This book gives an overview on Photo-catalytic reactor design, 3D Modeling and simulation using some software's, its application in degradation of Rhodamine-B (Dye) using two catalysts (TiO2 & Nb2O5). The main objective of this work is to describe relevant aspects of degradation process recollecting material published in scientific literature as well as comparing it with practical experience. The influence of process variables such as Effect of amount of catalyst, Effect of Concentration of Rhodamine-B (Dye), Effect of pH on Percentage degradation was studied.
Liquisolid technique is a novel and promising approach to overcome the consequence of limited bioavailability. Though many studies have been reported on the development of liquisolid compacts no reports have been made on the effect of various formulation factors on liquisolid compacts. The present research work unveils the effect of various formulation factors on the preformulation and formulation characteristics of liquisolid compacts of glipizide using response surface methodology.
This research work was done to know the effect of abdominal insufflation and study the effect of antibiotics on bacterial growth; especially in cases of peritonitis. There were few schools of thoughts regarding use of abdominal insufflation during laparoscopy and gasless laparoscopy in cases of peritonitis. Few studies suggested that gasless laparoscopy is better, in other studies it was seen that there is no difference in abdominal insufflation and gasless laparoscopy. The attendant mortality and morbidity was more in some studies when laparoscopy was done using abdominal insufflation. By this work we tried to see the effect of abdominal insufflation on bacterial growth in abdominal insufflation, non insufflation and effect of antibiotics on bacterial growth in experimental model of rats. This book is targeted at the young researchers having innovative concepts in surgical field.
The use of potentized hormones in homoeopathy is a new branch of research and little is known of the biological effects it may elicit on the living organism. Homoeopathy is based on the Law of Similars, using ultra high dilutions of naturally occurring substances. Hormones are also known to work in the body at concentrations similar to that of a homeopathic preparation of 15CH. As thyroxine has been shown to have an observable effect on the various stages of development in tadpoles (P.C. Endler et al., 1994), the question arises as to whether a homeopathic preparation is capable of producing a biological effect on animals such as young rats. This research explores the possible effect based on the theories of the Law of Similars as well as the Paradigm of Signifiers, by measuring the effect of homoeopathically prepared thyroxine (15CH) in terms of weight, head-body length, tail length, body temperatures, organ weights (of the brain, heart and liver), blood thyroxine levels, bone mineral density and percentage body fat in growing male rats.
Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is an important fruit crop of Asia and is widely found in Pakistan. Over the last few years the attack of gall formers on mango has increased tremendously in mango growing areas of the world. Little is known about their behavior, taxonomy and management practices particularly in Pakistan. This book, therefore, focuses on the varietal preference and within tree distributional patterns of gall forming insects of mango and the factors (morphological and physiological) mediating their abundance. The abundance of galls has been studied in different mango cultivars and within the individual cultivar as well. The analyses should help shed some light on the importance of leaf traits mediating gall abundance and should be especially useful to field ecologists with the interest to explore the behavior of gall formers and devise management plans.
This study is the first in Egypt to quantify the effect of using different fertigation treatments on wheat and maize grown in sandy soils. Furthermore, simulation of the effect of climate change was done and fertigation was considered as an adaptation option. Simulation of the effect of fertigation under climate change revealed that yield losses could be reduced under newly reclaimed soils for both crops when it was used. Furthermore fertigation could be considered as an appropriate irrigation management under climate change.
Micronutrients are immensely important as they directly effect the overall performance of the crop. This study as presented in the book focuses on the impact of different combination of micronutrients as well as their individual effect on Guava plant in-terms of overall growth, yield potential and fruit quality traits. The various research findings are presented graphically as well as in tabular format.
Passion fruit (Passiflorae edulis Sims) is an important crop, whose production is constrained by many diseases such as fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. Passiflorae and loses have been estimated to be up to 80 %. There is lack of information on the effectiveness of current pesticides on the market in the management of this disease. The book presents the results for the tests that were conducted in the laboratory and greenhouse at Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI) to evaluate the efficacy of selected fungicides and bio-control agents in management of Fusarium wilt disease of purple passion fruits. The information in this book will help the researchers, farmers and the policy makers in developing an integrated disease management package for Fusarium wilt in passion fruits.
Abstract A field study was carried out during a three-year period (2008 to 2010) in order to investigate on response of Coker 347 (flue-cured) Tobacco plant (Nicotiana tabacum L.) in vegetative growth stages to inoculation with Azotobacter chroococcum at various levels of Nitrogen (N) fertilization.Results revealed that the effect of year of experiment was significant on quantitative characteristics (except leaf length), N uptake and qualitative characteristics (except nicotine in priming). Application of N had significant effect on quantitative characteristics (except number and width of Leaf), N uptake and qualitative characteristics. Inoculation of roots with bacterium had significant effect on Cured leaf weight of cutter, yield, N uptake and qualitative characteristics. Furthermore In general, Azotobacter chroococcum is a suitable inoculant for tobacco cultivation and it could be a strategy to achieve sustainable agriculture.
This study give a full explanation about the sensory and chemical characteristics of olive oil. Olive oil designation according to chemical and sensory attributes, Influence of olive varieties and olive harvesting stages on the acidity, peroxide value, OD232, OD270, total phenols, fatty acid composition, un saponifiable constituents are explained in this study, Furthermore, this study describe the correlation between sensory and chemical properties of olive oil obtained from different types of olive varieties. additionally, this study focus on the effect of effect of harvesting stages and varieties of olive oil on the classification of virgin olive oil according to standards of international olive council. This study describe the effect of olives obtaining conditions on the positive and negative sensory attributes of virgin olive oil.
Investigation on Effect of active modified atmosphere packaging and storage temperature on shelf life and quality of Indian jujube (Ziziphus mauritiana Lamk.) cv. Gola fruit was carried out with 21 treatment combinations. Two concentrations of oxygen (2% and 5%), three concentrations of carbon dioxide (5%, 10% and 15%) and one control (environmental gaseous composition with 21% O2 and 0.03% CO2) were used in packages. Fruits were stored at ambient, 12?C, or 6?C temperatures. Treatment combination 5% O2 & 5% CO2 at 6?C was found best for maintaining qualitative and physiological attributes and increased the shelf life up to 35 days, however, chilling injury on fruits were seen. Better retention of color coordinates (L*, a*, b*, h? and C*), higher TSS and firmness, retention of higher ascorbic acid, acidity, phenol and moisture content, lower water loss and highest scores for overall orgenoleptic attributes were found in MAP with low temperatures. Finally this study indicated that Indian jujube fruit could be stored at 6?C for 35 days with MAP (5% O2 and 5% CO2) allowed conservation of ber fruits with highest quality parameters and minimal risk of disorder development.
The current experimental study aims to investigate the effect of magnetic field on internal combustion engines. The study concentrates on engine performance by examining fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. The magnetic field was applied to the fuel supply line of a typical SI engine using unleaded gasoline fuel. Moreover, the magnetic field was generated by electromagnets with a twelve-volts car battery while varying the strength and configuration of the magnetic field. The experiments were conducted at a variety of engine operating conditions by using an engine dynamometer setup. The exhaust gas emissions of CO, NOx, and HC were measured by using an online gas analyzer. The magnetic effect on SFC reduction was only consistently significant at the lowest load of 20 Nm and both speed extremes of 1000 and 3000 rpm using one magnet. The effect on CO was the most significant reduction of all other emissions at most engine’s loads and speeds, especially at lowest speed of 1000 rpm using five magnets. The effect on NOx was the most consistent reduction of all others with the most effect using the ‘Spiral’ configuration at lowest speed of 1000 rpm.
Demand for Alphonso variety in domestic and international market is increasing day by day. Supply of mango is not possible, as the fruit is perishable. At the end of season, fruits are canned and stored. Aroma and flavour of Alphonso got retuned even after processing and this was the main reason it is used for blending with other fruit crops. Mango fruits at the end of season fetch very less prices, but if processed scored remarkable high cost. The study of potential of blending of Alphonso with other varieties which are used for table purpose available in abundance in market, when there is a demand for Alphonso and it is out of stock in market. Thus, study will helpful to all stockholders from mango industry, if the blended mango pulp score good marks in consumer’s choice. Therefore, it is essential to improve the pulp quality of these varieties by blending with Alphonso mango pulp. At present, a little or no work has been reported on blending and storage behaviour of Alphonso mango pulp with Kesar, Totapuri, Ratna, Neelam and Sindhu mango pulp. Hence, the present research investigation entitled “Effect of blending of pulp of different varieties of Mango" was undertaken.