This book gives detailed idea of effect of air pollution on roadside plants in major cities of India, a case study being Pune city. In this work plant morphological, anatomical, physiological and biochemical response of naturally growing roadside plants viz., Polyalthia longifolia, Ficus benjamina and Mangifera indica were investigated. Along with this, special stress was given on plant anatomical changes.
Air pollution from ambient (traffic and industrial emissions in cities) and indoor (traditional biomass use as fuel) sources is a major health problem in developing countries like India. The linkage between air pollution and adverse health outcomes is less than conclusive. The biological mechanisms through which air pollutants affect health are not fully understood. There have been epidemiologic research on air pollution, but they are restricted mostly to the developed countries with pollution levels, exposure patterns and population characteristics very different from the developing nations. Clearly, there is need to strengthen both the quantity and quality of evidence linking air pollution and various health outcomes in India. In order to provide policy makers with state-of-the-art knowledge on effects of air pollution on human health, it was considered necessary to undertake the present study that showed that young women are at high risk of deteriorating health conditions due to air pollution exposure. From the social and public health standpoints, the findings can be treated as a wakeup call. It warrants concerted efforts to design and implement pollution abatement strategies.
Air pollution is a serious environmental stress to plants. Hence,its assessment in plants was studied at two selected study areas. The study area selected were roadsides of Aavin milk dairy and Periyar University Garden, Salem, Tamil Nadu, India. Fresh leaves from 12 commonly available plants were selected for the air pollution tolerance index, antioxidant activity assay and soil nutrient analysis was done. The mineral content of the study area1 was found to be 244.91Kg/acre and for study area 2 it was 215.56Kg/acre. The air pollution tolerance index was higher for Azadirachta indica and Syzygium cumini. Dust accumulated might lead to pigment variation. Likewise,antioxidant activity was good with Psidium guajava, Muntinga calabura, Terminalia catappa, Albizia saman, Ficus religiosa. The difference might be due to the nutrient, humus content of soil which plays a major role in plant growth and on the time of exposure of pollutants. Diversified chemicals in plants imparts antioxidant activity at various levels which gives protection against stress. The strength of free radical scavenging activity depends on the topography of the area. Let us grow plants, mitigate pollution.
Air pollution from traffic sources is considered to be a major environmental challenge the burgeoning metropolitan cities of the developing nations confront today.Like other mega-cities in the developing countries, air pollution has emerged as a serious problem in the Dhaka city. Dhaka, one of the largest mega cities of the world, is also faced with serious air pollution problem due to rapid growth of vehicles in recent times. This study mainly concentrated on two issues of air quality in Dhaka city and contribution of vehicles emission. The maximum and minimum SO2 and CO concentration is 24 ppb & 3 ppb and 0.5 ppb & 0.2ppm respectively which remain below acceptable limit (30ppb& 35ppb). The major contribution of this air pollution in Dhaka is coming from the complex vehicles fleet. It reveals from this study that a total of 1213.76 ton of various kinds of pollutants emit from the vehicles fleet in the Dhaka city every day. The tests revealed that old diesel run vehicles are the worst polluters that contribute mostly in the rise of particulate matter in the ambient air of the city.
Road transport is one of the significant sources of air pollution, affecting local air quality in cities. The study explains the diurnal variations of different type of pollutants at two sites (city centre and Tinsley industrial site) of Sheffield city. And also the study identifies the degree of incidence of surface based inversions on the concentrations of pollutants. Photochemical origins of pollutants were seasonally analysed. Further, the study brings out the possible implications from vehicular air pollutants on local environment and human health effects. It was revealed that an urban air pollutant has exceeded the limit of proposed Ambient UK Air Quality Standard. The study recommends to the local authorities to use economic pricing and taxation, local transport plan targets & solutions approach and land use & transport integration management tools to reduce transport pollution of Sheffield city.
The book describes effects of air pollutants on some plants studied at four residential and seven commercial locations. The effect of four air pollutants namely SPM, RSPM, SOx and NOx were ascertained on Azadirachta indica, Cassia fistula, Ficus religiosa, Delonix regia and Polyalthia longifolia plants growing on road sides at 11 selected locations with a control (non-polluted) site. Variation in concentrations of these pollutants in relation to years, seasons and locations is explained with appropriate statistical treatment. Effect of air pollutants on plants have been given in terms of changes in leaf characters of different plant species as compared to reference site. The publication contains computation of Air Pollution Tolerance Index and its use in identification of relative tolerance of plant species. Best Subsets Linear Regression technique was used to identify the major pollutants influencing various leaf characters in different species and develop a model to predict the effect of air pollutants on plants. In the light of findings appropriate mitigation measures have been suggested.
It is well known that air pollution, particularly particulates, originating from multiple sources (industries, vehicles, rocks, mining and quarry), represents a threat to environment as well as human health.Environmental contamination and human exposure with respect to dust pollution have dramatically increased during the past ten years.However,no systematic study has been done in ecologically sensitive hilly regions like Aizawl, Mizoram, North-East India which is also an integral part of extremely diverse Indo-Burma hot spot region. No comparative study has been done to study the impacts of air pollution on common plants with their possible phyto-technological innovation as well as socio-economic characterization at two sites of different geography.The present study is a strong first step and warrants further efforts which may paves the way to screen the feasibility of this plants in context of their potentiality to be planted in other urban areas with varying pollution load.This is a cost effective technology for controlling particulate and gaseous emission generated due to vehicular movement, domestic emission and even industrial emissions.
Vehicle emissions are responsible for about two third of air pollution in urban areas. The main pollutants emitted by vehicles include carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen and sulphur, hydrocarbon, lead, ozone & suspended particulate matter. These pollutants have harmful effects on human health & ecology. Poor air quality increases respiratory disorders like asthma & bronchitis & increases the risk of life-threatening diseases like cancer. In India, the impact of pollution from vehicles is increasing day by day due to rapid increase in population & modernization. Impact of vehicle pollution is more in cities due to urbanization. Kota is the fastest developing city of Rajasthan having more than 650000 registered vehicles that shows large number of vehicles & associated impacts of emission through vehicles on polluting air. To study the vehicular pollution in Kota city, both off-line & on-line methods have been used. In on-line method, vehicle gas analyzer is used to measure five parameters O2, CO2, HC, CO & ? and in off-line method, high volume air sampler is used for air monitoring. Hope, the book will prove its usefulness to concerned students, researchers & others.
Today environmental pollution has permeated every walk of our lives. The effect of Chromium (VI) on the residents of Hinkley, California as highlighted in the movie ‘Erin Brokovich’ and the rampant practice of using industrial waste for irrigation in India motivated the authors to undertake the present study. The book deals with the effect of chromium 6+ on the cytogenetics, morphology and food quality of commonly consumed eight vegetables. It highlights the acquired mutagenicity of the plants as the result of bioaccumulation of this heavy metal in edible parts.
Various cities across the world are moving towards providing ubiquitous wireless connectivity and municipal wireless systems are being experimented with. The city of Pune in western India launched the Unwire Pune project promising to make the entire city wire-free by March 2007. The project being conceptualized by the city municipal corporation in partnership with Intel if successful would make Pune the first fully wireless city in India. The research in this book discusses the project in detail emphasising the realistic benefits of the project to the local population of the city alongside laying down the hindrances which the project could likely be faced with.
Anand city is known as the Milk capital of India. The city has grown and urbanized at a rapid pace in past few decades. As a result number of vehicles has increased and industries were established in nearby areas. At this backdrop, the present study aims to find out the heavy metal concentration in the street dust, deposited dust on the leafs of plants growing beside the roadways and in suspended particulate matter of the ambient air.
Water and land pollution, both are very dangerous. But, in contrast air pollution has its own peculiarities due to its trans-boundary dispersion of pollutants over the entire world. In any well planned urban set up, industrial pollution takes a back seat and vehicular emissions take precedence as the major cause of urban air pollution. No physical or chemical method is known to ameliorate industrial or traffic air pollution. A suitable alternative way is to grow green plants in and around industries, traffic areas and along roadsides. Response of plants towards air pollution was assessed by air pollution tolerance Index (APTI) value. Four physiological and biological parameters including leaf relative water content (RWC), ascorbic acid (AA) content, total leaf chlorophyll (TCh), and leaf extract pH were used to develop an APTI. The vegetation monitoring in terms of its APTI acts as a ‘Bioindicator’ of air pollution and has been incorporated in the assessment of the present study.
Researchers working on air pollutants and their effect on plants will find this book interesting. Among various air pollutants this book focuses on ozone. Ozone (O3) is one of the most serious phytotoxic air pollutants. Current impacts of the oxidant air pollutant, ozone (O3), on vegetation are substantial, essentially global and increasing with rising population and industrialization. Most of the studies on the effect of ozone are confined to agricultural crop plants, fiber crops and gymnosperms. Studies on medicinal plants, an important group of economically important plants, which play a major role in health care system, are lacking. With growing industrialization and fossil fuel consumption ground level ozone concentration are likely to increase in future but it is not known how the medicinal plants are going to respond to this inevitable factor. This study was taken up with the purpose of studying the response of some important local medicinal plants against ozone stress.
Use of plants as a source of medicine has been an ancient practice and is an important component of the health care system in India. There are about 45,000 medicinal plant species in India, with concentrated spots in the region of Eastern Himalayas, Western Ghats and Andaman & Nicobar Island. The officially documented plants with medicinal potential are 3000 but traditional practitioners use more than 6000. India is the largest producer of medicinal herbs and is called the botanical garden of the world. There are currently about 250 000 registered medical practitioners of the Ayurvedic system, as compared to about 700,000 of the modern medicine system. In this respective work five different medicinal plants Phyllanthus emblica, Citrous aurantiifolia, Murraya koenigii, Piper betle and Trachyspermum ammi were selected and cultivated under the effect of different kinds of fertilizers.
The Aim of this Book is to examine relationship of economic growth, economic development and economics of environmental process in India in general and Gujarat in particular. Economic development process has to have taken care of environmental pollution both natural and manmade. Environmental Economics and Resource Economics have evolved from various branches of economics such as welfare economics, macro economics, industrial economics, public finance etc. After economic reforms in 1991 in India, economic growth and industrialization processes have created tension for management of environmental pollution in terms of water pollution, solid waste, air pollution, noise pollution, traffic pollution etc. Global Warming has also challenged availability and utilization of resources for present and future generation along with sustainable growth of economy as well as sustainable environmental pollution. However, this study is confined to the study of industrial and water pollution in Gujarat State.