Vaginal self-stimulation (VS-S) and cervical self-stimulation (CS-S) were studied to determine the effect on: chronic pain intensity (CPI), pain detection threshold (PDT), and pain tolerance threshold (PTT). There were differences in the response to self-stimulation based on the type of pain, somatic or visceral. The effect of both VS-S and CS-S outlasted stimulation. The results must be viewed cautiously based on the small sample size. This is the first human study to demonstrate a difference in the effect of neurostimulation on analgesia and pain thresholds. This study indicates that not all chronic pain, even when located in the same area of the body, is the same. It is apparent that more research is needed to differentiate the effect of stimulation-produced analgesia on various types of chronic pain.
This book “Fungal Spoilage of Fruits of Citrus Species” is a comprehensive piece which provides details about different types of Citrus fruits. The book provides a history of citrus from ancient times to the modern age. Consumers, farmers and traders of citrus fruits would find this book very useful as it provides important information regarding various fruits such as grape fruit, tangerine, sweet and sour orange and lime. The book offers a scientific probe into a major source of economic loss in various households and agricultural industries that deal in citrus fruits: fungal spoilage. It further examines the physical and chemical conditions affecting spoilage. Furthermore, the nutritional composition and role of preservatives in controlling spoilage are also examined. The reader stands to benefit a lot from this monograph.
This book consists on the effect of migration on inequality by generating the empirical evidence on the relationship between international remittances and income inequality in Albania. It has also been analyzed whether the socio-economic and political factors affect the internal and external migration as Albania is a country on internal and internationally move as it is located in Balkans region. As more than half of the Albanian population has direct exposure to migration phenomena, this book aims to evaluate the level of the effect of remittances on the income inequality during 1992-2012 period by testing cointegration of 21 time series observations through the Johansen Cointegration Test.
Dried fruits serve as important healthful snack items around the world. They provide a concentrated form of fresh fruits, prepared by different drying techniques. With their unique combination of taste/aroma, essential nutrients, fibre, and phytochemicals or bioactive compounds, dried fruits are convenient for healthy eating and can bridge the gap between recommended intake of fruits and actual consumption. Dried fruits are nutritionally equivalent to fresh fruits, in smaller serving sizes, in the current dietary recommendations of various countries. Scientific evidence suggests that individuals who regularly consume generous amounts of dried fruits have lower rates of cardiovascular disease, obesity, various types of cancer, type-2 diabetes, and other chronic diseases. Dried fruits also have the advantage of being easy to store and distribute, available around the year, readily incorporated into other foods and recipes, and present a healthy alternative to salty or sugary snacks. Dried Fruits: Phytochemicals and Health Effects is divided into three sections preceded by introductory chapters that provide an overview of dried fruits (their composition, phytochemicals and health applications) as well as the cancer chemopreventive effects of selected dried fruits (amla fruits or Indian gooseberries, avocados, berries, mangoes, mangosteens, persimmons, prunes, raisins, kiwi fruits, and other dried fruits). The first section covers the most popular dried berries (blackberries, blackcurrants, blueberries, cranberries, goji berries, mulberries, raspberries, and strawberries); the second section discusses non-tropical dried fruits (apples, apricots, cherries, citrus fruits, figs, nectarines, peaches, pears, prunes, and raisins); and the final section addresses tropical dried fruits (açai fruits, bananas, dates, guavas, papayas, mangoes, passion fruits, and pineapples). Contributors to this volume are internationally renowned researchers who have provided a comprehensive account of the global perspectives of the issues relating to phytochemicals and health effects of dried fruits. The book will serve as a resource for those interested in the potential application of new developments in dried fruits’ nutraceuticals and functional foods. Biochemists, chemists, food scientists/technologists, nutritionists, and health professionals, from academia, government laboratories, and industry will benefit from this publication. Although this book is intended primarily as a reference book, it also summarises the current state of knowledge in key research areas and contains ideas for future work. In addition, it provides easy to read text suitable for teaching senior undergraduate and post-graduate students.
Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP) surveillance system in Nigeria remains largely dependent on reporting from public health facilities while other potential reporting sources such as private medical facilities are neglected. An understanding of the knowledge and practice gaps on AFP surveillance among private medical doctors is essential to the design of programmes to enhance their involvement. This study therefore investigated the effect of education on knowledge of acute flaccid paralysis reporting among private medical doctors in Ondo State.
Genetic manipulation provides an useful adjunct to conventional breeding approaches .Solving this problem will entail development of rice varieties with higher yields, excellent grain quality and resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Present study, was aimed to develop transgenic elite indica cultivars expressing the GUS gene through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and to characterize the resultant putative transgenic lines at molecular level. With a view to optimizing an Agrobacterium – mediated transformation protocol for indica genotypes viz., ASD 16, White ponni, Pusa Basmati 1, Pusa Sugandha 4 and Pusa Sugandh 5 were transformed with the strain EHA 105 harbouring pCAMBIA 1305 1. Several factors genotype, explant, size of explant, age of explant, hormonal composition of the medium, nutritional supplements, duration of cocultivation, inoculation time, virulence of strain, concentration of bacteriostatic agent, effect of acetoyringone, duration of selection and concentration of antibiotic selection marker were used to assess the transient expression and transformation efficiency. This developed protocol may used as a biotechnological tool to improve the indica rices.
Recent literature indicates that the adsorption characteristics of the bio-adsorbents are being successfully evoked in effectively removing the polluting ions from waste waters. While probing the bio-materials of different plants for their ability to control polluting ions, we noticed affinity between toxic Chromium (VI) and adsorbents derived from some herbs like Achyranthes aspera, Mentha and Emblica officinalis; shrubs like Hybiscus roja- sinensis, Ocimum sanctum and Psidium guajava; trees belonging to the fabaceae family viz., Tamarindus indica , Acasia nilotica Indica and Acacia Arabica; and some Other trees: Ficus benghalensis , Syzygium cumini, and Azadirachta indica. The present work is a thorough study on the optimization of physicochemical parameters for the maximum removal of Chromium (VI) from polluted waters. The methodologies developed are applied to diverse waste water samples collected from industrial effluents and polluted lakes. The procedures are found to be remarkably successful in removing the Chromium (VI) from waste waters.
This paper tests the effect of gender on the evaluation of a leader. It is assumed in the literature that females are differently evaluated based on their gender. Different feminine and masculine leadership styles are included to test for differences. Not only the effect of the gender of the leader, but also the effect of the gender of the evaluator is included. Furthermore, some supposedly gender related personality characteristics are included the test their importance. A questionnaire is distributed to gather data. There are three versions of the questionnaire, with the only difference that the gender of the leader is manipulated. Different analyses are performed to test the effect of gender on the evaluation of a leader. The results of this study show that not only the gender of the leader influences the evaluation of a leader, but also the gender of the evaluator. Besides this, no clear indications for lower evaluations of female leaders are found.
This book; with blood lipid levels,as the subject explores the relationships between, B.M.I (body mass index),Abdominal (central) obesite, Life style, Cigarette smoking (active and passive), Eating habits, Gender, Age, Snore, OSAS (Obstructive Sleep Apne Syndrom),contains an original work.In this study, especially in terms of the effects of passive smoking exposure for an additional importance of blood HDL level. The book is also published doctoral thesis (SCI)includes summaries of articles. Some of the articles ; . Pass?ve c?garette smoking of ?t''s effect on HDL cholesterol elevat?on. . Effect of cigarette smoking on high density cholesterol . Body mass index, central obesity relationship between blood lipid levels and snoring. . Effect of cigarette smoking and obesity on blood levels lipid
Irradiation, as a method of meat preservation, has excellent potential in the elimination of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms from meat and meat products. Knowledge about effect of gamma irradiation on the shelf-life and quality attributes of camel sausage and chicken burger is important to maintain the microbiological safety of these meat products and extend their shelf-life. Camel meat is considered to be one of the toughest kinds of meat, and differs from beef in the higher content of connective tissue. Effect of gamma irradiation on chemical compositions, freshness tests, physicochemical, microbiological examination and sensory evaluation of camel sausage and chicken burger were evaluated in this book. Also gamma irradiation doses (1.5, 3 and 4.5 KGy) and cold preservation were evaluated in camel sausage and chicken burger.
This study investigated the effects of handling on animal welfare during transport, marketing and physical activity. During the analysis model developed to describe the heart rate performances, the speed, road conditions, standing orientation of animals and the blood parameters had showed effect on the welfare of animals. The overall conclusion from the study, based on transport conditions, heart rate and vibration levels, behaviour of animals and stress hormones indicated that handling and transport had an effect on animal welfare.
Although decisions or inferences we make based on test scores depend both on characteristics of test-takers and of testing situations, there is just little research which has been undertaken on the effects of these characteristics on test performance (e.g., In'nami, Y., 2006). The effect of listening strategies on listening performance is also undeniable (Vandergrift, 1997). Thus, considering these two issues is the intention of the present book. This book not only investigates the effect of one of the personal characteristics of test-takers, namely test anxiety, on listening test performance but also find the relationship between instruction of listening strategies and test performance. At last, it focuses on metacognitive listening strategies (Vandergrift, 1997) instruction and its impact on test-anxiety.
Coccinia indica (Family: Cucurbitaceae) is a medium-sized perennial plants.In traditional medicine, a decoction of the leaves of coccinia indica is used to treat skin problems, diabetes-mellitus, tongue-sore, Etc. The previous studies on this plant reported that the phyto-constituents presents in coccinia indica showed anti-diabetic activity, which is due to the presence of bio-active compounds like triterpenoids and alkaloids. The isolation of alkaloids from the plant leaves is tried for the first time by qualitative analysis. Hence an attempt had been made to isolate the alkaloids present in the plant and also to scan its anti-microbial activity and anti-fungal activity. The compounds of alkaloids group that is found to be present and also belongs to phenantharene and poly-hydroxy alkaloids type which is identified by chemical tests and IR data, further the structure of the compound are confirmed by LC-MS NMR data’s.The leaf extracts of the plant Coccinia indica were proved to be an effective extracts in the lowering of blood sugar.
The book examined the effect of Information communication technology on Nigeria Economic Development.It also assessed the nature of technologies driving information and communication technologies and appraised the status of ICT on technological infrastructure in Nigeria.The book concluded that ICT has contributed positively to the economic growth and development of Nigeria and the impact will also help to improve growth of the economy in the future with an increasing rate of ICT in the economy.
There are many factors affecting the quality of resultant paste such as, cultivation regions, harvest seasons, breaking methods and concentration process. This study is carried out in-line plant of Ismailia National Company for Food Industries "Foodico". The obtained results showed that, the tomato fruits from Upper-Egypt contained a significantly higher content of lycopene but also non significant differences in a*/b* values. The harvesting season of tomato fruits had significant effect on the quality parameters of resultant tomato paste. These effects varied among the quality attributes, make the control on these effects is more difficult. The breaking temperature considered as an important factor affected the quality of resultant tomato paste. Concentration process had significant effects on the quality attributes of the resultant tomato paste. The rheological properties and Hunter color parameters of tomato juice during processing to paste had good correlations with pectin fractions contents and pigments concentration. The blanching process had significant effects on the quality of the frozen spinach. It led to decrease the chlorophylls content.