Tobacco has several bad effects on general as well as oral health. Its effects on oral health range from as simple as mild staining to as severe as advanced neoplasms leading to early death. Tobacco consumption is the most common and PREVENTABLE cause of oral pre cancer and cancer.The term Preventable, here, needs to be stressed. Educating people about the deadly effects of tobacco, especially the adolescents who fall into this deadly trap just because of lack of right guidance is very important. This book gives a brief idea about history,forms, ill effects of tobacco and how to reduce and prevent it.
Smokeless tobacco is used without burning the product and can be used orally/nasally. The prevalence of smokeless tobacco use is more common in the Asian countries, especially in India. Smokeless tobacco use is more prevalent among young people and females, because of its ease of use without getting noticed. They are used in various forms like khaini, mawa, pan masala, snuff, mishri etc. More than 28 proven chemical carcinogens present in smokeless tobacco. The nicotine present causes addiction and cardio vascular diseases , on oral cavity it causes premalignant lesions like leukoplakia, erythroplakia and also oral cancer. Smokeless tobacco has deleterious effects on periodontium like increased gingival recession and attachment loss. On teeth, tobacco use increases the susceptibility to caries mainly due to the high sugar content of smokeless tobacco. This book aims to give a brief overview about the smokeless tobacco forms and effects on oral cavity, provides guidelines to counsel the patient and various nicotine replacement therapy that can be used safely in patients, who wish to quit the use of smokeless tobacco products.
Smokeless tobacco products have been in existence for thousands of years among populations in South America and Southeast Asia. Over time, these products have gained popularity in throughout the world. Smokeless tobacco is consumed without burning the product, and can be used orally or nasally. All forms of smokeless tobacco contain high concentrations of toxic agents; over 2,000 chemicals, many of which have been directly related to causing cancer. Being real chewing tobacco dangers of smokeless tobacco hazards, these carcinogens increase the risk of cancer of the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx and esophagus. As health professionals, it is our responsibility to let people know about the ill effects of smokeless tobacco on health, on their families, on the society and in turn on the nation and it is only our primary responsibility to help people to quit this habit, and prevent the young generation from falling prey to this deadly habit. This book provides extensively the information on smokeless tobacco, its ill effect on oral health, measures to control its use with special emphasis on role of oral health professionals in tobacco control.
Tobacco has been variously hailed as a gift from the gods, a miraculous cure-all for life's physical ills, a solace to the lonely soldier or sailor, a filthy habit, a corrupting addiction, and the greatest disease-producing product known to man. Tobacco in any form is a major independent risk factor for the development of oral and pharyngeal cancer and other malignancies of the upper aerodigestive tract. Tobacco contains several distinct compounds, some of which are capable of inducing mutagenesis, and facilitate tumorigenesis. It is believed that they exert their action by damaging the DNA and therefore inducing mutations and could ultimately lead to cancer. The dangers posed to oral health from smoking and chewing tobacco are well documented within the dental literature but the public’s lack of knowledge of the risks is a concern. However it is vital that more is done to ensure that public awareness of tobacco-related oral diseases continues to improve and more people are regularly screened. The combination of providing opportunistic advice, together with regular screening will reduce the overall morbidity and mortality from oral cancer and other mouth disorders.
The habit of chewing Qat is widely spread in Yemen. The adverse effects of the chewing Qat habit on different human body systems, namely; CNS, cardiovascular, digestive, genitourinary, and reproductive health systems were broadly investigated. Furthermore, its effect on different oral tissues including periodontal tissues, hard tissues of teeth, TMJ, muscles of mastication and salivary glands were also comprehensively reported. Since, this habit is recently highly prevalence among Yemeni Women,tTherefore, this book covers the most oral manifestations that may be occurred among Yemeni Woman due to chewing Qat.
Oral cancer is one of the most common cancers in India. Tobacco and its various forms of consumption have resulted in a huge burden of oral cancers and precancerous conditions. This book summarizes the epidemiological studies conducted in India, with special emphasis on various tobacco practices in India, Cancer Prevention and strategies. Data from various epidemiological studies and cancer registries were also reported.
Oral cancer is a subtype of head and neck cancer, is any cancerous tissue growth located in the oral cavity.It may arise as a primary lesion originating in any of the oral tissues, by metastasis from a distant site of origin, or by extension from a neighboring anatomic structure, such as the nasal cavity or the oral cancers may originate in any of the tissues of the mouth.There are several types of oral cancers, but around 90% are squamous cell carcinomas, originating in the tissues that line the mouth and lips. Oral or mouth cancer most commonly involves the tongue. It may also occur on the floor of the mouth, cheek lining, gingiva (gums), lips, or palate (roof of the mouth).
Tobacco smoking is one of the most potent and prevalent addictive habits, influencing behavior of human beings for more than 4 centuries. Smoking is now increasing rapidly throughout the developing world and is one of the biggest threats to current and future world health. Tobacco smoking affects multiple organ systems resulting in numerous so-called tobacco-related diseases. We describe the effects of long-term smoking exposure on humans. Although the effects of smoking on inflammatory markers may persist for many years, a majority of the adverse health effects of smoking are reversible. Therefore, stop smoking avoids much of the excess health-care risk related with smoking and allows increasing life expectancy.
Health is a wealth and wonderful gift given by god. It’s our duty to preserve it to lead a healthy life. Good health is a priceless asset. But some people, for seeking temporary pleasure fall into bad habits such as smoking tobacco. The personal decisions on behaviour affect the prospects for good health and that ill health is not solely a consequence of ill fortune but frequently a direct consequence of behaviour under individual’s control. Tobacco smoking is most popular form of smoking, practiced by over one billion people leading to health problems. Nurses have an important role in prevention of smoking by conducting educative programmes on ill effects of smoking in schools, colleges, and also in hospitals. This study attempts to evaluate the effectiveness of structured teaching programme on ill effects of smoking among students of Government high school Fort, Bangalore. Tobacco use is one of the major preventable causes of death and disability worldwide. The emergence of tobacco related diseases burgeoning public health problem. According to recent WHO estimates, 4.9 million deaths annually are attributed to tobacco.
Cigarette smoking is the most important preventable cause of morbidity and mortality. It is the single most important and modifiable factor responsible for cases of lung cancer, hypertension, and cardiovascular diseases. Malignant and premalignant oral lesions alike have been associated with cigarette smoking. Most adults and adolescents are aware that tobacco use jeopardizes their health but may not realize how great the risk is compared with other behaviors that are considered risky. This book extensively deals with the ill-effects of smoking on oral and systemic health. This book extensively covers recommended management and treatment of tobacco addiction which can be a useful resource for clinicians and academicians. An additional chapter on Passive smoking and its effect has also been included in the book.
This study summarizes the current state of knowledge on the harmful effects associated with cigarette smoking & alcohol consumption. The World Health Organization predicts that tobacco deaths in India may exceed 1.5 million annually by 2020. However, considerable research is required to comprehend the actual trends. Nationally representative and reliable prevalence data on tobacco consumption are scarce. Similarly, the sociodemographic predictors of tobacco smoking and chewing are poorly understood. The existing studies on prevalence of tobacco use are based on non-representative sample surveys or have been conducted in localised—mostly urban—geographical areas. WHO estimated a prevalence of tobacco consumption of all forms at 65% and 33%, respectively, among men and women, based on small scale studies conducted in the past.General population studies conducted different parts of the country suggest prevalence rates of use of alcoholic beverages ranging between 23% and 74% among males.
The use of fluorides has been demonstrated to be one of the most successful measures in public health history. Fluoride has been recognized as the central component in strategies to prevent dental caries, a disease that has major health, economic, and social effects on communities world wide .Fluoride is being used widely on a global scale. There are some undesirable side effects, however, that can accompany the desirable outcome of reduced caries in the community. It is involved in chronic and acute fluorosis. Chronic side effects are found in mineralized tissues, leading to dental or skeletal fluorosis, depending on the dose. A number of biological effects have been ascribed to fluorosis. Although many reports of such effects are unsubstantiated, several have been studied sufficiently to deserve careful summarization including the effects on bone, teeth, kidney, thyroid, neurological functions and growth in general.
Cigarette smoking has long been associated with a variety of oral conditions including periodontal diseases. Experimental evidence accumulated over the last two decades has indicated that cigarette smoking is a true risk factor for periodontitis. Smokers have both increased prevalence and more severe extent of periodontal disease compared to non-smokers . Tobacco and some of its volatile and non-volatile components have been found to affect human gingival fibroblasts. Among the multiple volatile components some reactive aldehydes are thought to have a prominent cytopathic effect resulting in a dose dependent human gingival fibroblast inhibition of cell adhesion related to morphological alteration of the cytoskeletal structure.
Mineralized Tissues in Oral and Craniofacial Science is a major comprehensive update on knowledge in the field of mineralized tissues in the oral and craniofacial region. Drs. McCauley and Somerman assembled an international team of researchers and clinicians, offering a global perspective on the current knowledge in this field. Basic and clinical correlates reinforce the significance of research to clinical diagnoses and therapies, written in a manner that lends easily to their use for case study teaching venues. Section 1 features the many aspects of bone in the craniofacial region, including embryology, cell biology, and stem cell biology. Section 2 focuses on teeth-tooth development, dentin, enamel, cementum, and tooth regeneration. Section 3 discusses the interaction between bones and teeth, including those associated with inflammatory processes, periodontal ligaments, biomechanics, and other impact factors-such as nutrition, metabolic bone diseases and therapeutic modalities. The novel approach of linking the basic principles of the cell and molecular biology of hard tissues to clinical correlates will appeal to readers at all levels of their research careers, both students and faculty; faculty interested in a comprehensive text for reference; and clinicians interested in the biologic aspects of bones and teeth.
Revision with unchanged content. The book investigates the effects of federalism and multi-level governance on tobacco control policy adoption in the United Kingdom and South Africa. It uses theories of federalism and multi-level governance, as well as policy transfer (diffusion) and interest groups politics to investigate their effects on tobacco control policy. In this exploration, the various policies that have been adopted by various governments in the two countries as well as the European Union are examined, as is the relationship between the policies adopted and international benchmarks on tobacco control. Methodologically, the book uses comparative case analyses augmented by elite interviews and secondary sources. Overall, the study argues that the various explanations have influenced the adoption of comprehensive tobacco control policies in the two countries, and both countries are converging in their tobacco control policies, except for differences relating to the role of provinces. This is a must book for courses in public policy, comparative public policy, and the UK and South African Governments and the EU. It will also be useful for NGOs and researchers engaged in tobacco control.