalloproteomics for As, Sb and Bi Biological Chemistry of Arsenic, Antimony and Bismuth conveys the essential aspects of the bioinorganic chemistry of these three elements, making this book a valuable complement to more general bioinorganic chemistry texts and more specialized topical reviews. It will find a place on the bookshelves of practitioners, researchers and students working in bioinorganic chemistry and medicinal chemistry.
Educating professionals and students about the chemistry, formulation technology, and related regulatory aspects of cosmetics and perfume Cosmetics and perfume comprise a multibillion-dollar global industry. Kirk-Othmer Chemical Technology of Cosmetics provides authoritative information on the substances and processes involved, including key product groups, ingredients, formulation technology, packaging, and regulatory topics in twenty-two articles. This resource makes sense of a vast group of consumer products designed to improve the health, cleanliness, and physical appearance of the human exterior. It identifies natural and synthetic ingredients and gives details on formulation of the product so that the cosmetic is safe, easy to use, and performs as described. Particular attention is paid to the technologies that have been developed to produce them, including emulsification, stick technology, powder blending, and aerosol technology. Packaging is also addressed, as it must be attractive to the consumer, be environmentally friendly, and keep the product safe as well. Regulatory information reinforces the safety aspect. Based on Wiley's renowned Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, this book presents new and carefully updated articles, and features the same breadth and quality of coverage and clarity of presentation found in the original. This comprehensive guide is a valuable resource for chemists, R&D professionals, dermatologists, patent attorneys, regulatory agencies, and other professionals in the field of personal care products. It is also a must-have reference for students who plan to enter the field.
Mathematical Methods for Physical and Analytical Chemistry presents mathematical and statistical methods to students of chemistry at the intermediate, post-calculus level. The content includes a review of general calculus; a review of numerical techniques often omitted from calculus courses, such as cubic splines and Newton’s method; a detailed treatment of statistical methods for experimental data analysis; complex numbers; extrapolation; linear algebra; and differential equations. With numerous example problems and helpful anecdotes, this text gives chemistry students the mathematical knowledge they need to understand the analytical and physical chemistry professional literature.
Mimicking natural biochemical processes, click chemistry is a modular approach to organic synthesis, joining together small chemical units quickly, efficiently and predictably. In contrast to complex traditional synthesis, click reactions offer high selectivity and yields, near-perfect reliability and exceptional tolerance towards a wide range of functional groups and reaction conditions. These ‘spring loaded’ reactions are achieved by using a high thermodynamic driving force, and are attracting tremendous attention throughout the chemical community. Originally introduced with the focus on drug discovery, the concept has been successfully applied to materials science, polymer chemistry and biotechnology. The first book to consider this topic, Click Chemistry for Biotechnology and Materials Science examines the fundamentals of click chemistry, its application to the precise design and synthesis of macromolecules, and its numerous applications in materials science and biotechnology. The book surveys the current research, discusses emerging trends and future applications, and provides an important nucleation point for research. Edited by one of the top 100 young innovators with the greatest potential to have an impact on technology in the 21st century according to Technology Review and with contributions from pioneers in the field, Click Chemistry for Biotechnology and Materials Science provides an ideal reference for anyone wanting to learn more about click reactions.
Steroid dimers are an important group of compounds produced by various marine organisms, and also synthesized in the laboratories. This group of compounds possesses various pharmacological and biological properties, and can also be used to create “molecular umbrellas” for drug delivery. Steroid Dimers: Chemistry and Applications in Drug Design and Delivery provides an up-to-date overview on the chemistry and applications of steroid dimers of natural and synthetic origins. The book includes easy-to-follow synthetic protocols for various classes of important dimeric steroids, source details, valuable spectroscopic data and depiction of unique structural features of natural steroidal dimers, and the Structure-Activity-Relationships (SARs) of some pharmacologically active dimeric steroids. Topics covered include: introduction to steroid dimers synthesis and chemistry of noncyclic and cyclic steroid dimers naturally occurring steroid dimers – cephalostatins, ritterazines and crellastatins biological and pharmacological functions of steroid dimers and their application in drug design and discovery steroid dimers as “molecular umbrellas” for drug delivery Steroid Dimers: Chemistry and Applications in Drug Design and Delivery is an essential guide to this important class of natural and synthetic compounds for researchers and students of natural products chemistry and biochemistry, synthetic organic and medicinal chemistry, and drug design, discovery and delivery.
Physical Inorganic Chemistry contains the fundamentals of physical inorganic chemistry, including information on reaction types, and treatments of reaction mechanisms. Additionally, the text explores complex reactions and processes in terms of energy, environment, and health. This valuable resource closely examines mechanisms, an under-discussed topic. Divided into two sections, researchers, professors, and students will find the wide range of topics, including the most cutting edge topics in chemistry, like the future of solar energy, catalysis, environmental issues, climate changes atmosphere, and human health, essential to understanding chemistry.