For decades, linguists have introduced theories related to the process of acquiring second languages. As the world rapidly changes, particularly because of the integration of emerging technologies in everyday human activities, theories that were primarily based on traditional ways of teaching and learning different academic subjects which include languages, i.e. first and second languages, should be evaluated and updated if necessary in order to keep them relevant. Different geographical locations, socio-economic and political changes should also be considered when evaluating those available theories. In the context of the current world characterized by the use of modern mobile technologies, this book provides the detailed literature on technology for language learning and theories of second language acquisition, and it evaluates the validity and relevance of Krashen’s Input Hypothesis based on the case of Rwanda, a small landlocked, non-industrialized monolingual country of Africa, which shifted from its colonial legacy ‘French’ to the liberation anthem ‘English’ as the foreign language used as a medium of instruction at all levels of education since 2008.
There is little doubt that vocabulary is one of the core components of language without which the story of language learning is hardly worth telling. Claims that one may learn a language without learning words may be like a surgeon claiming that the operation was a success, but that the patient died. Despite the consensus on the undeniable role of vocabulary in language learning, the relevant literature does not seem to offer a rosy picture of the current ways of teaching L2 vocabulary. For this, one can point the finger of blame partially at presentation techniques. To help resolve part of the controversy, the present book compares the effects of three commonly used techniques of vocabulary teaching; namely, glossing, semantic mapping, and imagery on L2 vocabulary comprehension and production. Apart from the results of an empirical analysis, it also includes a relatively comprehensive review of the relevant literature on the topic. The reading of this book is suggested for those who are interested in carrying out research on the issues raised or addressed in this book. The book may also be of interest to second/foreign language learners, teachers and materials developers.
This Book shares the practical ideas and resources for Preparing Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) materials for second language learners. The book serves as a beginners guide for teachers who wish to use learning technologies. The book is an outcome of research on CALL materials and will help you design task based activities for learning in the classroom and beyond the classroom covering all the four skills.
Provides a much-needed overview of current themes and research on child second language learning.
Motivation is an important individual difference (ID) variable to account for the variation in the language learning success. It is the factor that provides impetus required to start learning a second language, and later it becomes the driving force to sustain the long and tedious process of learning the language. To this end, the present study examined the motivation to learn English of Nepalese public high school learners, 13-16 years of age, in three districts of Nepal. Based on Dornyei’s (2005;2009) second language (L2) motivational Self System as the theoretical framework, this study employed a 63 item questionnaire to collect their view from 84 high school students and a semi structured interview to collect their opinion about learning English from 4 out of total sample. Correlation and regression analyses of the data showed that the main factors affecting learners’ English language learning motivation was the Ideal L2 Self and attitude to learning English, which also provided empirical support for the main constructs of the L2 Motivational Self-System.
This study investigates how training with multiple talkers can affect native English speakers’ acquisition of the novel Arabic pharyngeal-glottal consonant contrasts. Learners’ performance on two discrimination tasks, following a word-learning phase is analyzed in terms of training type (multiple talkers vs. single talker) and task type (non-lexical vs. lexical). The findings of the study confirm the hypothesis that variability in talkers can contribute to acquiring non-native contrasting consonant phonemes. The results also showed that different task demands often do not necessarily influence learners’ ability to differentiate novel contrastive consonants.
Currently, in Japan, not only travel agencies and publishing houses but also universities have been encouraging students to study abroad by suggesting the beneficial outcomes of study abroad programs in terms of L2 proficiency and personal competence. Such promotion has been supported by numerous studies on language proficiency gains through study abroad programs in which participants are expected to use a second language and on increase of international awareness. However, what is notably absent from these aforementioned studies is any attention on learners’ perception of using the language as a foreigner during their time abroad. This study focuses on Japanese university students' construction of second language identity and how social structure influences their language learning and the construction of their identities.
This volume explores the development of Language and Language pedagogy from Theory to Method and the Post Method paradigms. The book seeks to draw implications to the classroom practitioner from the developments in Second Language instruction. The book discusses two theories of language acquisition and one theory of language learning and the relevance of these theories to the modern second language practitioner. It traces the long journey second language teaching has embarked on in the search for a second language teaching method which would provide the panacea for second language instruction ills and how the search has been rendered futile. The seeming breakthroughs subsequent to the method era are also examined. The book then considers some pertinent issues and practices related to the post-method era in second language teaching. The volume concludes by discussing errors and error correction in second language teaching within the context of the theories and methods discussed. The presentation of content is punctuated by self- help exercises meant to consolidate the issues discussed and to help the reader gauge their understanding of the issues raised.
The book extends the concept of language in Lev Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory to the cognitive differences between second language acquisiton(SLA) and foreign language learning(FLL), and succeeds in filling the gap between FLL and SLA in constructing instructional interaction for FLL by the adoption of the Zone of Proximal Development and Scaffolding. It is not just intended to promote a particular approach to instructional interaction development in online FLL, but is an attempt to highlight the existence of the differences between FLL and SLA, and to underline the necessity to attend to them on a more than SLA theoretical basis.
This textbook approaches second language acquisition from the perspective of generative linguistics. It reviews the last thirty years of research in the field, focussing in particular on how the second or additional language is represented in the mind and how it is used in communication
Explores the role of oral interaction for second language learning from cognitive, social, pedagogical and linguistic perspectives, with a focus on research relevant to English language learners aged 5-18 in a variety of classroom contexts.
A key finding in the 1980s and 1990s is that childrenwho develop good phonological awareness (PA) skillswent on to become good readers. A second criticalfinding in the 1990s and this decade (2000s) is thatchildren who develop strong oral language skillsdevelop good PA skills, thus becoming good readers. This study examined the extent to which the earlyelementary (kindergarten and first grade) L1 and L2oral language skills of Spanish-speaking Englishlanguage learners predict reading performance at theend of elementary school (fifth grade). Morespecifically, the study investigated the jointlongitudinal effects of Spanish-language andEnglish-language proficiency on reading performanceby the time students were ready to enter the middleschool grades. The results demonstrate that combinedL1 and L2 early language skills, for students in bothbilingual education and English immersion programs,predicted fifth-grade reading comprehension skillsjust as well as did early decoding skills. This studybreaks new ground by examining the long-term effectof ELL students? oral language proficiency, in boththeir first language (Spanish L1) and second language(English L2), on English reading achievement. Thisanalysis will be useful to educators who teachEnglish language learners, and to policy makers whomust decide how best to instruct these students.
In the era of globalization, both Information Technology (IT) and English play a vital role in communication. IT creates an environment where communication is possible across the borders within a second. On the other hand, English is the dominant global language which is used to spread messages around the world. As technology prevails in all areas of life to make the things easy, language teachers and learners can also depend much upon it. This paper brings into focus the use of IT in English language teaching and learning. The purpose of the work is also to identify how IT relates to English language learning at tertiary level. Besides, it indicates the possibilities of using IT beyond language classroom. For the study two questionnaires were designed to survey and it was conducted among language teachers and learners. Inspite of having some limitations to implement IT in language classroom, teachers and learners expressed their positive attitudes towards it.