For decades, linguists have introduced theories related to the process of acquiring second languages. As the world rapidly changes, particularly because of the integration of emerging technologies in everyday human activities, theories that were primarily based on traditional ways of teaching and learning different academic subjects which include languages, i.e. first and second languages, should be evaluated and updated if necessary in order to keep them relevant. Different geographical locations, socio-economic and political changes should also be considered when evaluating those available theories. In the context of the current world characterized by the use of modern mobile technologies, this book provides the detailed literature on technology for language learning and theories of second language acquisition, and it evaluates the validity and relevance of Krashen’s Input Hypothesis based on the case of Rwanda, a small landlocked, non-industrialized monolingual country of Africa, which shifted from its colonial legacy ‘French’ to the liberation anthem ‘English’ as the foreign language used as a medium of instruction at all levels of education since 2008.
Explores the role of oral interaction for second language learning from cognitive, social, pedagogical and linguistic perspectives, with a focus on research relevant to English language learners aged 5-18 in a variety of classroom contexts.
The objective of this study is to estimate inflation threshold and examine its impact on the inflation-growth nexus in selected African regional economic communities. While a number of empirical studies exist in this area for developing countries, they bundle up countries from Asia, Africa and Latin America which do not have the same inflation experiences. This study therefore focuses on Africa. However, since African regional groupings themselves have different inflation experiences, non-linearity in the relationship between inflation and growth is explored within each grouping separately. The study uses dynamic panel threshold modeling recently suggested by Kremer et al. (2013) which extends the non-dynamic panel threshold model of Hansen (1999) and the cross-sectional threshold model of Caner and Hansen (2004). The results indicate that the estimated inflation threshold is different across the regional economic communities. Nonlinearity in inflation-growth nexus seems to hold in CEMAC, COMESA and SADC while it is questioned in WAEMU and WAMZ. For CEMAC, COMESA and SADC, the findings indicate that inflation above the threshold is harmful to growth. Some correlations are established in this study but further analysis is needed to suggest a policy.
Воспроизведено в оригинальной авторской орфографии издания 1884 года (издательство "New York, William Wood and Company").