Tobacco has been variously hailed as a gift from the gods, a miraculous cure-all for life's physical ills, a solace to the lonely soldier or sailor, a filthy habit, a corrupting addiction, and the greatest disease-producing product known to man. Tobacco in any form is a major independent risk factor for the development of oral and pharyngeal cancer and other malignancies of the upper aerodigestive tract. Tobacco contains several distinct compounds, some of which are capable of inducing mutagenesis, and facilitate tumorigenesis. It is believed that they exert their action by damaging the DNA and therefore inducing mutations and could ultimately lead to cancer. The dangers posed to oral health from smoking and chewing tobacco are well documented within the dental literature but the public’s lack of knowledge of the risks is a concern. However it is vital that more is done to ensure that public awareness of tobacco-related oral diseases continues to improve and more people are regularly screened. The combination of providing opportunistic advice, together with regular screening will reduce the overall morbidity and mortality from oral cancer and other mouth disorders.
Smokeless tobacco is used without burning the product and can be used orally/nasally. The prevalence of smokeless tobacco use is more common in the Asian countries, especially in India. Smokeless tobacco use is more prevalent among young people and females, because of its ease of use without getting noticed. They are used in various forms like khaini, mawa, pan masala, snuff, mishri etc. More than 28 proven chemical carcinogens present in smokeless tobacco. The nicotine present causes addiction and cardio vascular diseases , on oral cavity it causes premalignant lesions like leukoplakia, erythroplakia and also oral cancer. Smokeless tobacco has deleterious effects on periodontium like increased gingival recession and attachment loss. On teeth, tobacco use increases the susceptibility to caries mainly due to the high sugar content of smokeless tobacco. This book aims to give a brief overview about the smokeless tobacco forms and effects on oral cavity, provides guidelines to counsel the patient and various nicotine replacement therapy that can be used safely in patients, who wish to quit the use of smokeless tobacco products.
Tobacco has several bad effects on general as well as oral health. Its effects on oral health range from as simple as mild staining to as severe as advanced neoplasms leading to early death. Tobacco consumption is the most common and PREVENTABLE cause of oral pre cancer and cancer.The term Preventable, here, needs to be stressed. Educating people about the deadly effects of tobacco, especially the adolescents who fall into this deadly trap just because of lack of right guidance is very important. This book gives a brief idea about history,forms, ill effects of tobacco and how to reduce and prevent it.
Smokeless tobacco products have been in existence for thousands of years among populations in South America and Southeast Asia. Over time, these products have gained popularity in throughout the world. Smokeless tobacco is consumed without burning the product, and can be used orally or nasally. All forms of smokeless tobacco contain high concentrations of toxic agents; over 2,000 chemicals, many of which have been directly related to causing cancer. Being real chewing tobacco dangers of smokeless tobacco hazards, these carcinogens increase the risk of cancer of the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx and esophagus. As health professionals, it is our responsibility to let people know about the ill effects of smokeless tobacco on health, on their families, on the society and in turn on the nation and it is only our primary responsibility to help people to quit this habit, and prevent the young generation from falling prey to this deadly habit. This book provides extensively the information on smokeless tobacco, its ill effect on oral health, measures to control its use with special emphasis on role of oral health professionals in tobacco control.
Cigarette smoking has long been associated with a variety of oral conditions including periodontal diseases. Experimental evidence accumulated over the last two decades has indicated that cigarette smoking is a true risk factor for periodontitis. Smokers have both increased prevalence and more severe extent of periodontal disease compared to non-smokers . Tobacco and some of its volatile and non-volatile components have been found to affect human gingival fibroblasts. Among the multiple volatile components some reactive aldehydes are thought to have a prominent cytopathic effect resulting in a dose dependent human gingival fibroblast inhibition of cell adhesion related to morphological alteration of the cytoskeletal structure.
The continuous increase of heavy metals, including lead (Pb), in the air, land, and water, is recognized to be one of the main environmental problems produced by industrialization. According to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Pb is identified as the most common heavy metal contaminant in the environment. Anthropogenic activities such as mining, smelting, burning of fossil fuel, and the manufacture of pesticides and fertilizers are some of the primary source of Pb contamination of the environment. The aim of the work in this book is to examine the effects of different concentrations of lead nitrate on the systemic movement of different RNA viruses. Knowing the factors that are involved in the viral movement inhibition will allow us to produce crops that are resistance to viral infection.
Health is a wealth and wonderful gift given by god. It’s our duty to preserve it to lead a healthy life. Good health is a priceless asset. But some people, for seeking temporary pleasure fall into bad habits such as smoking tobacco. The personal decisions on behaviour affect the prospects for good health and that ill health is not solely a consequence of ill fortune but frequently a direct consequence of behaviour under individual’s control. Tobacco smoking is most popular form of smoking, practiced by over one billion people leading to health problems. Nurses have an important role in prevention of smoking by conducting educative programmes on ill effects of smoking in schools, colleges, and also in hospitals. This study attempts to evaluate the effectiveness of structured teaching programme on ill effects of smoking among students of Government high school Fort, Bangalore. Tobacco use is one of the major preventable causes of death and disability worldwide. The emergence of tobacco related diseases burgeoning public health problem. According to recent WHO estimates, 4.9 million deaths annually are attributed to tobacco.
Iron deficiency is considered as frequently observed single dietary nutrient deficiency through out the world, predominantly during pregnancy .According to WHO almost half of the pregnancies in developing countries are affected with iron deficiency and ultimately leads to iron deficiency anaemia. This figure increases up to 80% for South Asian countries. In Pakistan iron deficiency anaemia is still a major nutritional and public health problem.In pregnancy not only iron but also other minerals, vitamins and essential nutrients are required in increased quantity. Clinically a rapid rise in body iron is the main target in the treatment of iron deficiency anaemia.Most common practice is oral iron supplementation along with diet improvement.Pregnancy is a state of oxidative stress.Iron supplements can result in increased oxidative stress.The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti oxidative status in terms of SOD & GSH-Px level in anemic pregnant women, alteration in enzyme activity after treatment and hematological changes with different regimens of oral iron.
The habit of chewing Qat is widely spread in Yemen. The adverse effects of the chewing Qat habit on different human body systems, namely; CNS, cardiovascular, digestive, genitourinary, and reproductive health systems were broadly investigated. Furthermore, its effect on different oral tissues including periodontal tissues, hard tissues of teeth, TMJ, muscles of mastication and salivary glands were also comprehensively reported. Since, this habit is recently highly prevalence among Yemeni Women,tTherefore, this book covers the most oral manifestations that may be occurred among Yemeni Woman due to chewing Qat.
Oral cancer is one of the most common cancers in India. Tobacco and its various forms of consumption have resulted in a huge burden of oral cancers and precancerous conditions. This book summarizes the epidemiological studies conducted in India, with special emphasis on various tobacco practices in India, Cancer Prevention and strategies. Data from various epidemiological studies and cancer registries were also reported.
Tobacco smoking is one of the most potent and prevalent addictive habits, influencing behavior of human beings for more than 4 centuries. Smoking is now increasing rapidly throughout the developing world and is one of the biggest threats to current and future world health. Tobacco smoking affects multiple organ systems resulting in numerous so-called tobacco-related diseases. We describe the effects of long-term smoking exposure on humans. Although the effects of smoking on inflammatory markers may persist for many years, a majority of the adverse health effects of smoking are reversible. Therefore, stop smoking avoids much of the excess health-care risk related with smoking and allows increasing life expectancy.
Cancer is a class of diseases in which a group of cells display the traits of uncontrolled growth (growth and division beyond the normal limits), invasion (intrusion on and destruction of adjacent tissues), and sometimes metastasis (spread to other locations in the body via lymph or blood). These three malignant properties of cancers differentiate them from benign tumors, which are self-limited, do not invade or metastasize. Most cancers form a tumor but some, like leukemia, do not
Beverages [ Soft Drinks and Fruit Juices ] are consumed by everyone, everyday including children. According to recent survey beverages have been included as a part of diet. Due to their low pH and effect of acid they are harmful to the oral cavity especially tooth and restorations leading to decay as well as erosion .Dental erosion is commonly seen who Consumes these beverages very frequently. Excessive contact of the tooth structure with acidic food over a prolonged duration of time leads to proportionate loss of dental hard tissues. It can be assumed that restorative materials are also subjected to low pH values in the oral cavity by erosive attacks, leading to a degradation of their surface integrity. High intake of acidic drinks, fruit juices may constitute possible etiological and/or aggravating factors for severe dental erosion, tooth decay around restorations [filling]. Childrens are more susceptible to erosion because of their morphology i.e deciduous or Primary teeth have softer enamel when compared to permanent teeth. Therefore the present book was conducted to evaluate the effects of Beverages [ cola drink and fresh fruit juice ] on the Restorations.
In Ethiopia, people locally use the roots of Gnidia stenophylla Gilg (GSG) (Thymelaeaceae) to cure an array of diseases including malaria and malaria-related symptoms with no literature evidence substantiating its safety. This book, therefore, provides new literature evidence regarding the safety of using GSG aqueous root extract as a traditional remedy. The book also addresses the effect of the plant extract on body weight, food intake, hematological and biochemical parameters as well as on gross and histopathological changes of gastrointestinal tract (GIT), spleen, liver and kidney tissues after acute and chronic oral administration in Swiss albino mice. The aqueous extract mimics the traditional decoction dosage form of GSG as an antimalarial herbal remedy.
Oral cancer is one of the major health problems in the Sudan, due to the habit of use of Toombak and cigarette smoking.Epithelial atypia (ET)was ascertained in 29 subjects and could not be ascertained in the remaining 271. Among the 29 subjects with ET, there were 11 (38%) toombak dippers, 14 (48%) cigarette smokers and 4 (14%) non-tobacco users. Among the 271 subjects without ET, there were 89 (33%) toombak dippers, 86 (32%) cigarette smokers and 96 (35%) non-tobacco users. ET was found in all the 5 control cases with OSCC. For the ET among toombak dippers and cigarette smokers, adjusted OR and the 95% CI were found to be 3 (0.91-9.7) and 4 (1.2-12.3), respectively.Exfoliative cytology is the most suitable method for implementation of oral screening program as it is both non-invasive and cheap.