Language teaching came into its own as a profession in the last century. Central to this process was the emergence of the concept of methods of language teaching. This research aims to canvass the views about foreign language teaching methods from the teachers. The perceptions of the teachers regarding the teaching methodologies used in L2 classrooms are highlighted in a broader vision. The use of different 2nd language teaching methodologies are discussed in detail with the addition of their results on the language learning abilities of the students. The L2 classrooms in the universities of Pakistan are also benefited from the standard teaching approaches, though the learning is not taking place as it should be. There is a battle going on in the field of foreign language. This research welcomes the perspective of teachers and investigates the needs and demands of teachers which can be followed to enhance the 2nd language learning process. The significance of the research is educational and opens the way for a brighter future of foreign language teachers who are putting efforts to give their students command on the grammatical competence of English.
Amharic is the official language of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia. Many foreigners from different ethno-linguistic groups come to Ethiopia as researchers, missionaries, tourists, employees, investors and official representatives of their countries. These people are eager to learn Amharic in order to communicate, work and share experiences with Ethiopians; however, the efforts of teaching Amharic are accompanied by many problems such as multi-level classes, lack of quality textbooks and other teaching materials, absence of curriculum and poor teaching and testing methods. In order to overcome these problems, learners'' difficulties have to be identified to support textbook writers and second language acquisition researchers. Moreover, it is important to understand the process of second language acquisition. In this book several of the common problems native English speakers face with the Amharic grammar and the acquisition order of Amharic morphemes are discussed in depth. The book is highly valuable as a reference guide for learners, teachers, textbook writers and curriculum designers of Amharic as a Second Language.
This book reports the findings of an investigation into the attitudes of university students in Hong Kong towards native and nonnative teachers of English at six Hong Kong universities, in terms of the teachers'' pedagogy and knowledge of applied linguistics. The data was collected over twelve months, by means of questionnaire surveys, interviews, field notes, classroom observations, and post-classroom-observation interviews. The findings show that most students preferred to study with the native teachers of English. Others did not show any preference towards the native teachers of English or the nonnative teachers of English. Nevertheless, no students expressed that they would prefer to have the nonnative teachers of English. The results of this study provide two important pedagogical implications: Students should be made aware of the Hong Kong accented English, and the importance of intelligibility of English. The book is addressed to graduate students and researchers in education and social science, particularly those who are interested in the issue of native and nonnative teachers of English.
It is apparent that Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) is one of the common approaches worldwide. It has been advocated by a number of linguists, methodologists and English teachers as one of the effective and successful English language teaching approaches. This book focuses on this approach and its applicability in general and Kurdistan Region-Iraq in particular. This approach concentrates mainly on communicative competence rather than grammatical competence. Many teachers try to use this approach in their teaching but fail to apply it utterly. This book also explores and undertakes the difficulties that preclude teachers in implementing this approach with some suggestions to bar these difficulties.
The strategies for teaching English have undergone various changes due to the gradual changes in the approaches that underpin language learning. This study sought to investigate how teachers of English in a Tanzanian secondary school use various strategies to help learners develop communicative competence in English. The literature reveals that the teaching of English in Tanzania is encumbered by many challenges. The study confirmed that both teachers and students face challenges that impede the use of more effective. strategies in developing language competence. Such challenges include learners’ language background, inadequate teaching and learning resources and teachers’ lack of knowledge and skills in using CLT methodology, coupled with poor teacher training among other challenges. In addition, the findings established that though the teachers of English endeavor to use a variety of strategies, there is a need to improve the way these strategies are used so as to develop communicative language competence in learners. The study recommends that teachers of English should employ more interactive CLT strategies that would enhance communicative language competence in learners.
Literature in English is a very difficult subject to all teachers and students whose first language is not English. In this book, there is deep exploration of Literary reviews on attitudes of those who teach Literature in English and also those who learn. In the modern day of technology, information dissemination through the internet is becoming handy with students as well as teachers. The publication of this book is an extended arm of endeavors to reach teachers and learners of Literature in English with a compilation of literary reviews of attitudes towards teaching and learning Literature in English and how they could be improved. Special attention is paid to a non-speaking English Language country of Zimbabwe where a research has been done in the rural areas.
Teaching and assessment of listening as an integral part of ELT has been ignored for long in Kenya. Listening has been assumed to be innate. It was not until 2006 that Kenya made efforts to integrate its teaching. This book is the product of a study to measure learners'' listening comprehension competence. The study tested learners'' listening proficiency, listening materials and teaching strategies used. Data was drawn from students and teachers through audio test, questionnaire,and content analysis. Statistics used were, means, ANOVA,correlations and the t- test. Course books were found to be deficient in listening materials,teachers were not deliberately trained on teaching listening skills and students performed poorly in listening. They scored better on explicit items than on inferential items. Urban school students had an edge over the rural students and those in boarding schools performed better on the Listening Comprehension Test (LCT) than those in day schools. There was no consistent relationship between girls'' and boys'' performance. It was concluded that gender did not make a difference in performance in LCT.
This book is an inquiry into teachers’ belief of inter/cultural teaching (IC) in the Chinese English language teaching (ELT) context in which teachers’ understanding is fundamental to any pedagogical practice or reform. Through a questionnaire survey among Chinese English teachers, the author tends to find out the status quo of teachers’ perception on various aspects of IC-oriented ELT context in China, including teacher’s perspective of the objectives of language and culture teaching; teacher’s understanding of ‘culture’; the cultural topics they favored to teach in the classroom; the techniques they use to teach culture; time allocation to cultural teaching and finally their attitudes towards intercultural communicative competence . The results suggest that the Chinese English teachers’ conceptualization of ICC and its relevance to ELT is vague in spite of their perceived goal and desire to develop students’ ICC. Such results indicate the significance of intercultural teacher education and interculturalization of ELT in the Chinese context.
This book focuses on the need of training teachers to apply CLIL methodology to the current education system. There is already research written on the need of applying CLIL methodology to the present education system in order to satisfy the needs of the global society in which the command and the appropriate use of languages is becoming essential in the world today. In fact, there have already been some initiatives at different centers in Spain to apply this methodology. However, after considering these previous experiences, I believe in the imperative need of training teachers to apply successfully CLIL methodology. Therefore, this book presents an experiment in which students of English philology at Universitat Jaume I elaborated a didactic unit for a subject in secondary education to be implemented following CLIL methodology. These didactic units were analyzed empirically and the results showed information and data that could identify some student’s characteristics and needs, which in further research may determine the way to prepare a training plan for future teachers to implement CLIL methodology efficiently in secondary education.
English has currently been spoken all over the world, which substantially influences its development. In Bangladesh, English is studied and increasingly spoken on daily basis by some people and it has emerged as a noticeable variety not necessarily in conformity with either British English or American English. It is a matter of regret that most of the secondary level students in our country are out of the touch of developing speaking skill in English. As a result, errors remain in spoken English. Most of the cases, errors are found in pronunciation and grammar which are the integral and integrated part of second or foreign language since it directly affects the speaker’s communicative competence as well as performance.This research monograph reviews errors on phonological and grammatical aspects of spoken English with theoretical background and procedures of error analysis.It empirically through qualitative and quantitative method finds out the errors & reasons in pronunciation, articles, auxiliaries and prepositions. Finally, it provides some recommendations for effective remedial measures for developing spoken English in the light of the theoretical and empirical findings.
This study investigates the unique experience of Arab teachers’ integration in Jewish schools through exploring differences in self-concept between them and their counterparts who teach at Arab schools. The study aims to identify and predict the factors which relate to the differences, given the unique socio-political context of the Arab-Jewish conflict. In addition, it investigates Arab teachers’ attitudes towards the languages they teach-Arabic and English, as well as identity-related aspects. The quantitative analysis indicates that Arab teachers at Jewish schools have higher self-concepts than their counterparts who teach at Arab schools. Moreover, the findings show that Arab teachers who teach at Jewish schools have got more positive attitudes towards the languages they teach (Arabic and English) than their counterparts who teach at Arab schools. The study’s findings give further support to the existing project in encouraging the integration of Arab teachers in Jewish schools while maintaining the positive attitudes towards the languages they teach; sustain positive relationships between teachers, students and parents; and raise integrative motivation among Arab teachers.
Intercultural competence is undoubtedly a requirement for living, working, and playing in the new global age of incredible interconnectedness in which cultures either mesh or clash. This competence is even more crucial for those entrusted with the onerous responsibility of shaping and molding the minds of students and potential future leaders. Against this backdrop, it is the author's belief that teachers at all levels of the education enterprise need to become students of culture to enable them to add clarity, definition, and focus to their calling and profession. Let's get to work!
This study was an investigation on "interactive teaching methods in developing oral communicative competence in learners of English Language."The objectives were:to establish the interactive methods used to teach oral skills,to determine the effect interactive teaching methods have on oral language learning, to find out factors that inhibit effective teaching and learning of oral communicative skills.The study was based on'The Communicative Language Teaching Theory'and 'Classroom Interaction Analysis Theory' by Sinclair and Coulthard(1975).Descriptive research design was employed in the study.The district has 33 secondary schools.The target population was all secondary school students and teachers of English of Form three,from the 33 schools.The population was selected using Stratified random sampling technique,arriving at a total of 13 secondary schools.The research instruments used:teacher interview,classroom observation,audio-tape recording and document analysis.Collected data was analyzed qualitatively using descriptive statistics to get means,frequencies and percentages showing the relationship between teacher methodology and learner's oral competence.
Intercultural Communication Competence (ICC) is a global necessity for communicating efficiently with others. This study is based on three objectives: (a) to investigate the level of ICC among Yemeni undergraduate English language learners (YUELLs); (b) to identify the factors that possibly affect their ICC levels; and (c) to highlight the most effective ways to improve their levels of ICC. The mixed methods approach was adopted in which the questionnaire and email interviewing were used to gather the data concurrently. The findings show that YUELLs generally have a moderate level of ICC due to many factors: the native culture which highly determines peoples’ perceptions and behaviors. In addition, "attitudes towards learning English" is another best predictor of ICC. Also, many attainable ways that help learners to improve their levels of ICC are raised. This book presents significant recommendations, values and results which contribute to the development of future researches, decision-making, and syllabus in higher educational institutions by putting these results into practice so as to better prepare learners to communicate successfully in different intercultural environments.
The research discussed in this book sought to penetrate the functional role of teachers and students attitudes towards Christian Religious Education in Kenya. A mixed methods (qualitative and quantitative) approach was employed with the investigations being 'ex post facto' in design. A random stratified procedure was employed to select the constituents of the sample. The sample consisted of 49 teachers and 909 students. The methodology, findings, discussions, conclusions and recommendations of the research are presented in the book.