Studying a second language is often obligatory in schools. However, the interlanguage levels of the individual students can vary greatly. This could be caused by a multiplicity of factors, such as motivation, language learning aptitude, and/or the amount of exposure to target language input outside of the classroom. This study explores the effects of the latter, namely the influence of the amount of language input that is received from the media on the second language acquisition process.
For decades, linguists have introduced theories related to the process of acquiring second languages. As the world rapidly changes, particularly because of the integration of emerging technologies in everyday human activities, theories that were primarily based on traditional ways of teaching and learning different academic subjects which include languages, i.e. first and second languages, should be evaluated and updated if necessary in order to keep them relevant. Different geographical locations, socio-economic and political changes should also be considered when evaluating those available theories. In the context of the current world characterized by the use of modern mobile technologies, this book provides the detailed literature on technology for language learning and theories of second language acquisition, and it evaluates the validity and relevance of Krashen’s Input Hypothesis based on the case of Rwanda, a small landlocked, non-industrialized monolingual country of Africa, which shifted from its colonial legacy ‘French’ to the liberation anthem ‘English’ as the foreign language used as a medium of instruction at all levels of education since 2008.
This is a new practical and inclusive book targeted to a second/foreign language teacher. The author tries to provide a new approach for how to enhance vocabulary learning in rural and deprived areas utilizing mobile phones, especially SMS. The experimental data which has been achieved in this project is in line wjth the previous researches on Mobile Assisted Language Learning. This book is an excellent choice for English teachers, as they learn different methodologies to improve their teaching in the post-method era.
Motivation has been researched in relation to language learning in the computer-assisted language learning (CALL) context in recent years. This book explores English as second language (ESL) learners’ language learning processes on computers for developing listening and speaking skills. The author investigated the extent to which CALL may motivate learners to take charge of their own learning, associated with learner autonomy, and enhance their language learning. This book is based on a study at two UK university language centres, concerning students’ working individually on computers. The results suggest that both students and teachers found it beneficial to work on CALL programs for individual study to develop students’ listening and speaking skills for several key reasons, relating to ‘Motivation’.
Language learning is a great fascination, especially the learning of a Foreign and or Second Language. Numerous studies have been carried out to establish factors that hinder and or promote language learning, among them First Language interference. The debate on Mother Tongue interference seem to have tied out, but this work rekindles it with a view of rethinking and understanding the role of Mother Tongue in learning English as a Second Language. This book presents findings on a study on First Language transfer and its implication on the teaching and learning of English as a Second Language. The study found out, among other issues, that the knowledge and structure of the First Language ought to foster the learning of the Second language. Language teachers ought to understand this in order to structure their lesson preparation and presentation. It is a must read for both teachers and students of English as a Second Language, as well as language course & learning material developers.
Mobile devices have drawn a new path in learning through the transformation from traditional classroom education to learning outside the classroom at any time and any place. The great features of mobile phones, which are wide spread among people and are taken with them wherever they go, have been contributed by many researchers of exploit the advantages to producing a variety of mobile learning systems for different types of knowledge. This including second languages, especially the English language. The main aim of this book is to explain how mobile devices can be used to learn English as a second language, to improve the efficiency of the English skills of the learners. Because, English is the most common language spoken in the world, for this, knowing the English language for non-native speakers has become so crucial. Mobile-based learning or mobile learning can support different kinds of learning including language. By using mobile devices to learn English as a second language, learning gains great applause because it makes the language learning process more effective, interesting and enjoyable and presents solutions to some problems faced by learners during learning.
Vocabulary knowledge is deemed by both first-language and second-language researchers to be of great significance in language competence, and learning sufficient amount of vocabulary knowledge seems to play an indispensable role in EFL and ESL contexts, so new ways of enhancing this process should be sought. One of these ways is the overwhelming and innovative Mobile Assisted Language Learning (MALL) technologies which have inspired students, teachers and researchers; therefore, the present book has a great potentiality to contribute to TEFL not only from the theoretical perspectives but also from the pedagogical vantage points. Its significance can be predicated on the assumption that with a limited amount of in-class teaching time, it sounds crucial to look for other ways which conveniently provide language learners with substantial language learning experience, and since there is a little empirical research on learning vocabulary via text-messaging , its contribution and significance can be of great use.
This volume focuses on computer- and digitally-assisted language learning in all of its forms: technology-enhanced language learning, network-based language learning, mobile-assisted language learning and so on, in close relation to the topic of sustainability. How can these technologies and techniques be implemented in a sustainable and repeatable way? The book covers a wide range of areas in terms of this "sustainability". These include: (1) education (teacher/learner training) (2) normalisation (integration) (3) systems (reliability, support, development) (4) mobility (mobile-assisted language leaning) (5) innovation (trends, research) The volume samples research and practice in CALL from around the world, organised into sections. It has an introduction and a conclusion written by the editors (Ana Gimeno, Mike Levy, Francoise Blin and David Barr) which covers the state of the art at the moment and directions it is likely to take in the future.
Learning strategies are among salient learner variables affecting success in second language acquisition. This book provides comprehensive coverage of the topics related to these strategies in second and foreign language learning contexts. The book begins with the perspectives contributing to the impetus for the shift of emphasis toward learning strategies. It features careful explanations of various aspects of strategies, including the history of research on language learning strategies, strategy classifications, and categories of strategies. It also examines the methods for the assessment of learning strategies. It concludes with research on the role of gender and proficiency variables on strategy use. Focusing on these aspects, the book can function as a textbook for the study of language learning strategies for L2 teachers, researchers, and students of applied linguistics.
This Book shares the practical ideas and resources for Preparing Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) materials for second language learners. The book serves as a beginners guide for teachers who wish to use learning technologies. The book is an outcome of research on CALL materials and will help you design task based activities for learning in the classroom and beyond the classroom covering all the four skills.
It is obvious that success in second or foreign language learning (SFLL) depends on a number of factors such as learner motivation, learning style, age and so on. One of these factors is the ways by which learners' approach and handle their language learning tasks known as Language Learning Strategies (LLS). Language Learning Strategies (LLS) have been recognized as important tools to be successful in learning a second or foreign language since the pioneering works of Stern (1975) and Rubin (1975) that identified a close relationship between success in Second or Foreign Language Learning and the specific techniques or procedures (LLS) that learners use to go with their language learning tasks. The close relationship between LLS and success in language learning has in general laid the ground to recognize LLS as important instruments to be successful in learning second or foreign language. This book is thus all about language learning strategies and is very essential for anyone engaged in language teaching and/or learning.
Computer-assisted instruction has some beneficial effects on EFL learning. Via the use of computer,learners can pick up language knowledge or skills more quickly and they can also keep language knowledge or skills for a longer period of time. The present study aimed at examining the effect of computer assisted instruction on learning subject-verb agreement in English grammar, which is one of the problematic areas for EFL learners, especially at the elementary level of language learning. To this end, a sample of Iranian EFL learners was randomly selected and assigned to two groups; experimental and control. The experimental group received the treatment which included Rosettastone software that is based on 'Dynamic Immersion Method', in which second and/or foreign languages are taught in a natural way as they learn their first language. During this period, the control group merely worked on the textbook.
Successful second language learning entails a complete personal participation of the learner. Learning a second language in a total physical, intellectual and emotional involvement is needed to successfully send and interpret linguistic messages. In recent years the researchers have established the significant role of factors affecting in second language learning. This book is mainly focused on different factors affecting the effective learning of English among the adult learners in Indian context.
This work x-rays the place of literature in the development of the communicative competence of second language speakers. With the understanding that effective communication is the central thing in any second language situation, the work examines how best to achieve this. But the way the English language is taught at all the levels of education in Nigeria leaves a lot to be desired, and therefore does not hold a promise of actualising the very end of language teaching and learning, which is the development of learners’ communicative competence. If literature is the colour of its language, teaching any language without its literature is bleaching that language. Any teaching method that adopts this antiseptic learning of the target language may not achieve much as literature presents the best examples or manifestations of language use, and would serve as a veritable point of encounter with the language, or what Stephen Krashen calls ‘comprehensible input’ (87). The position of this work is that the divorce between ‘language’ and ‘literature’ in the educational curriculum is an anathema. This study was premised on the theoretical frame of communicative language teaching (CLT).
The book is unique of its kind as it is the compilation of various researches done on and around the reading ability of English language in the regions where English Language is a second language. It can serve as a guide to the policy makers, to the curriculum planners and to the learners to bridge up the gap between teaching input and learning output of English Language in general and reading skill in particular at school level.