An investigation was carried out on the distribution of yeast species amongst some ripe Nigerian fruits of economic importance with a view to selecting good strains of industrial yeasts for Nigerian bakeries, breweries and wineries. The fruits examined included Anarcadium occidentale (Cashew-Pulp), Annona muricata (Sour-sop), Carica papaya (Paw-Paw), Citrus sinensis (Orange), Irvingia smithii (African apple), Mangifera indica (Mango) Musa sapientum (Banana) and Psidium guajava (Guava). Six yeast isolation methods were employed. The experimental fruits were analyzed for their percentage sugar contents, percentage moisture contents and the range of pH of their juices. Experiments were also carried out on the abilities of the various species of yeast isolated to grow on media formulated out of the fruit juices. This included the ability of these species of yeast to utilize the fruit juices in such media as the sole sources of Carbon, Nitrogen and Vitamins. Thirty four species of yeast belonging to 7 genera were isolated from the fruits. The implications of these results with regards to the development of alcoholic beverages and bakery industries in Nigeria have been discussed.
The liver which is the major organ in the body, where drugs get metabolized and detoxified, is subject to potential damage from the pharmaceutical and environmental chemicals. Many of the widely used therapeutic drugs, including over the counter drugs can cause hepatic injury. Of the numerous remedies, medicinal agents, chemicals and herbal remedies in existence, more than 600 are recognized as being capable of producing hepatic injury. So effective agents are required for the prevention of hepatic injury caused by hepatotoxic drugs and chemicals. The objectives of this book is to study the hepatoprotective effect of aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica leaves on paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats. Aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica leaves provides hepatoprotective effect on paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in rats, as evidenced by significant difference in biochemical parameters and histopathological study. The efficacy of hepatoprotective effect of aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica leaves is less when compared to silymarin, as evidenced by significant difference in biochemical parameters.
The present study was aimed to investigate the possible effects of polyherbal formulation containing extracts of Ageratum conyzoides, Ficus religiosa, Curcuma longa and Tamarindus indica, on wound healing process through excision wound models in mice. The groups treated with Polyherbal formulation (ointment) showed increase in the rate of wound contraction and decrease in the period of epithelization in animals which may be attributed to its wound healing activity. In these studies, the only rational explanation for the accelerated wound healing is the antibacterial effect and also the synergetic effect of constituents present in polyhebral formulation.
Tamarindus indica Linn is used as traditional medicine for the management of diabetes mellitus. The present study has been undertaken to screen the hypoglycemic and anti-hyperglycemic activity of Tamarindus indica seed powder in nondiabetic and both Type 1, Type 2 diabetic model rats. Our results demonstrate that T. indica seed powder possesses significant antihyperglycemic activity in Type 2 diabetic model rats. The antihyperglycemic activity is at least, partly due to inhibition of intestinal glucose absorption. This effect cannot be attributed to the acceleration of intestinal transit. However, comprehensive chemical and pharmacological researches are required to find out the exact mechanism of this seed powder for its antidiabetogenic effect and to identify the active constituent(s) responsible for this effect.
Exposure of heavy metals to humans has risen continuously through the contaminated diet. The objective of the research is to determine the concentration of Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb, Co and Cd in dry fruits. Ten samples of dry fruits i.e Almond (P. amygdalus), Hazelnut (C. Vellanus), Dates (Phoenix dactylifera), Cashew nuts (Anacardium occidentale), Walnuts (Juglans nigra), Raisins (Vitis Vinifera), Peanuts (Arachis hypogeaea),, Apricot (Prunus armeniaca), Figs (F. macrophylla) and pistachio (P. Vera) was collected and studied the effect of microwave roasting and storage on heavy metal concentration.
The association between Anemia of Chronic Disease (ACD)and chronic periodontitis has been studied with varying results .In the earlier studies it was reported that anemia plays a direct role in the etiology of periodontal disease . On the contrary, it has been demonstrated that anemia occurred as a result of destructive periodontal disease by means of chronic inflammation.This separate entity was termed as Anemia of Chronic Disease.Therefore in the present study, an attempt was made to explore a link between chronic periodontitis and anemia of chronic disease by evaluating certain hematologic markers indicative of ACD .
Herbs have always been used as a common source of medicines, the Ficus benghalensis is an important herbal plant used in Ayurveda as a traditional medicinal system of India. In the present investigations, the preventive effect of Ficus benghalensis bark extract was evaluated against cyclophosphamide induced of chromosomal Abbreviation and micronucleus formation in the rat bone marrow cells. The single p.o administration of Ficus benghalensis bark ext at the dose of 250, 500 and 800 mg/kg body weight, 24 hours prior the administration of cyclophosphamide (at the dose of 50 mg/kg) have significantly prevented the micronucleus formations and Chromosomal Abbreviation in dose dependent manner in bone marrow cells of rat as compared to cyclophosphamide group. It is seems to have a preventive potential against CP-induced mutagenic effect in rat bone marrow cells.
Ficus glomerata is a tree also known by a name cluster fig. It is famous for a number of ethnomedicinal applications such as to cure gastric ulcers and possess wormicidal and larvicidal activity. In the present work, we studied the antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of the methanolic extracts of the leaves, fruits and bark of the plant. Antimicrobial study has also been conducted by us revealed that the methanolic extracts of fruits, leaves and bark of plant effective against the strains Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Shigella sonnei and Escherichia coli microorganisms. The results show that methanolic extract of leaves have greater antimicrobial activity than other fractions and its antimicrobial ability is comparable with the market available antibiotics. The study was done by Agar Well Diffusion assay. The antioxidant and radical scavenging activity of the methanolic extracts of leaves, fruits and bark was determined using DPPH and phosphomolibidate radical methods. All the extracts showed considerable antioxidant and radical scavenging activity. The maximum antioxidant activity was found in methanolic extract of the bark.
Anemia is considered as an important diagnostic symptom of some underlying disease. Anemia is the first symptom of some serious illnesses. Hence determining its cause is very important. Thus, it should be thoroughly analyzed and managed accordingly. For many years, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute i.e. NHLBI, has laboriously researched in finding the causes of various types of anemia and ways to prevent & treat them. Various blood disorders, ranging from anemias to malignancies, can have oral manifestations. Several types of anemia present very characteristic oral, clinical and radiological features. This signifies the role of the dental health professional for diagnosis and dental management of patients with anemia. Hence, since the dental health professional may be the first person to recognize the presence of anemia, his role in the multidisciplinary approach in the diagnosis and management of the various types of anemias cannot be underestimated.
Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is one of the oldest and choicest tropical fruits of the world and is rightly designated as “King of fruits”. It is the third widely produced fruit crop of the tropics after banana and citrus and occupying relatively the same position in the tropics as the apple in Europe and North America. Mango is believed to be indigenous to the Indian sub-continent. It is under cultivation in India for more than 4000 years and hence conspicuous bonds have been formed between the fruit and cultural history of some countries like India.The spray of Calcium Chloride extends the shelf life due to the increased firmness and retarded ethylene production rates in CaCl2 treated fruits and improves the physico-chemical properties of mango fruit. This book may be useful for Students, Lecturers, Researchers and mango growers worldwide.
Anemia is one of the commonest medical disorders. It is a pathological condition in which the oxygen carrying capacity of red blood cells is insufficient to meet the body’s needs. Nutritional anemia is the most important cause of maternal anemia. Anemia during pregnancy has been reported to increase the risk of small-for-gestational-age birth and low birth weight infants. Strong evidence also exists for an association between maternal anemia and preterm birth and premature rupture of membranes. Moreover, women who suffer from anemia during pregnancy are more liable to have heavy bleeding at the time of birth. Severe anemia may weaken uterine muscle, contributing to postpartum hemorrhage and subsequent maternal mortality. Appropriate preconception evaluation and antenatal follow up, together with iron supplementation programs should be implemented to minimize the prevalence of anemia and its adverse maternal and fetal effects.
Diabetes mellitus describes as heterogeneous disease caused by a combination of inherited and acquired deficiency in secretion of insulin and by reduced sensitivity of the tissues to secreted insulin. The number of people with diabetes is increasing owing to population growth, ageing, and sedentary lifestyle. Current medicine despite the efficacy showed wide range of side effects, which itself increases the annual rate of morbidity and mortality of diabetes mellitus. In this circumstance there is urge for novel medicine with lower adverse effect. Standardized natural product that derived from nature and defined by scientists can be substitution for current synthetic medicine Systematical investigation on antidiabetic properties of Ficus deltoidea performed by selection of appropriate in vitro and in vivo models. Further phytochemical studies provides a detailed insight into the active principle responsible for glucose lowering effect. This book provides guidance for researcher interested in investigation of antidiabetic properties of herbal medicine, it also delivers scientific support for traditional claim of glucose lowering effect of Ficus deltoidea.
Anemia is a global public health problem affecting both developing and developed countries. It is more common in diabetic patients due to the presence of multiple factors like nutritional deficiencies, inflammation, concomitant autoimmune diseases and kidney diseases. Several studies have reported that the prevalence of anemia varying from 9 to 25% in diabetic populations. Diabetic patients, many of whom already have an impaired quality of life; anemia constitutes an unwelcome additional burden for them. Studies indicate that low Hb levels in such patients may increase risk for progression of nephropathy, retinopathy, neuropathy and cardiovascular diseases. Unrecognized and untreated anemia among diabetes can seriously affect their health and well-being. Early correction of anemia has the potential to prevent or reverse the complications. However, several studies in Bangladesh revealed an increasing trend of anemia among general population. But there is lack of appropriate studies on the prevalence of anemia among diabetic patients.Therefore the objective of the study was to determine the prevalence, types and determinants of anemia among Bangladeshi type 2 diabetic population.
Ficus carica L. (fig) belongs to the mulberry tree (Moraceae) which is one of the oldest fruits in the world.It is used in our traditional system of medicine for healing various diseases.In a continuous bid to explore new biocompatible antioxidant and antimicrobial with the least associated side-effects Ficus carica were tested against pathogenic microorganisms; S.epidermidis K.pneumoniae B.subtilis E.aerogens B.cereus. The methanol extracts were prepared and screened for in-vitro antioxidant activities an antimicrobial activity using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and agar well diffusion method respectively. In addition,exract ofFicus carica prepared by soxlet apparatus and were partially purified by preparatory thin layer chromatography (TLC).In conclusion, the results indicate antimicrobial activity of the extract which could be further explored for purification of antioxidant compounds. KEYWORDS: Ficus carica,Antioxidant,Free Radicals,Antimicrobial,DPPH,Well Diffusion Method.
The present study was planned on prepubertal female rats to evaluate the mechanism of cadmium-induced toxicity and to evaluate the prophylactic and the therapeutic potential of Saraca indica against cadmium-induced oxidative stress in female reproductive system with the following objectives. 1) To study the mechanisms of toxicity of cadmium on female reproductive system of prepubertal rats. 2) To study the protective role of Saraca indica against cadmium induced damage to in prepubertal rats.