Discharge coefficient is usually dependent on dimensionless parameters such as Reynold’s number and Weber number associated with dynamic conditions of flow over the structure, and ratios of weir, notch and flume dimensions which reflect variations in the geometrical design of the measuring structures. The data are presented to provide engineers with a means of estimating discharge coefficients for rectangular weirs whether they are flat-topped or sharp-crested. The information contained herein will provide a description of the testing apparatus and the manner in which the discharge coefficients should be used. As part of the research conducted, discharge coefficient scale effects for weir, much data was collected for various flat-topped and sharp-crested weirs & the values for height/width are determined with the help of various methods. These are varied according to the dimension of the weirs & resulted into the small, intermittent and large ones. The material from which the structures are fabricated are obtained cheaply available in the market & the methods which are applied for cutting the structures in specific dimensions are done very easily, such as Gas-cutter method.
Self-organization can be envisioned as a process of formation of recognizable patterns upon the injection of energy into and the efficient expulsion of energy from a given physical system. A Z-pinch is an electric discharge between two terminals within a given gas environment, providing the context for the possible formation of geometrical structures of the ionized gas with free electrons: a plasma. These plasma structures may last longer in time due to the efficient expulsion of entropy, and the higher gain in energy. Sustained existence of a z-pinch plasma may serve for the purposes of generation of high-rate, high-density neutron fluxes, which in turn may be used for neutron imaging, material studies and material treatment, like sputtering, among other possible uses. In this work it has been shown evidence for the correlation between the highest input of energy and the highest output of entropy, with the spontaneous formation of plasma structures.
The work would be useful for specialists in the field of ellipsometry and engineers engaged in the task of measuring the rough surface and of determination of properties of inhomogeneous structures or films, such as: polymorphous oxides of titanium or vanadium, silicon nitride after oxidation, growth defects of MBE film. The work would be useful for all who wish to improve the quality of desired parameter estimation; provided that experimenter uses the new algorithm of minimization procedure with statistical analysis of a set of found solutions and step-by-step variation of the simplex boundaries which restrict the domain of desired values.
The nanostructures of transition metal oxides have gained considerable attention for energy storage devices as they can deliver high levels of electrical power and offer long operating lifetimes, but their specific capacitance is too low for many important applications. The poor conductivity of metal oxides limits the charge/discharge rate for high energy/power densities and the specific capacitance severely decreases under high current. In this book we proposed a simple and an efficient method to improve the conductivity of metal oxide nanowires based electrodes by interweaving nanowires with MWCNTs to form hybrid energy storage devices which allow fast electron transport, fast ion diffusion and high-energy storage densities. In addition MWCNTs can accommodate large strain without pulverization, provide good electronic contact and conduction, display short ions insertion distances and make them promising candidates as electrodes in high-performance energy storage devices.
Scour was the removal of material from the bed and banks of a channel by the action of water ,structures built in channels were exposed to scour.The factors of safety of the these structures against undermining and piping could be decreased as a result of the scour downstream of them So, considerable sums of money could be expended to repair the damage caused by the local scour.The study of this phenomenon constituted an important field of research due to its frequent occurrence in engineering application. The objective of this research was to investigate the influence of using openings in weirs on scour hole parameters downstream of these structures as most of the past studies concentrated on discharge coefficient of combined flow, little information available on scour downstream of this flow. It was found that, most suggested opening arrangements reduced the maximum scour depth and length and tended to move position of the maximum scour depth closer to the floor and this might be good from scour risk point of view.It was apparent that, the increase in tail Froude number led to increase in scour parameters (depth, length) and move location of maximum scour depth away from floor
Silver: Public Employee Discharge & Disipline 1993 Cumulative Supplement (pr Only)
Public Employee Discharge & Disipline 2e 3 V Set 1997 Cumulative Supplement 2