This study protocol, we have investigated antimicrobial, cytotoxic, antidiarrhoeal, analgesic and CNS depressant activity of the ethanolic extracts of leaves and fruits of Dillenia indicia. In the test of antimicrobial and antibacterial activity, it had been confirmed that leaf and fruit extract have inhibitory property for the growth of micro organism and it was also established by the test of MIC. The LC50 values of Dillenia indica in brine shrimp lethality bioassay were found significant. The plant parts showed antidiarrhoeal activity which was measured by castor oil induced method and charcoal plug method. All the samples showed significant analgesic activity. In the hole cross test for CNS depressant studies, the extracts also showed a decrease in locomotion in the test animals and in the open field test, the crude ethanolic extract of leaves and roots of D. indica showed a noticeable decrease in locomotion in the test animals. In the pentobarbitone induced hypnosis test, the crude ethanolic extract of leaves of D. indica at the doses 400 mg/kg significantly induced the sleep and also prolonged the duration of sleeping time in test animals as compared to control.
The study assesses the species composition and diversity of wild fruits in the overall and agricultural landscape; the level of wild fruits domestication; species compositions and diversity of cultivated fruits; describes homegarden production system; plant associations and configuration in gardens; degree of intra-specific variability; factors influencing fruits species diversity, and propensity of farmers on wild fruits domestication. We examine degree of cultural practices and tree management regimes. It specifically examines practices underway with respect to cultivation, nursery management and propagation, fertility maintenance, pest and disease control, watering, tree management etc. It appraises the level of fruit exploitation and income generation; specifically fruiting phenology, extent of fruits use, importance for peoples' livelihoods, nutrition, fruit transactions, non-fruit utilities of wild fruits and factors hindering fruit exploitation. We elicit the local knowledge, perceptions and fruit species priorities of people: cultural domain of wild fruits; knowledge variability; insights of people into wild fruits.
Ficus carica L. (Syn: Ficus sycomorous; family: Moraceae) is grows in tropical and subtropical regions of India, used for varity of purpose in traditional medicine. Ficus carica (anjeer) is an indigenous plant to India, which finds its mention not only in Indian system of medicine i.e.Ayurveda but also in other system of medicine like Unani etc .The usefulness of this plant is scientifically evidenced, and different biologically active phytoconstituents are reported and also isolated from plant.Hence the present attempt was undertaken to investigate the microscopical, preliminary phytochemical studies including qualitative and quantitative estimation and the diuretic activity of Ficus carica to produce the scientific evidence and data at preliminary stage.
There are many techniques that have been explored for maintaining the quality of fresh fruits and vegetables, for example, low temperature, high relative humidity, controlled atmospheric and modified atmospheric packaging, plastic film packaging, etc. These techniques have both advantages and disadvantages and continue to be used. Other techniques like edible coatings and chemical treatments are being studied to develop a better technique for maintaining the quality of fresh fruits and vegetables. This book provides four distinctly separate chapters, i.e. the effects of coating methods and storage periods on quality of carrot during ambient storage, the effects of relative humidity, coating methods and storage periods on quality of carrot during cold storage, and the effects of chemical materials applications and storage periods on quality of lettuce during ambient storage and cold storage. This book should be especially useful to professionals in Food Science and Post-harvest Technology fields, or any one else who may be considering utilizing techniques for maintaining the quality of fresh fruits and vegetables.
The first and formost purpose of this book is to show the effect of working capital management on firms'' profitability. It shows the impacts of both working capital investment and financing decisions on firms'' profitability. So far, various studies show that, working capital management affects firms'' profitability but most of these studies were conducted in western developed economies. Thus, this book detailed and shed light on the effect of working capital management policies on firms'' profitability in case developing countries.
Chemical composition of pumpkin fruits include pumpkin pulp and pumpkin seeds such as moisture, ash, fiber, protein, lipid, carbohydrate and minerals contents. Also, extraction, isolation and identification for pumpkin pulp carotenoids using high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) assay and experiment the effect of pumpkin carotenoids extract as natural antioxidant on the stability of soybean oil. Identification of amino acid derivatives of pumpkin pulp and pumpkin seeds by gas liquid chromatographic (GLC) system and calculation of amino acid score. Moreover, testing the physical and chemical properties of crude pumpkin seed oil i.e. refractive index, colour, specific gravity, acid value, peroxide value, iodine value, saponification value. Finally, separation and identification of fatty acids and unsaponifiable matter contents of dehulled pumpkin seed oil using GLC technique.
Dengue is one of the major health problem in many countries. Aedes aegypti mosquito is the major vector of dengue fever disease. Search for larvicidal active compound(s) is one of the several attempts to find effective and affordable ways to control this mosquito. In this study investigated the toxic effect of different solvent (acetone, chloroform, cold and hot ethanol) extracts from different parts (bark, leaf, root and seed) of Neem (Azadirachta indica) against Aedes aegypti larvae. Therefore, this study demonstrated the potency of Neem in managing the larvae and thus contribute as an affordable way to control Aedes aegypti mosquito. Through this study the crude extracts from different parts of Neem (Azadirachta indica) could be extracted by using different solvents and this will lead to different biological activities.
Effect of soil salinity on glycophytes around the coastal region is studied frequently.This book contains the study of some valuable plants around the coastal region of Arabian Sea in Gujarat,India. Where these tree species are used either in medicinal forms or in the daily food. Nutrient accumulation in such plants is presented systematically for the further research study. Tamarindus Indica is consumed all over the world and it is one of the major ingredient in the Indian cooking. Casia Fistula has great importance in the “Ayurvedic” medicines, Which are predominantly used in India. Book contains study of other tree species which are also value addition to the earlier work done in the area.
study was done for: 1. Isolation and identification of Saccharomyces cerevisiae var boulardii from different fresh and dried local fruit in Erbil city. 2. Determination the inhibitory activity of the isolated yeasts against pathogenic bacteria (in vitro). 3. Study the effect of physiological factors on survival of the isolated yeasts . 4. Determination the effect of some environmental factors (pH, temperature, incubation period and aeration) on producing inhibitory substances. 5. Study the effect of isolated yeast strain on survival of the experimental animals infected with pathogenic bacteria (in vivo).
To Study The Effect Of Different Nutrient Combination And Sources On Mungbean (Vigna Radiata L. Wilczek) In Sandy Loam Soil At Crop Research Centre Of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University Of Agriculture And Technology, Meerut (U.P.), During Kharif Season Of 2012. To Study The Effect Of Nutrient Management Practices And Their Sources On Growth, Yield Attributes And Yield Of Mungbean .To Investigate The Effect Of Vermicompost In Association With Chemical Fertilizer On Mungbean. To Study The Economic Gain And Nutrient Uptake By Different Combinations Of Nutrients Sources.
Natural products from medicinal plants, either as pure compounds or as standardized extracts, provide unlimited opportunities for new drug leads because of the unmatched availability of chemical diversity. Ficus thonningii (Blume) also known as wild fig is a large economic tree indigenous to the savannah part of Nigeria. It belongs to the family Moraceae. Its leaves have been of interest to researchers because of its increased use in diets and folkloric medicine against sore throat, fever, liver and it related problems. In this book, the protective effects of extracts from Ficus thonningii leaves were assayed both in vivo and in vitro for antihepatotoxic, antihemolytic and antioxidant activities. The focus of this book is on the analytical and/or experimental methodologies used to determine the hepatoprotective, antioxidant and antihypercholesterolemic effects of extracts of Ficus thonningii in rats as well as determine its effects on haematological profile.
Gamma Radiation is an effective means of sterilization for shelf life enhancement of food items including fruits and vegetables by killing the microflora responsible for their decay. However there are concerns about the effect of nutritional value of the food after this treatment. Citrus is an important fruit throughout the world and is well known for its nutritional value. Present study focused on the analysis of various nutritional components of citrus after treatment with gamma radiation.
Nitrogen application showed significant response at all the stages of growth. An increase in the level of nitrogen up to 120 kg per hectare reflected significant increase in various growth characters of plant, yield and physico- chemical composition of fruits. But number of days taken to flowering was reduced significantly with the increased level of nitrogen. The application of 60 kg phosphorus per hectare also recorded the same trend for the characters studies as it was found in case of nitrogen. Earliest flowering and height number of fruits per plant were noted under N2P2 treatment combination where as highest yields per hectare was noted under N2P2 treatment combination, which was found significantly superior to other combination. Physico- chemical composition of fruits was also influenced by treatment combination. The length, diameter, fresh weight and dry weight of per fruit were maximum under a treatment combination of N2P2. The most important study of this experiment is the application of various nutrients 120 kg nitrogen, 60 kg phosphorus per hectare had given better results on almost all the characters under study. However, the N2P2 combination gave the highest yields.
Final examinations dominate the educational system of many countries. Most teachers plan and conduct their teaching methodologies based on the requirement of the examinations. Assessment is expected to have some impacts on what and how teachers teach. The notion of washback (the effect of testing on teaching and learning) is a common term in language teaching and testing, and tests are considered to be powerful determiners of what goes on in classrooms. This study explores the concept of washback effect by discussing various terms that have been used to describe this educational phenomenon. The aim of this book is to investigate whether final examinations have any washback effect on teaching and learning in distance education, and if so what kind of washback effect they may have. It also compares the effect of final examinations and the effect of other factors on teaching methodologies to consider which one has more impacts. This book can be regarded as a source of information for English Instructors at universities specifically for those who are teaching at open universities. Also, it would be useful for all the scholars who are interested in language teaching and testing.