This book presents the methods, tools and techniques that are currently being used to recognise (automatically) the affect, emotion, personality and everything else beyond linguistics (‘paralinguistics’) expressed by or embedded in human speech and language. It is the first book to provide such a systematic survey of paralinguistics in speech and language processing. The technology described has evolved mainly from automatic speech and speaker recognition and processing, but also takes into account recent developments within speech signal processing, machine intelligence and data mining. Moreover, the book offers a hands-on approach by integrating actual data sets, software, and open-source utilities which will make the book invaluable as a teaching tool and similarly useful for those professionals already in the field. Key features: Provides an integrated presentation of basic research (in phonetics/linguistics and humanities) with state-of-the-art engineering approaches for speech signal processing and machine intelligence. Explains the history and state of the art of all of the sub-fields which contribute to the topic of computational paralinguistics. C overs the signal processing and machine learning aspects of the actual computational modelling of emotion and personality and explains the detection process from corpus collection to feature extraction and from model testing to system integration. Details aspects of real-world system integration including distribution, weakly supervised learning and confidence measures. Outlines machine learning approaches including static, dynamic and context‑sensitive algorithms for classification and regression. Includes a tutorial on freely available toolkits, such as the open-source ‘openEAR’ toolkit for emotion and affect recognition co-developed by one of the authors, and a listing of standard databases and feature sets used in the field to allow for immediate experimentation enabling the reader to build an emotion detection model on an existing corpus.
A complete overview of distant automatic speech recognition The performance of conventional Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) systems degrades dramatically as soon as the microphone is moved away from the mouth of the speaker. This is due to a broad variety of effects such as background noise, overlapping speech from other speakers, and reverberation. While traditional ASR systems underperform for speech captured with far-field sensors, there are a number of novel techniques within the recognition system as well as techniques developed in other areas of signal processing that can mitigate the deleterious effects of noise and reverberation, as well as separating speech from overlapping speakers. Distant Speech Recognitionpresents a contemporary and comprehensive description of both theoretic abstraction and practical issues inherent in the distant ASR problem. Key Features: Covers the entire topic of distant ASR and offers practical solutions to overcome the problems related to it Provides documentation and sample scripts to enable readers to construct state-of-the-art distant speech recognition systems Gives relevant background information in acoustics and filter techniques, Explains the extraction and enhancement of classification relevant speech features Describes maximum likelihood as well as discriminative parameter estimation, and maximum likelihood normalization techniques Discusses the use of multi-microphone configurations for speaker tracking and channel combination Presents several applications of the methods and technologies described in this book Accompanying website with open source software and tools to construct state-of-the-art distant speech recognition systems This reference will be an invaluable resource for researchers, developers, engineers and other professionals, as well as advanced students in speech technology, signal processing, acoustics, statistics and artificial intelligence fields.
Automatic speech recognition (ASR) systems are finding increasing use in everyday life. Many of the commonplace environments where the systems are used are noisy, for example users calling up a voice search system from a busy cafeteria or a street. This can result in degraded speech recordings and adversely affect the performance of speech recognition systems. As the use of ASR systems increases, knowledge of the state-of-the-art in techniques to deal with such problems becomes critical to system and application engineers and researchers who work with or on ASR technologies. This book presents a comprehensive survey of the state-of-the-art in techniques used to improve the robustness of speech recognition systems to these degrading external influences. Key features: Reviews all the main noise robust ASR approaches, including signal separation, voice activity detection, robust feature extraction, model compensation and adaptation, missing data techniques and recognition of reverberant speech. Acts as a timely exposition of the topic in light of more widespread use in the future of ASR technology in challenging environments. Addresses robustness issues and signal degradation which are both key requirements for practitioners of ASR. Includes contributions from top ASR researchers from leading research units in the field
A timely book containing foundations and current research directions on emotion recognition by facial expression, voice, gesture and biopotential signals This book provides a comprehensive examination of the research methodology of different modalities of emotion recognition. Key topics of discussion include facial expression, voice and biopotential signal-based emotion recognition. Special emphasis is given to feature selection, feature reduction, classifier design and multi-modal fusion to improve performance of emotion-classifiers. Written by several experts, the book includes several tools and techniques, including dynamic Bayesian networks, neural nets, hidden Markov model, rough sets, type-2 fuzzy sets, support vector machines and their applications in emotion recognition by different modalities. The book ends with a discussion on emotion recognition in automotive fields to determine stress and anger of the drivers, responsible for degradation of their performance and driving-ability. There is an increasing demand of emotion recognition in diverse fields, including psycho-therapy, bio-medicine and security in government, public and private agencies. The importance of emotion recognition has been given priority by industries including Hewlett Packard in the design and development of the next generation human-computer interface (HCI) systems. Emotion Recognition: A Pattern Analysis Approach would be of great interest to researchers, graduate students and practitioners, as the book Offers both foundations and advances on emotion recognition in a single volume Provides a thorough and insightful introduction to the subject by utilizing computational tools of diverse domains Inspires young researchers to prepare themselves for their own research Demonstrates direction of future research through new technologies, such as Microsoft Kinect, EEG systems etc.
This book discusses large margin and kernel methods for speech and speaker recognition Speech and Speaker Recognition: Large Margin and Kernel Methods is a collation of research in the recent advances in large margin and kernel methods, as applied to the field of speech and speaker recognition. It presents theoretical and practical foundations of these methods, from support vector machines to large margin methods for structured learning. It also provides examples of large margin based acoustic modelling for continuous speech recognizers, where the grounds for practical large margin sequence learning are set. Large margin methods for discriminative language modelling and text independent speaker verification are also addressed in this book. Key Features: Provides an up-to-date snapshot of the current state of research in this field Covers important aspects of extending the binary support vector machine to speech and speaker recognition applications Discusses large margin and kernel method algorithms for sequence prediction required for acoustic modeling Reviews past and present work on discriminative training of language models, and describes different large margin algorithms for the application of part-of-speech tagging Surveys recent work on the use of kernel approaches to text-independent speaker verification, and introduces the main concepts and algorithms Surveys recent work on kernel approaches to learning a similarity matrix from data This book will be of interest to researchers, practitioners, engineers, and scientists in speech processing and machine learning fields.