Responding to marine pollution incidents arising from hazardous and noxious substances (HNS) pollution is a highly complex, costly and specialized activity. Notwithstanding the complexity and high costs of putting in place a HNS marine pollution response system, safety risks and impacts to the public, the marine environment and the responding personnel associated with HNS can be potentially severe and thus the need for littoral States to develop appropriate systems for preparedness and response to HNS marine pollution. Consequently, the need for a HNS preparedness and response system cannot be overemphasized in the face of increased seaborne transport of HNS. This work is a legal analysis of the Protocol on Preparedness, Response and Co-operation to Pollution Incidents by Hazardous and Noxious Substances, 2000 (OPRC-HNS Protocol) adopted by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) on the 15th of March, 2000. The work is directed towards the implementation of the OPRC-HNS Protocol in Kenya but raises issues that could easily be identified with the countries of the Eastern African region. The work identifies the emerging challenges in the implem
Over the last fifty years the international community has struggled to put into effect an international legal regime for dealing with transport of hazardous substances at sea. The accidents from such transportation are both numerous and potentially devastating, thus making the drafting of such an instrument essential. The most comprehensive and thorough attempt at establishing such a regime is the drafting of the Convention on Liability and Compensation for Damage in Connection with the Carriage of Hazardous and Noxious Substances by Sea (HNS Convention). The Convention seeks to provide a uniform response to damage caused by HNS at sea-transport by establishing a two tier system of liability of both the ship owner and the HNS Fund. Despite the innovative and effective elements of the HNS Convention, the latter has not yet came into force and in fact a Protocol was drafted in 2010 in order to smooth those issues that caused contradiction and hesitation from the side of the State Parties. My books deals with the HNS Convention and 2010 Protocol and attempts to shed some light on the various implications of the first and second tier of compensation for the related industries.
The author covers a host of important issues including • Panchayats as a Linkage: Relating Accelerated Growth with Inclusive Growth • Institutional Arrangements: Functions, Functionaries and Finances for Panchayats • Panchayats in Planning and Implementation, and • Gram Sabhas Understanding grassroots governance in the context of existing political system as also recognizing the needs of the people, this volume will be of constant interest to students and scholars of politics, history and sociology, as well as to social activists and journalists.
The book discusses challenges facing the implementation community policing initiative in Kenya with a case reference to Kibera community policing pilot site, in Nairobi.Theoretical discussions about the challenges facing the residents and the police in community policing have not been appropriately documented in the existing empirical studies in Kenya.Secondly, observations about the empirically based research in Kibera, in order to be useful in building a body of knowledge, need to be generalizable to other pilot sites.The study therefore sought to generate baseline data that can be used to evaluate the success of community policing and make decisions on whether to expand the programme.The study identified the key constraints to implementation of community policing as follows: poor public image of the police force; poor customer service procedures within the police force which discourage the residents from reporting crime and belief by the residents that crime is a source of livelihood for some people hence it would be difficult to eliminate.The study provides recommendations for the community and the police which if applied will see a vibrant crime prevention strategy in Kenya.
This book is a summary of a research work done in Kakamega County of Kenya in establishing the challenges experienced by Banks in effecting Credit Bureau Regulations established by the Central Bank of Kenya. Access of credit has been a big challenge especially to the SME segment and hence this piece of work can be employed by the government and banks in the view of addressing these challenges and implementing the recommendations
The book analyses the impact of globalization on the ability of the Westphalian state to regulate the use of small arms and retain the monopoly over the legitimate use of force. The study highlights the issues and challenges impacting the ability of the state in Africa in particular in combating illicit proliferation of small arms and light weapons (SALW). The Study does link the illicit proliferation of SALW in Africa to among other factors the proxy wars on the continent during the cold war and in its aftermath. This is due to the fact that excess surplus of arms especially in Eastern Europe were readily available to criminal groups with minimal regulation. The study identifies the impact of illicit SALW on the Great Lakes Region of Africa with emphasis on Kenya and Uganda. A critical analysis of the implementation of the Nairobi Protocol is conducted.A comparative analysis is made between the small arms regulatory framework of the EU with that under the Nairobi Protocol. The author contends that the small arms and light weapons industry is the least regulated globally. The study calls for a global consensus and action towards the enactment of an Arms Trade Treaty.
Offshore software development outsourcing (OSDO) is an emerging business approach adopted by many software development organizations in developed countries. Developing software at offshore locations has many benefits including access to large labor pool, low development cost and round-the-clock development. However, in spite of these benefits OSDO presents a variety of challenges to the software development organizations including temporal, geographical and intercultural differences. Intercultural differences cause many problems to vendors in OSDO relationships. This research seeks to identify the potential intercultural challenges faced by vendors in OSDO relationships by reviewing the literature in a systematic way. We have developed a systematic literature review (SLR) protocol, and are in the process of implementing the protocol. SLR is based on a structured protocol, and is therefore, different from ordinary literature review. The expected outcomes of this review will be the identification of intercultural challenges faced by vendor organizations in the establishment and maintenance of OSDO relationships.
The study focused on investigating the challenges in implementation of children’s right to worship. It explored the gaps that exist between the knowledge of children’s right to worship on one hand and practice of the right on the other. Special interest centered on the social, economic and cultural determinants in community’s knowledge, attitudes and practices of the right. The study used both qualitative and quantitative data collection methods that included key informants, informal interviews and questionnaires. Teachers, parents and children’s workers were purposely chosen as respondents to this study as their experience and influence in children’s life would serve more meaningful contributions to the study. At the end of the study, it was evident that the community was aware of children’s rights in general. However, there was a disparity between the community's understanding of the definition and the scope of the right to worship in respect to the provisions of international conventions. As a result, there was conflict between the understandings of whom, how and to what extent the right to worship ought to be determined, promoted and protected among children.
Since its advent, MANET has figured an increasingly growing demand in the era of communication. But the self configuring infrastructure less network of MANET gives rise to the main and the most challenging area of concern- development of a routing protocol which quickly adapts to this changing topology. On top of this MANET also needs to be secured from the attacks of malicious nodes, which have a great chance of creeping in into the network due to its central infrastructure less backbone. Our new protocol scheme provides a new method of routing with the help of factors like trust calculation and administrator selection which helps to adapt to the constant changing topology and also able to mitigate malicious attacks.
One of the greatest challenges that developing countries are facing is the provision of quality and equitable healthcare for citizens. One of the barriers to achieving this goal is how to raise adequate funds to provide the services, and prudent use of the resources. This publication gives and insight on the challenges facing public healthcare financing strategies in Kenya, and by extension, other countries with similar health systems functionality in Africa. Health policy makers, managers and students with interest in health financing and management will find the publication to be of great help.
Forced migration is not a new phenomenon, however the problem of refugees has taken a more pronounced dimensions in contemporary world, creating new forms of challenges. On its inception, the United Nations placed the issue of refugee protection as one of the most pressing global problems in agenda. The UN Convention on Refugee (1951) and its 1967 Protocol form the basis of international refugee law, and place the responsibility of refugee protection as a responsibility of international community, with United Nations High Commission for Refugees and states as central players.Besides, in the African context, the OAU Convention on Refugees is a source of those laws. This work examines the implementation of refugee law in Kenya. It seeks to answer the question, to what extent is Kenya guided by the provisions of international refugee conventions in refugee protection? It analyzes the policies that have been put in place by the state as well as the role of the UN refugee agency and Non-Governmental Organizations in refugee protection. The study establishes that security concerns are core in determining compliance by the states in the implementation of international refugee law.
The African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights has been facing a number of challenges, which, in most cases, emanate from its implementation process. The African Charter, to a large extent, makes enforcement dependent on the discretion of national authorities; as a result its impact on various sectors is very minimal. The problem becomes worse with respect to the implementation of the Women’s Protocol. This instrument was established to strengthen the normative and structural frameworks for women’s rights protection in Africa. But practically, one may not get a positive answer with regard to the question how far African states revealed practical and genuine commitment in implementing the protocol and address the question of women’s rights in concrete terms. Focusing on South Africa, this book explains the extent of the impact of these instruments on the South African judiciary.In addressing this issue, the book analyzes how these instruments are used in the various decisions of the South African courts. It also identifies the factors that enhance or impede the impact of these instruments on the South African judiciary.
From 1961, when Tanganyika by then now Tanzania got its Independence from British colonization, its foreign policy has been changing from time to time depending on various factors, one is the charisma of the president in power as when the nation was led by the late Mwalimu Nyerere the country was relatively active in its foreign policy especially on the decolonization of the African Continent. This made even the nature of challenges to be of more political in nature than economic due to the leverages enjoyed from the cold war environment. But, from 1990's when muilt- partism came into existence, the nature of of challenges had to shift from political to economy as the leverages which were enjoyed by the country from the cold war had seized, the nature of economic relations shifted from aid to international trade.
Modern day avionics and satellite communication systems communicate with each other using MIL-STD- 1553B bus protocol. This book aim to provide an intensive study for the software and hardware level implementation of MIL-STD-1553B bus protocol on FPGA board using a new methodology of digital phase lock loop (DPLL). The book describes the basics of bus protocol, modular level implementation of different units of protocol and software & hardware implementation issues and their solutions. ISE Xilinx Spartan 3 FPGA kit is used for the execution of different modules of protocol like UART, Bus Controller, Manchester encoder/decoder and DPLL. DPLL is used for data clock recovery from encoded Manchester data of the channel at receiver end, instead of implementing common practice of initiating a separate clock for encoded Manchester data processing. Usage of DPLL, resolves the synchronization issues, a major concern in high data rate embedded systems and increases the integrity and reliability of the system. The actual implementation of different transactions of bus i.e. BC to RT and RT to RT is discussed in detailed.
Increasingly, there are tendencies observable aimed at improving the social service provision, in order to cope more effectively with the significant social challenges that the world is facing nowadays. Social Impact Bonds (SIBs) are an example of such an innovation, introducing evidence base and business acumen into the solving of social challenges. This book assesses the potential implementation of Social Impact Bonds in emerging and developing countries by evaluating potential challenges and solutions to the establishment process. The thorough analysis of the SIB model and the specific conditions in these markets is based on literature reviews, reports on existing and planned SIBs, and interviews with several experts.