Niosomes are efficient carriers for controlled drug delivery, to entrap hydrophilic drugs in the larger interior aqueous layer, whereas, lipophilic drugs in the outer lipid bilayer. Since, the niosomes are biodegradable and non toxic and hence, a good carrier for targeting of therapeutic agents at the site of interest with reduced systemic toxicity. Ketoprofen, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, is used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, degenerative joint conditions and musculoskeletal disorders, involving long term therapy. Ketoprofen has various side effects like gastritis, peptic ulcer and bleeding, along with short biological half life (0.5-2 hrs) which calls for frequent administration. Thus, a novel and controlled drug delivey system need to be developed in order to increase its therapeutic effects with reduced side effects.
Ocular drug delivery is one of the most enthralling as well as challenging field. The delicacies as well as complex anatomical structure of eye posses various limitations and restrictions in development of drug delivery systems for this organ. An effective formulation with minimum discomfort and toxicity is the pre-requisite for ocular drug delivery. The problem of ocular drainage and hence frequent dosing compromises both, effectiveness and comfort for ocular drug delivery systems. A novel nanotechnology tool using the concept of bio-adhesion was purposed for addressing this problem. The results are encouraging in light of the purpose for longer retained sustain effect niosomal vesicles in the present work. The formulation was also associated with the capabilities of low ocular toxicity and deeper penetration.
In the recent years considerable attention has been focused on the development of new drug delivery systems. Recently, several new techniques for drug delivery are made which are capable of controlling the rate of drug delivery, sustaining the duration of therapeutic activity or targeting the delivery of the drug to a tissue. A basic concept in ophthalmic research and development is that the therapeutic efficacy of an ophthalmic drug can be greatly improved by prolonging its contact with the corneal surface. Ocular drugs and delivery systems are currently undergoing a process of design optimization due to inherent physiological and anatomical constraint of the eye leading to limited absorption of topically applied drugs. Eye being a most delicate organ, ocular drug delivery is a challenge for the formulator. Novel trend in ocular research is to formulate a dosage form which not only prolongs the residence of system in eye but also helps to reduce the elimination of the drug and side effects. This book describes design, development and evaluation of such novel vesicular system for sustained ocular delivery of antiglaucoma drug.
Professional design and development of an optimized and functional Mechatronic system, needs a multi step design process, including problem definition, benchmarking, conceptual and detailed design of mechanical system, motion and structural analysis, conceptual and detailed design of electronic architecture, development, assembly, calibration, test, and modifications. In this book, the author describes all of these steps for development of an industrial pole climbing robot for inspection of piping in oil, gas and petrochemical plants. Several conceptual designs are proposed, and according to the designed benchmark, the best concept for the goals of the project is introduced. Afterwards all steps of a systematic design of a Mechatronic system is described in detail. In addition to researchers who work on mobile robots, this book can be used as an example for students who wants to learn systematic design of Mechatronic systems.
Successful development of transdermal drug delivery involves a series of steps like drug candidate potential to be delivered across skin, selection of suitable polymers, development and in-vitro in-vivo performance. These issues become more critical while developing a transdermal drug delivery of combination of drugs. This book Transdermal Drug Delivery of Candesartan and Hydrochlorothiazide,Preformulation, Formulation considerations and Development explains these developmental aspects of transdermal drug delivery with thorough discussion and methodology involved in selection of potential drug candidates, selection of polymers, preformulation parameters, formulation considerations, skillfull development and in-vitro in-vivo performace evaluation of developed system. The book is thus a suitable guideline for graduate and postgraduate students and researchers in the field of transdermal drug delivery.
Novel drug delivery systems (NDDS) have recently gained importance for delivering a variety of therapeutic agents for both local and systemic administration. Delivery of drugs directly to targeted sites of action provides several advantages over non-specific delivery of drugs. Oral colon targeted drug delivery system is one of that NDDS which directly deliver a drug in to the colon for local treatment of a variety of colonic diseases as well as systemic absorption of proteins and peptides. The Metronidazole is the drug of choice in the treatment of the diseases like Amoebiasis, Giardiasis, Trichomonosis and Bacterial Vaginosis. The aim of the present research was to design, development and optimization of swellable rupturable system taking account of local action of the Metronidazole drug in the lower gastrointestinal tract to kill the bacteria in the disease conditions like Amoebiasis, Giardiasis and Trichomonosis.
This book briefly overviews progress on development of MEMS based microfluidic devices such as micropumps, microneedles, micromixers and micro flow cytometers for biomedical applications. Design, analysis and fabrication of MEMS based piezoelectrically actuated polymeric valveless micropumps is also presented. The book provides a valuable reference for researchers working on design and development of MEMS-based microfluidic devices for biomedical applications.
A thorough treatment of product and systems development in terms of value to all stakeholders Product and Systems Development compiles more than twenty years of research and practice from a value perspective, from vision and marketing to design, manufacturing, delivery, operations, and maintenance. It defines stakeholder value and identifies specific stakeholders in the product and system development process; covers best practices in development; and examines systems engineering, current industry views, and the life cycle of a value stream. Featuring appendices written by professionals in the field on topics such as Design Structure Matrices, Lean Enablers for systems engineering, and MDAO and simulations, this indispensable guide: Explains why stakeholders' values can hold the key to fulfillment or defeat of the developer's vision Emphasizes the succession of value-contributing practices and tools that form a framework for development success Integrates the technical, productivity, and customer/end-user elements in product and system development Uses more than 100 tables and figures to illustrate the above processes, as well as corollary elements of risk, failure analysis, and fault-tolerant design Includes numerous case studies and links to online material Product and Systems Development is an excellent coursebook for senior and graduate students in aerospace, mechanical, civil, electrical, and material engineering, as well as management science and engineering. It is also a useful reference for practicing engineers in a variety of technology-based industries.
This work details with the design and development of fuzzy modelling for multi variable process in distillation column. Salient Features •Fuzzy modelling of distillation column using Takagi – Sugeno model. •Design a fuzzy model predictive control (FMPC) for multi variable control of distillation column •Optimization of the system with different optimization algorithms •Comparison of the results of distillation column controlled with conventional PI controller, Model Predictive Control and FMPC. •Development of neural network model for distillation column •Design of Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Interference System (ANFIS) for distillation column and to control the parameters. •Comparison of the results of this system controlled with conventional PI controller, Model Predictive Control and ANFIS
Oral drug delivery has been known for decades the most widely utilized route for administration among all the route that have been explored for systemic delivery of drugs via various pharmaceutical products of different dosage forms. The reasons that the oral route has achieved such popularity may be in part attributed to its ease of administration as well as the traditional belief that by oral administration the drug is well absorbed as the food stuffs that are ingested daily. In fact, the development of a pharmaceutical product for oral delivery, irrespective of its physical form involves varying extents of optimization of dosage form characteristics within the inherent constraints of GI physiology. Therefore, a fundamental understanding of various disciplines, including GI physiology, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and formulation design are essential to achieve a systemic approach to successful development of an oral pharmaceutical dosage form. The more sophisticated a delivery system, the greater is the complexity of these various disciplines involved in the design and optimization of the system. In any case, the scientific framework required for the successful development.
The traditional design-bid-build system of procurement adopted in the third world countries to procure infrastructural projects has derailing cost and schedule overrun issues resulting from challenges of scope creep and project financing. Since infrastructure development requires huge capital investment, the government of Ghana is constrained with limited financial, technological, and other requisite resources hence creating a huge infrastructural deficit, affecting the economic growth. To this end, this book discusses the concept of the PPP and its application to infrastructure delivery, the trend in the development of the road network in Ghana for the past decade, identifying and ranking the key factors that affect the delivery of infrastructure projects in Ghana and recommend modalities to close the gap in the road infrastructure delivery
Drug delivery through skin is an alternative route of drug delivery that is getting a fresh impetus from constantly evolving techniques for penetration enhancement and various techniques for drug development. It promises better and sustained absorption bypassing side effects and extensive metabolism encountered in conventional drug delivery techniques. A vast array of compounds and physical techniques are being used for penetration enhancement with a condition of reversible and unidirectional enhancement of penetration to ensure therapeutic and safety aspects. This work reviews the current state of permeation enhancement techniques, pros and cons of each technique and summarizes the potential offered by transdermal drug delivery system in the current era of biotechnological products.
Building on the international success of their previous two titles, "Aircraft Systems and Civil Avionics Systems", Ian Moir and Allan Seabridge have provided a straightforward introduction to how aircraft systems are designed and evolved, encompassing the 'systems' approach. The design and development process has been given prominence. The reader can thereby become familiar with the means by which the systems of a complex aircraft emerge from a customer requirement and become reality as individual systems, as an integrated system, and as a complete fit-for-purpose aircraft product. For many engineers, the design and development activity takes place at a single domain level - the fuel system, the hydraulic system, flight control system, etc. Increasingly, there is a need to consider integration issues, the bigger 'picture': for example, the engineer designing the display system will need to consider the whole weapons system. Concentrating on the product life cycle, the design and development process, and the skills required to develop a product as complex as an aircraft, Design and "Development of Aircraft Systems" is a book for people who want to understand how industry develops a fully integrated, tested, and qualified product that is safe to fly and fit for purpose. Superb companion volume to authors' previous titles, providing a bridge to the systems engineering process Welcome addition to the highly successful Aerospace Series Experienced and highly regarded authors Acces...
This work reviews and analyses design options used to assess the feasibility of a Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) to supply heating to twelve flats. Incentives for communal heating and renewable energy are examined, as are grants and schemes provided to assist uptake of GSHP systems. Four elements of GSHP system design are evaluated: heating load, pump size, borehole array and heat delivery system. The aim is to determine optimal design by minimising energy demand, land use, material use and project costs, whilst maximising system efficiency. Peak Load calculations and various borehole options are analysed using software simulations. Energy demand is evaluated for pumps and heating delivery systems using calculated methods, and literature review. Minimising materials and equipment, whilst maximising system efficiency is analysed by comparing design options.
This Monograph is an attempt to explore the transition of current methods for design influence to design synthesis, of primary and enabling systems during system design to achieve improved operational effectiveness of fielded systems. Challenged is the notion of primary and enabling systems as separate, in achieving operational effectiveness, while embracing the development and governance of both, as separate systems. Achievement of Operational Effectiveness is to be accomplished through development of a System of Systems (SOS) model of primary and enabling systems called Meta logistics. The Meta logistics model emerges from an attempt to expand the "system boundary" or System of Interest (SOI); in order to frame, elucidate and analyze the causal relationships which are relevant to system design effectiveness, through shared contribution of primary and enabling systems, and in the process create a more robust trade space; by robust what is meant is more complete.