The current experimental study aims to investigate the effect of magnetic field on internal combustion engines. The study concentrates on engine performance by examining fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. The magnetic field was applied to the fuel supply line of a typical SI engine using unleaded gasoline fuel. Moreover, the magnetic field was generated by electromagnets with a twelve-volts car battery while varying the strength and configuration of the magnetic field. The experiments were conducted at a variety of engine operating conditions by using an engine dynamometer setup. The exhaust gas emissions of CO, NOx, and HC were measured by using an online gas analyzer. The magnetic effect on SFC reduction was only consistently significant at the lowest load of 20 Nm and both speed extremes of 1000 and 3000 rpm using one magnet. The effect on CO was the most significant reduction of all other emissions at most engine’s loads and speeds, especially at lowest speed of 1000 rpm using five magnets. The effect on NOx was the most consistent reduction of all others with the most effect using the ‘Spiral’ configuration at lowest speed of 1000 rpm.
Demand for Alphonso variety in domestic and international market is increasing day by day. Supply of mango is not possible, as the fruit is perishable. At the end of season, fruits are canned and stored. Aroma and flavour of Alphonso got retuned even after processing and this was the main reason it is used for blending with other fruit crops. Mango fruits at the end of season fetch very less prices, but if processed scored remarkable high cost. The study of potential of blending of Alphonso with other varieties which are used for table purpose available in abundance in market, when there is a demand for Alphonso and it is out of stock in market. Thus, study will helpful to all stockholders from mango industry, if the blended mango pulp score good marks in consumer’s choice. Therefore, it is essential to improve the pulp quality of these varieties by blending with Alphonso mango pulp. At present, a little or no work has been reported on blending and storage behaviour of Alphonso mango pulp with Kesar, Totapuri, Ratna, Neelam and Sindhu mango pulp. Hence, the present research investigation entitled “Effect of blending of pulp of different varieties of Mango" was undertaken.
Aristolochia indica is a traditionally used medicinal plant claimed to possess antioxidant, antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory activity. The present study was conducted with the purpose to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant activity in leaves and stem of Aristolochia indica. The enzymic antioxidants such as catalase, peroxidase, super oxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, glutathione- s-transferase and non-enzymic antioxidants (ascorbic acid, polyphenols, carotenoids, ?-tocopherol, and flavonoids) were analysed. The free radical scavenging activity (inhibition of nitric acid, super oxide generation and in vitro lipid peroxidation and DPPH free radical scavenging and hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging activity) of different extracts of Aristolochia indica was also observed. The results obtained in the present study indicated that the Aristolochia indica might be a good source of natural antioxidant.
Endosulfan is an organochlorine insecticide effective against a wide range of pests of cereals, coffee, cotton, fruits, oilseeds, potato, tea and vegetables. Endosulfan is acutely toxic and is readily absorbed by the stomach and lungs, and through the skin. Symptoms of acute endosulfan exposure include central nervous system disorders such as dizziness, vomiting, diarrhoea, breathing difficulties, convulsions, and loss of consciousness. In extreme cases, death can result. Turmeric plays vital role in detoxification of endosulfan toxicity on ovary. It shows bioremedial impact on both estrogen level and histology of ovary.
This paper examines the effect of credit rating announcements released by the three major rating agencies on European government bonds by looking at one key area, and three interrelated topics. Firstly, I evaluate the impact of credit rating announcements on European government bond returns. Secondly, I appraise their effect on the slope of the sovereign yield curve. Thirdly, I assess the implications of the European sovereign debt crisis on the credit rating announcement effect. Fourthly, I analyse how rating changes influence government bond abnormal returns, depending on the country's membership of the Eurozone or not, and whether the country is in the "Peripheral area" or not.
Grapes are an important agricultural crop which is consumed both in raw form as fresh fruit as well as in many industrial products. the microbes present on the fruit is responsible for the decay of the fruit which result in less shelf life. The present work highlights the significance of gamma radiation in enhancing the shelf life of grapes. The work also focuses on the effect of gamma radiation on nutritional value of grapes.
An efficient,motivated and well trained civil service is expected to be one of the major foundations of Kenya Vision 2030. The civil service employees, who include the Ministry of Health staffs'', performance is below expectations as often highlighted in many dailies and other publications. Literature reviewed revealed that there are several factors that can contribute to poor staff performance. This stimulated the researcher''s interest to venture into the area of civil servants'' performance targeting the Ministry of Health staff. The purpose of this study was to explore the factors affecting the performance of Ministry of Health staff at the Machakos Provincial Hospital. The objectives of the study were: to examine the effect of training and development on the performance of the Ministry of Health staff, to examine the effect of communication on the performance of Ministry of Health staff, to explore the effect of HR policies on the performance of the Ministry of Health staff and to examine the effect of the working conditions on the performance of the Ministry of Health staff. Related literature on performance and the performance of the Ministry of Health staff was reviewed.
The historical facts about probiotics and practical importance of their use in animal nutrition described in this book. It provides material on the use of probiotics in modern pig farming and information on the effect of probiotics on the quality of pig production. There are also new data on the effect of probiotics on the digestibility of nutrients in the fodders for pigs, the microflora of the gastrointestinal tract and the morphological and immunological parameters of blood. In this monograph for the first time data on the effectiveness of the use of probiotics of different composition in mixed fodders for pigs in the conditions of the Republic of Moldova are presented. The monograph is intended for researchers and professionals in the field of animal nutrition.
The neem (Azadirachta indica A Juss) tree has aroused considerable interest due to the numerous biologically active compounds recorded in its tissues including the seeds. Extracts from the tree are known for their medicinal properties and their effects on insects, molluscs, fungi, bacteria, viruses, nematodes and protozoa. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of different neem (Azadirachta indica) and chinaberry (Melia azedarach) leaf extracts (aqueous, organic) on the growth of eight selected pathogenic fungi on solid media. Identification of active components of neem leaf organic extract using HPLC and NMR was applied for the main compound of the organic extract (nimonol or nimocinol). Finally, aqueous or organic extract of neem leaves can be used for controlling some human pathogenic fungi as (Candida albicans and Microsporum gypseum). Also, reduction of plant pathogenic fungi as (Alternaria solani and Fusarium oxysporum, the causal agents of early blight and will diseases of tomato plant) were emphasized by irrigation and/or spraying in the field.
Anemia a common blood disorder occurs when the level of healthy red blood cells (RBCs) in the body becomes too low. Anemia can lead to health complications and affected by nutritional deficiencies, infectious diseases, genetic disorders, reproductive complications, and poor socio-economic status. Anemia affects approximately 2 billion people at worldwide but disproportionately affects women and children. Women of reproductive age (15-49) in Pakistan are 68 million and 60% of them are anemic. Children under 5 years are 20% of population and 50-60% are anemic. This book highlighted that anemia is purely socio-cultural issue, and also investigates mother and child anemia conditions within socio-cultural, demographic and nutritional context. Current study also highlighted exogenous and endogenous factors. Exogenous causes are social component of illness and they are potential preventable. Endogenous factors are internal agents operating within the body, leading to biological defects in the mother and new born. Health of baby is related to mothers’ education, age at marriage, usage of health services, addiction, nutrition and health during pregnancy.
Natural dyes are known for their use in colouring of food substrate, leather as well as natural fibres like wool, silk and cotton. These produce very uncommon, soothing and soft shades as compared to synthetic dyes. On the other hand, synthetic dyes, though available at economical prices, have many adverse effects including the threat towards the natural ecosystem. Hence, there has been an increased interest towards use of textiles (preferably natural fibre product) dyed with eco-friendly natural dyes. However, appropriate dyeing techniques/procedures are important to obtain newer shades with acceptable colour fastness behaviour and reproducible colour yield. Relevant scientific studies on standardization of dyeing methods, dyeing process variables, dyeing kinetics and test of compatibility of selective natural dyes have become very important. The present book describes the fastness and other characteristics of natural dyes obtained from five different tree barks, namely Jackfruit (Atrocarpus heterophyllus), Mahua (Madhuca indica), Neem (Azadirachta indica), Peepal (Ficus regillous) and Sal (Shorea robusta).
In the present book an attempt has been made to share some important facts about the pesticides and insecticides present in our daily food intakes like vegetables, fruits and crops, especially about the Organophosphorous and Organochlorine Insecticides. Also discuss about its history viewpoint, production and uses pattern and consumption in India and rest of the world Insecticides as well as daily used by the farmers. Adverse effect of Pesticides and Insecticides on pollution is also trying to include in this book.