Experience suggests that trade liberalization has contributed substantially to the remarkable growth of industrialised countries. However, for various reasons many developing countries have not yet been able to integrate successfully into global markets and reap the growth-inducing and poverty-reducing benefits of trade. This book argues that while developing countries are heavily represented in the WTO - accounting for about four fifths of its membership -there is still plenty of scope for the world trading system to work more effectively in their interests. The book examines the achievements of the Uruguay Round of trade negotiations in reforming the world trading system and the challenges to future reforms. It begins with an overview of the genesis of the world trading system and moves on to examine the key issues as they relate to developing countries. These include further liberalization of agricultural trade; abolition of the Multifibre Arrangement; environmental and labour standards; competition policy; regional integration in South East Asia; and the implications for developing Asian countries of the liberalization of the Chinese economy and its WTO membership. Furthermore, the book discusses the links between trade liberalization and poverty reduction -drawing on the experience of Asian countries - and puts forward arguments on how trade liberalization could effect a greater reduction in poverty. This is a timely and succinct presentation of the critical issues relating to the world trading system in the context of developing countries in general, and Asia-Pacific countries in particular. It will interest and inform a wide readership including scholars and students of development and international economics, and practitioners and policymakers concerned with international trade issues and global trade relations.
Полный вариант заголовка: «General view of the agriculture of the county Stafford : with observations on the means of its improvement : drawn up for the consideration of the board of agriculture and internal improvement : with the additional remarks of several respectable gentlemen and farmers in the county. / by W. Pitt».
Provides a systematic review of modern methods and instruments for measuring environmental parameters • Profiles the most modern methods and instruments for environment control and monitoring • Gives an assessment of biotic and abiotic factors and their effect on quality of atmosphere and indoor air, soil, water • Provides a brief description of the main climatic (pressure, wind, temperature, humidity, precipitation, solar radiation), atmospheric, hydrographic, and edaphic factors • Covers a wide range environmental methods and instrumentation including those used in the fields of meteorology, air pollution, water quality, soil science and more • Supplied with practical exercises, problems, and tests that will help the reader to learn more deeply contents of the book
The most comprehensive, authoritative and widely cited reference on photovoltaic solar energy Fully revised and updated, the Handbook of Photovoltaic Science and Engineering, Second Edition incorporates the substantial technological advances and research developments in photovoltaics since its previous release. All topics relating to the photovoltaic (PV) industry are discussed with contributions by distinguished international experts in the field. Significant new coverage includes: three completely new chapters and six chapters with new authors device structures, processing, and manufacturing options for the three major thin film PV technologies high performance approaches for multijunction, concentrator, and space applications new types of organic polymer and dye-sensitized solar cells economic analysis of various policy options to stimulate PV growth including effect of public and private investment Detailed treatment covers: scientific basis of the photovoltaic effect and solar cell operation the production of solar silicon and of silicon-based solar cells and modules how choice of semiconductor materials and their production influence costs and performance making measurements on solar cells and modules and how to relate results under standardised test conditions to real outdoor performance photovoltaic system installation and operation of components such as inverters and batteries. architectural applications of building-integrated PV Each chapter is structured to be partially accessible to beginners while providing detailed information of the physics and technology for experts. Encompassing a review of past work and the fundamentals in solar electric science, this is a leading reference and invaluable resource for all practitioners, consultants, researchers and students in the PV industry.
This unique contribution to the ongoing discussion of language acquisition considers the Argument from the Poverty of the Stimulus in language learning in the context of the wider debate over cognitive, computational, and linguistic issues. Critically examines the Argument from the Poverty of the Stimulus – the theory that the linguistic input which children receive is insufficient to explain the rich and rapid development of their knowledge of their first language(s) through general learning mechanisms Focuses on formal learnability properties of the class of natural languages, considered from the perspective of several learning theoretic models The only current book length study of arguments for the poverty of the stimulus which focuses on the computational learning theoretic aspects of the problem