The book describes effects of air pollutants on some plants studied at four residential and seven commercial locations. The effect of four air pollutants namely SPM, RSPM, SOx and NOx were ascertained on Azadirachta indica, Cassia fistula, Ficus religiosa, Delonix regia and Polyalthia longifolia plants growing on road sides at 11 selected locations with a control (non-polluted) site. Variation in concentrations of these pollutants in relation to years, seasons and locations is explained with appropriate statistical treatment. Effect of air pollutants on plants have been given in terms of changes in leaf characters of different plant species as compared to reference site. The publication contains computation of Air Pollution Tolerance Index and its use in identification of relative tolerance of plant species. Best Subsets Linear Regression technique was used to identify the major pollutants influencing various leaf characters in different species and develop a model to predict the effect of air pollutants on plants. In the light of findings appropriate mitigation measures have been suggested.
Researchers working on air pollutants and their effect on plants will find this book interesting. Among various air pollutants this book focuses on ozone. Ozone (O3) is one of the most serious phytotoxic air pollutants. Current impacts of the oxidant air pollutant, ozone (O3), on vegetation are substantial, essentially global and increasing with rising population and industrialization. Most of the studies on the effect of ozone are confined to agricultural crop plants, fiber crops and gymnosperms. Studies on medicinal plants, an important group of economically important plants, which play a major role in health care system, are lacking. With growing industrialization and fossil fuel consumption ground level ozone concentration are likely to increase in future but it is not known how the medicinal plants are going to respond to this inevitable factor. This study was taken up with the purpose of studying the response of some important local medicinal plants against ozone stress.
This book discuss the effect of some known hemolytic/oxidant agents on uremic patient's RBCs in vitro, and the effect of some known medicinal plants on reduction of hemolysis (in vitro) and in decreasing of blood urea levels in vivo. Also made a comparison between normal TAC (total antioxidant capacity) and uremic patients Total antioxidant capacity of both (newly diagnosed & patients under dialysis).
Man has been tampering with his environment right from his earliest dawn on this earth. But only in the twentieth century, have the mounting pressures of population and technology raised the question of man’s very survival. Most of the human activities generate pollution of one or other types and of different magnitudes, to which all the organisms are exposed. Green belts are thought to be effective in such scenarios, where green plants form a surface capable of absorbing pollutants and forming sinks for pollutants. Leaves with their vast area in a tree crown, absorbs pollutants on their surface, thus effectively reduce their concentrations in the ambient air. Scattering a few known sensitive plants, (including selectively sensitive species) within a green belt however, do carry out an important function of indicating the presence of pollutants, which the tolerants would not indicate.
This book gives detailed idea of effect of air pollution on roadside plants in major cities of India, a case study being Pune city. In this work plant morphological, anatomical, physiological and biochemical response of naturally growing roadside plants viz., Polyalthia longifolia, Ficus benjamina and Mangifera indica were investigated. Along with this, special stress was given on plant anatomical changes.
Water is required for domestic, industrial, agricultural and fishery production for each purpose analytical study of water is essential because impure water cannot be used for domestic, industrial, agricultural and fishery purposes. Identification of air pollution sources and characteristics of the pollutants are essential factors on air quality control, particularly on determining mitigation or prevention actions. Moreover these factors are important on predicting effect and trajectory of the pollutants on the environment so that an appropriate approach can be done. Mainly air pollutants are particulate matter, SOx, NOx, CO, VOCs, and lead. Developed countries contribute more on emission of CO2, SOx, and NOx compare to developing countries, which emit more CO, hydrocarbon, and particulate matter. This is attributed to gap in pollution reduction technology, wherein developing countries have not reached optimization in combustion process.
Growing demands of comfortable life style has caused rapid industrialization resulting in increased industrial waste containing heavy metals. Heavy metals in higher concentration in the environment pose a serious threat to human health, animals and plants. This book is evaluation of the adverse effects of chromium and cobalt on some selected higher plants and effect of chromium on radial growth of lower plants (fungi).
Countries around the world are experiencing increased levels of air pollution as a result of rapid increase in energy consumption and motor vehicle uses, a product of rapid population and economic growth. Agricultural lands adjacent to urban areas (peri- urban) are increasingly exposed to air pollutants of urban origin, which reduce the crop production. Crop production is highly dependent on environmental conditions, among which air quality is an anthropogenic factor. The air quality of the study site is under threat because concentrations of NO2, SO2 and O3 increased in successive years of observation. Air pollutant concentration present in air has enough potential to cause damage to agricultural crops (both cereal and pulse crops). An increment in fertilizer dose, one and half times of recommended was most suitable to overcome the damage caused due to air pollutants as it significantly increased photosynthetic pigment, plant height, biomass accumulation and yield of both the crop plants and significantly reduced peroxidase activity and phenol content. On individual nutrient basis nitrogen was most responsive to minimize negative effects of air pollutants.
The universal use of herbicides in agriculture creates a necessary to study the effect of these chemicals on non-target organisms such as algae, which are sensitive to herbicides where they share with higher plants many common characters. So this book aimed at studying the effect of two herbicides glyphosate and clodinafop-propargyl which are currently used in Egypt on soil algae, as well as, to study the effect of these herbicides on the growth and some metabolic activities of some algae such as Scenedesmus quadricauda (Chlorophyta) and Merismopedia glauca (Cyanophyta) which isolated from the soil.
Among cereal crops wheat is a major food and important commodity of the world grain market.In India it is second important food crop.Since air pollution is a relatively new factor in agriculture, its impact including on diseases caused by various biotic pathogens needs to be thoroughly examined. This book is a step to find out relationship between two groups of pathogens: Anguina tritici (biotic) and air pollutants i.e. SO2, acid rain, fly ash (abiotic) on a common host (wheat). The host-parasite relationships of both pathogens were different. The expected impacts of both pathogens separately in artificial treatments on wheat were direct.Three type of interaction may exist between these air pollutants and A. tritici in a common pathosystem, synergistic, antagonistic and neutral relationship.However, combined impacts were different. Both the pathogens interacted antagonistically, whenever they combined together irrespective of pre, post and concomitant inoculations. That’s why according to antagonistic interaction formula, the combined effects of both pathogens (P1 and P2) were always found less than the sum of their individual effects (effect P1 P2 < effect P1 + effect P2).
Road transport is one of the significant sources of air pollution, affecting local air quality in cities. The study explains the diurnal variations of different type of pollutants at two sites (city centre and Tinsley industrial site) of Sheffield city. And also the study identifies the degree of incidence of surface based inversions on the concentrations of pollutants. Photochemical origins of pollutants were seasonally analysed. Further, the study brings out the possible implications from vehicular air pollutants on local environment and human health effects. It was revealed that an urban air pollutant has exceeded the limit of proposed Ambient UK Air Quality Standard. The study recommends to the local authorities to use economic pricing and taxation, local transport plan targets & solutions approach and land use & transport integration management tools to reduce transport pollution of Sheffield city.
Diabetes mellitus, a group of metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia, is treated mainly with synthetic drugs which exert serious side effects when taken for a long time. These days dietary measures and traditional herbal therapy such as herbal preparations / agents are used as the preferred antidiabetic agents. Four plants, Cassia alata, Artocarpus heterophyllus,, Costus pictus and Bauhinia purpurea Linn.and 3 combinations of plants are studied for their efficacy in antihyperglycemic activity of the extracts in diabetic rats, hypoglycemic activity, effect of the extracts on enzymatic antioxidants and non-enzymatic antioxidants and lipid peroxidation, carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes, effect to retrieve the renal toxicity caused due to diabetes and antihyperlipidaemic effect. In addition, studies on the phytoconstituents and pharmacognostic characters of the first four plants are conducted.
The book depicts the effect of biopesticides on Panama disease in Banana. Chemical fungicides have assisted in controlling the disease, maintaining availability of low cost food throughout the year. However, there are some serious health hazards associated with the use of chemicals, which include on-farm ingestion by co-worker, discharge of toxic chemicals into air and water and consumption of food containing chemical residues. Therefore an alternative ecofrendily approach became an emergent need. On account of elicitation, in vitro plants become resistant to the pathogens. So the better quality plants are produced and further observing these plants we can also study the long term effects like number and quality of fruit produced in such elicitor treated plants.
Toxic air pollutants, also known as hazardous air pollutants, are those pollutants that are known or suspected to cause cancer or other serious health effects, such as reproductive effects or birth defects, or adverse environmental effects. EPA is working with state, local, and tribal governments to reduce air toxics releases of 188 pollutants to the environment. People exposed to toxic air pollutants at sufficient concentrations and durations may have an increased chance of getting cancer or experiencing other serious health effects. These health effects can include damage to the immune system, as well as neurological, reproductive (e.g., reduced fertility), developmental, respiratory and other health problems. In addition to exposure from breathing air toxics, some toxic air pollutants such as mercury can deposit onto soils or surface waters, where they are taken up by plants and ingested by animals and are eventually magnified up through the food chain. Like humans, animals may experience health problems if exposed to sufficient quantities of air toxics over time.
There are many large and small garments or textile industries are located in ASHULIA Thana, which discharge a large amount of pollutants in surrounding area by their operation. Because, absence of treatment plant in these industries, the environment component such as water, air, soil etc. are adversely polluted by industrial pollutants. Human health of this area is suffered from various diseases due to the industrial pollution. These are several conflicting views on the effect of the pollution of textile industry on human health. This study is an attempt to examine systematically the nature and characteristics of the effects of those pollutants on human health and environment. It was assume from various newspaper and magazine reports that industrial pollutants have negative effect on health of general people who live in industrial area. To inquire about above facts, a questionnaire survey was conducted also identified the hazardous and toxic pollutants such as, Al ,V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Rb, Sr, Ag, Cs, Ba, Pb) of the major industries pollutants were analyzed. Whose are directly and indirectly affects surroundings environment and human health.