This book presents the most comprehensive model yet for describing the structure and functioning of running freshwater ecosystems. This "riverine ecosystem synthesis" (RES) is a result of combining several theories published in recent decades, dealing with aquatic and terrestrial systems. New analyses are fused with a variety of new perspectives on how river network ecosystems are structured and function, and how they change along longitudinal, lateral, and temporal dimensions. Among these novel perspectives is a dramatically new view of the role of hydrogeomorphic forces in forming functional process zones from headwaters to the mouths of great rivers.Designed as a useful tool for aquatic scientists worldwide whether they work on small streams or great rivers and in forested or semi-arid regions, this book will provide a means for scientists to understand the fundamental and applied aspects of rivers in general and includes a practical guide and protocols for analyzing individual rivers. This combination of theoretical and applied analysis is quite unique in running freshwater ecology. Specific examples of rivers in at least four continents (Africa, Australia, Europe and North America) serve to illustrate the power and utility of the RES concept. Develops the classic, seminal article in River Research and Applications, "A Model of Biocomplexity in River Networks Across Space and Time" which introduced the RES concept for the first time Provides a guide to the practical analysis of individual rivers using the Riverine Ecosystems Synthesis and extends its use from pristine ecosystems to modern, human-modified rivers. An essential aid both to the study fundamental and applied aspects of rivers, such as rehabilitation, management, monitoring, assessment, and flow manipulation of river networks.
Ecology is now worldwide favorite subject for students as well as for teachers also. Now a days we are facing a serious problem of degrading our ecosystem,biodiversity loss due to pollution and completion of the natural sources or disturbance of the natural cycles for the replenishment of the natural resources in the ecosystem that's why we need to know about the ecosystem, its working , its replenishment, and its maintenance we can do it by using it in proper way and to tell our students to use it in adequate and limited way.By knowing all these things we can easily maintain our ecosystem and can save our earth.I am thankful to LAP for its immense and big support.Thanks for encouraging.
This book provides a basic and essential introduction to ecology. It was prepared and designed to enable students of applied biology and other related disciplines to gain enough knowledge of the main branches of ecology and the relationships between them. It is also important to those professionals and researchers carrying out field works and studies requiring the knowledge of ecosystem and its various factors. An introduction to this book gives basic ecological definitions which are often mistakenly considered to be known and which are important for an adequate understanding of ecology. Emphasis is given to clarity and readability to make easier the understanding of the following core concepts of ecology: practical ecology, biosphere, wildlife, ecosystem, trophic levels, biochemical cycles, population, community and interactions between organisms.
This Work is based on a PhD thesis completed in the field of Ecology, Protected Areas, and Biodiversity conservation in Egypt. The present study described the main vegetation community for one of the most important protected areas of Egypt, Wadi El-Rayan, which dominated by Phragmites australis and figured out the seasonal productivity represented in phytomass (kg aerial dry weight/m2) of wetland vegetation. Statistical Multivariate Analysis was introduced for the waterward vegetation (WW) and landward vegetation (LW) of the wetland areas, which clarified the different levels of productivity for each. The Single effect of fire and the combined effect of both fire and grazing in the study area were realized in terms of the rate of phytomass accumulation. The environmental management section of this study listed the main values of Wadi El-Rayan Protected Area and their affecting threats according to the latest management effectiveness evaluation with proposed amendments to WRPA management plan.
Tropical forests are well known for their rich biodiversity, contribution to global carbon stock and various ecosystem services they render to humanity and to wildlife. There are 16 major forest types in India ranging from dry tropical scrubs to montane wet temperate forest. Among them the tropical dry evergreen forest (TDEF) on the Coromandel Coast of India constitute one of the under-studied forest types. Yet various sites of TDEF have been subjected to different levels of anthropogenic disturbances ranging from pristine, relatively undisturbed to highly disturbed. This book is an attempt to fill up scientific gap in our knowledge on the biodiversity and ecology of this unique forest type, pooling our hardcore research data generated over 25 years on biodiversity and functional ecology aimed towards conservation of forests and valuable bio-resources they offer. In twenty chapters, this book covers a wide range of topics that include plant and animal diversity and their complex interactions, ecosystem services offered, including economic good services for human welfare. It concludes on the conservation need and future of this forest type under the changing environmental scenario.
Burrowing sesarmid crab (family: Grapsidae) and fiddler crabs (family: Ocypodidae) are among the most abundant macrofauna inhabiting the tropical and sub-tropical mangrove forests. They construct and maintain burrow structures in mangrove sediments with a significant engineering effect on their habitats and associated organisms. Based on current literature on the biology and ecology of these crabs, there is growing evidence that their activities have considerable impact on ecosystem functioning. The present study revealed that burrowing grapsid (Helice formosensis and Perisesarma bidens) and fiddler (Uca vocans) crabs are active ecosystem engineers which affect biochemical activities in different ways. Through burrow construction and maintenance, feeding and production of faeces, they alter sediment physicochemical properties, lipids and fatty acid distributions, organic matter quality and quantities and production of subtropical mangrove forests.
The present effort was undertaken to set up an innovative trend of monitoring of the human-nature interaction and its effect on the natural system to set up the openings of the future study on this tract at this area. In this context, a detailed study on the Saurashtra coast line, one of the biggest one in India desired a detailed monitoring to work out the present status of the ecosystem, the threats mounting and impending, natural resistance and adaptation in response to the pressure and a possible negotiation to the neutralize the harsh condition to offer a better tomorrow. The present report deals with the biodiversity and man-made pressure on the coastal health as well wealth of the rocky intertidal macrofauna in four different stations along the Saurashtra coastline. With a view to assess the status of the intertidal macrofauna, the physico-chemical characteristic of the coast and the interaction between the fauna and anthropogenic activities were investigated. The Western coastal belt of India, is considerably being exploited heavily by various kinds of Industries. This study revealed how this is affecting the ecosystem of this area.
Systemic diseases, such as cancer, require thorough understanding not only of the properties that malignant cells have acquired through mutations but also the effects of the activity of these cells on the dynamic microenvironment of the host’s tissue. From this perspective, one can think of tumor cells as being hosted by tumor endothelial cells within the larger “ecosystem” of the human body. And just like in other ecosystems, the survival of tumor cells depends both on the state of the entire ecosystem and on the state of their immediate host. The focus of this research lies in using conceptual, biologically grounded mathematical models to applying the insights obtained from extensive studies of other ecosystems to the new information continuously being reported in the field of cancer biology. The goal of this work is to structure and advance the theoretical understanding of cancer as an evolving ecological system.
Insects are the largest group among animals and plants.India is a land of wide range of ecological, climatic and vertical distribution of insect fauna.In the elevated, colder and forested areas of the country, Insect fauna is much varied, coulorful and plenty. Over 60,000 thousand species of insects are recorded from India. This project is an effort to record data on forest ecosystem and to prepare current insect inventory for the study area. It also gives distribution and composition of the insect species in terms of community structure and diversity. This book presents the concepts, themes and ideas on biogeography, community ecology, taxic diversity, guild structure, richness and abundance and biotic interference. It depicts importance of insect diversity for conservation and management projects for sustainable use of the natural resources. This book will help the conservation biologist, economist, biodiversity managers and professionals for strategic planning of the biodiversity projects.
Chemical ecology in forest insect plant interactions depicts the intrinsic behaviour of infochemicals/botanicals which explicit the signals toward insect pests, diseases, hosts behaviour. The book is also highlighting the emerging trends of chemical ecology as a multidisciplinary field among the biologists and the role of plant secondary metabolites on insect, induce resistance in host plant as well as the invaders. Plant volatile is the one area where the behavioural diversity of natural enemies and tritrophic interactions among the host – insect – parasite interactions has been discussed. This volume is also focusing the biochemical prospecting of phytochemicals associated with forest resources with reference to anti-infective activity, chemical diversity in diverse ecosystem.
The present study was undertaken to gather baseline information on the ecology and behavior of Indian peafowl in an agro-ecosystem. The data were collected on the following aspects: habitat utilization pattern, vocalization and courtship behavior and food and feeding habits.The study was conducted in the outskirts of Aligarh town (27° 30' N, 79° 40'E).Four distinct types of habitat could be distinguished on the basis of differences in the vegetation.The habitats were preferred in the following order: scrub>open barren land> crop fields>plantation.Among the roosting trees, Albizzia lebbeck and Dalbergia sissoo were the preferred tree species. Vocalization pattern showed seasonal variation and the variation seems to be related to breeding activity. They preffered to eat the following wild herbs :Dichanthium annulatum, Pluchea lanceolata, Achyranthes aspera and Panicum antidotale. The limiting factor for the population under study was probably the availability of nesting cover.
The Humbo Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) project is the only project in Ethiopia, amongst multiple burning issues the government is facing in climate change mitigation processes, using Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) for forest regeneration. However its success depends on inclusion and exclusion norms, participation of the local households in forest management, fair sharing of benefits and costs, status of institutional setup and intuition of property rights. Therefore, regular participants gain more share than irregular participants and, distribution and sharing of benefits and costs are not perfectly equitable. In addition to that levels of participation negatively determined by gender, agro-ecology, level of annual net benefit share, distance to forest site, unwillingness to invest the fund on public goods and other source of income while attending on meeting and literacy level increased participation thereby increasing annual earrings of local households. Furthermore, the highest benefit shares from forest regeneration using CDM of PES goes to the rich households and the poor earn less for their fair share of labor.
This interdisciplinary work* utilizes techniques developed in artificial intelligence to characterize observations made in ecosystem ecology. Ecosystem datasets are typically highly complex and noisy. The aim was to identify the underlying causalities directly from the data, i.e. without prior assumptions about the functional relationships. The new methodology, based on artificial neural networks, is demonstrated for eddy covariance measurements of carbon fluxes above a German beech forest. The suite of ecophysiological applications encompasses: 1) characterizing ecosystem responses to climatic drivers, 2) testing specific hypotheses, 3) assessing competing semi-empirical equations, 4) evaluating ecosystem models, and 5) as a by-product, interpolating missing data. The results highlight the benefit of this methodology to provide a new link between ecosystem observations and their semi-empirical representations in the modeling world. This, in turn, may help in predicting the effects of changing climatic conditions on the terrestrial biosphere. *Awarded the 2012 prize for the best doctoral thesis in Mathematics and Computer Science at the Friedrich Schiller University, Jena.
The chenchus a Primitive Tribal Group , a organically in inhabiting the Nallamalla Forest of Andhra Pradesh in southern part of India. The life of the Chenchus are food-gatherers and habituated in different ecological settings to explore the subsistence, Chenchu way of life has undergone several changes in accordance with the availability and utilization of resources that is not uniform across Region. To understand and make an effort to his best to investigate all the possibilities to record the past and present of the Chenchu’s. occupational mobility and pattern,how the economic system of the chenchus in each environmental zone like: Interior, Fringe and Plain areas interferes with the natural and physical environment setting of Nallamalai Forests.The efficiency of their ethno ecological knowledge in presearve and up keeping their ecosystem knowledge in preserving The factors which disturb the subsistence pattern of living in different ecological settings have been observed and discussed to answer several queries in contemporary emerging techno-economic functions. The book is unique in Anthropological domain and anticipated as reference to the future Anthropologists
Spiders are potential predators of insects feeding on rice and help in maintaining their population under check. Before this study, no work was carried out about the systematic and diversity of spiders in rice land ecosystem in Northeastern Uttar Pradesh (NEUP). The survey conducted in four district of Gorakhpur Division, viz. Kushinagar, Maharajganj, Gorakhpur and Deoria reveales the presence of 58 species of spiders under 28 genera in 10 families. The book incorporates detail illustrative account, morphological descriptions and morphometry of each spider species with necessary keys for their identification; provides information on their distributional patterns derived from rice-fields located at different places in NEUP; and also deals with their population guilds (e.g., orb weabers, ground runners, stalkers, foliage runners, and ambusers). We hope this book will be helpful as a base for future investigations in the field of systematics and ecology of rice-land spiders in other parts of the world. It will also prove a useful addition to the libraries and to the large section of researchers interested in biosystematics and ecology of spiders, and plant protection.