The manual considers natural and anthropogenic factors of soil acidification, forms and parameters of soil acidity and methods of their determination, reclamation principles of acid soils, the concept of the acid?base buffering of soils. The main educational sources are cited.The manual can be used for the courses of lectures in Soil Science, Soil Chemistry, and Ecology.
Forest soils are the foundation of the entire forest ecosystem and complex, long-term interactions between trees, soil animals, and the microbial community shape soils in was that are very distinct from agricultural soils. The composition, structure, and processes in forest soils at any given time reflect current conditions, as well as the legacies of decades (and even millennia) of interactions that shape each forest soil. Reciprocal interactions are fundamental; vegetation alters soil physical properties, which influence soil biology and chemistry, which in turn influence the growth and success of plants. These dynamic systems may be strongly influenced by intentional and unintentional management, ranging from fire to fertilization. Sustaining the long-term fertility of forest soils depends on insights about a diverse array of soil features and changes over space and time. Since the third edition of this successful book many new interests in forest soils and their management have arisen, including the role of forest soils in sequestering carbon, and how management influences rates of carbon accumulation. This edition also expands the consideration of how soils are sampled and characterized, and how tree species differ in their influence on soil development. Clearly structured throughout, the book opens with the origins of forest soil science and ends with the application of soil science principles to land management. This new edition provides: A completely revised and updated Fourth Edition of this classic textbook in the field A coherent overview of the major issues surrounding the ecology and management of forest soils Global in scope with coverage of soil types ranging from the tropical rainforest soils of Latin America to the boreal forest soils of Siberia New chapters on Management: Carbon sequestration; Evidence-based approaches and applications of geostatistics, GIS and taxonomies A clear overview of each topic, informative examples/case studies, and an overall context for helping readers think clearly about forest soils An introduction to the literature of forest soil science and to the philosophy of forest soil science research This coherent overview of the major issues surrounding the ecology and management of forest soils will be particularly useful to students taking courses in soil science, forestry, agronomy, ecology, natural resource management, environmental management and conservation, as well as professionals in forestry dealing with the productivity of forests and functioning of watersheds.
Trace elements occur naturally in soils and some are essential nutrients for plant growth as well as human and animal health. However, at elevated levels, all trace elements become potentially toxic. Anthropogenic input of trace elements into the natural environment therefore poses a range of ecological and health problems. As a result of their persistence and potential toxicity, trace elements continue to receive widespread scientific and legislative attention. Trace Elements in Soils reviews the latest research in the field, providing a comprehensive overview of the chemistry, analysis, fate and regulation of trace elements in soils, as well as remediation strategies for contaminated soil. The book is divided into four sections: • Basic principles, processes, sampling and analytical aspects: presents an overview including general soil chemistry, soil sampling, analysis, fractionation and speciation. • Long-term issues, impacts and predictive modelling: reviews major sources of metal inputs, the impact on soil ecology, trace element deficient soils and chemical speciation modelling. • Bioavailability, risk assessment and remediation: discusses bioavailability, regulatory limits and cleanup technology for contaminated soils including phytoremediation and trace element immobilization. • Characteristics and behaviour of individual elements Written as an authoritative guide for scientists working in soil science, geochemistry, environmental science and analytical chemistry, the book is also a valuable resource for professionals involved in land management, environmental planning, protection and regulation.
Wiley has long held a pre-eminent position as a publisher of books on geotechnical engineering, with a particular strength in soil behavior and soil mechanics, at both the academic and professional level. This reference will be the first book focused entirely on the unique engineering properties of residual soil. Given the predominance of residual soils in the under-developed parts of the United States and the Southern Hemisphere, and the increasing rate of new construction in these regions, the understanding of residual soils is expected to increase in importance in the coming years. This book will be written for the practicing geotechnical engineer working to any degree with residual soils. It will describe the unique properties of residual soil and provide innovative design techniques for building on it safely.The author will draw on his 30 years of practical experience as a practicing geotechnical engineer, imbuing the work with real world examples and practice problems influenced by his work in South America and Southeast Asia.
While organic soils have the potential to contribute greatly to agricultural production, the irreversible processes that occur from draining organic soils need to be managed with caution. The wise use of peatlands must include the avoidance of unacceptable ecological effects on the contiguous and global environment. Organic Soils and Peat Materials for Sustainable Agriculture provides detailed information from a worldwide perspective on the degradation process of fragile peat resources used for agriculture. It documents the best management practices and defines and quantifies soil quality indicators and pedo-transfer functions for organic soils and peat materials.Co-published with the International Peat Society, this reference is the first to integrate the physical, chemical, and biological aspects of organic soils and peat materials for sustainable agriculture and horticulture. It details the principles and indicators behind positive action in sustainable management. The book presents a complete analysis of how peat works chemically, physically, and ecologically. It quantifies the moorsh-forming, or peat degradation, process in tables and figures, provides conversion equations among pH determination methods, and supplies a novel diagnosis of N and P release. In addition, the book revisits water, pesticides, phosphorus, and copper sorption characteristics of organic soils.The authors provide up-to-date information in order to define quality indicators for the optimum use of organic soils. With detailed information and a global perspective, Organic Soils and Peat Materials for Sustainable Agriculture aims to promote a shift from the current paradigm of input-based unsustainable use to a new knowledge-based approach.
An understanding of the mechanical properties of unsaturated soils is crucial for geotechnical engineers worldwide, as well as to those concerned with the interaction of structures with the ground. This book deals principally with fine-grained clays and silts, or soils containing coarser sand and gravel particles but with a significant percentage of fines. The study of unsaturated soil is a practical subject, linking fundamental science to nature. Soils in general are inherently variable and their behaviour is not easy to analyse or predict, and unsaturated soils raise the complexity to a higher level. Even amongst practicing engineers, there is often lack of awareness of the intricacies of the subject. This book offers a perspective of unsaturated soils based on recent research and demonstrates how this dovetails with the general discipline of soil mechanics. Following an introduction to the basic soil variables, the phases, the phase interactions and the relevance of soil structure, an up-to-date review of laboratory testing techniques is presented. This includes suction measurement and control techniques in triaxial cell testing. This is followed by an introduction to stress state variables, critical state and theoretical models in unsaturated soils. A detailed description of the thermodynamic principles as applied to multi-phase materials under equilibrium conditions follows. These principles are then used to explore and develop a fundamental theoretical basis for analysing unsaturated soils. Soil structure is broken down into its component parts to develop equations describing the dual stress regime. The critical state strength and compression characteristics of unsaturated soils are examined and it is shown how the behaviour may be viewed as a three-dimensional model in dimensionless stress-volume space. The analysis is then extended to the work input into unsaturated soils and the development of conjugate stress, volumetric and strain-increment variables. These are used to examine the micromechanical behaviour of kaolin specimens subjected to triaxial shear strength tests and lead to observations not detectable by other means. Unsaturated Soils: A fundamental interpretation of soil behaviour covers a rapidly advancing area of study, research and engineering practice and offers a deeper appreciation of the key characteristics of unsaturated soil. It provides students and researchers with a framework for understanding soil behaviour and demonstrates how to interpret experimental strength and compression data. provides engineers with a deeper appreciation of key characteristics of unsaturated soils covers a rapidly advancing area of study, research and engineering practice provides students and researchers a framework for understanding soil behaviour shows how to interpret experimental data on strength and compression the limited number of books on the subject are all out of date
In The State of Southern Illinois: An Illustrated History, Herbert K. Russell offers fresh interpretations of a number of important aspects of Southern Illinois history. Focusing on the area known as "Egypt", the region south of U.S. Route 50 from Salem south to Cairo, he begins his book with the earliest geologic formations and follows Southern Illinois's history into the twenty-first century. The volume is richly illustrated with maps and photographs, mostly in color, that highlight the informative and straightforward text. Perhaps most notable is the author's use of dozens of heretofore neglected sources to dispel the myth that Southern Illinois is merely an extension of Dixie. He corrects the popular impressions that slavery was introduced by early settlers from the South and that a majority of Southern Illinoisans wished to secede. Furthermore, he presents the first in-depth discussion of twelve pre-Civil War, free black communities located in the region. He also identifies the roles coal mining, labor violence, gangsters, and the media played in establishing the area's image. He concludes optimistically, unveiling a twenty-first-century Southern Illinois filled with myriad attractions and opportunities for citizens and tourists alike. The State of Southern Illinois is the most accurate all-encompassing volume of history on this unique area that often regards itself as a state within a state. It offers an entirely new perspective on race relations, provides insightful information on the cultural divide between north and south in Illinois, and pays tribute to an often neglected and misunderstood region of this multidimensional state, all against a stunning visual backdrop.
The manual presents general information on the chemistry, pedochemistry, and geochemistry of aluminum, considers the main groups of aluminum compounds in the soil solid phase and the soil solution, as well as processes with the participation of mobile aluminum in the soils of humid extratropical regions. Special attention is given to the toxic properties of aluminum compounds, as well as toxic effects and parameters for the estimation of the toxicity of aluminum compounds. Methods for the determination of toxic aluminum compounds in soil solutions and surface waters. The manual can be used for the courses of lectures in Soil Science, Soil Chemistry, and Ecology.
This guidebook is one of the first to give a comprehensive treatment of the basics, aims and methods of biological soil decontamination. It first presents the characteristics of contaminated soils and then moves on to the basics of the microbial degradation of toxic substances. Detailed descriptions of the various methods come next, e.g. decontamination techniques either in the laboratory or on the spot. These descriptions generally cover: General Remarks, Measurement Principles, Instruments, Reactants, Procedures, Standardization, Calculation of Results, Discussion/Interpretation of Data, References. Moreover these vital questions are answered: * How are such soil decontaminations planned and carried out? * Which regulations (safety etc) must be adhered to? * How can soils be reused? This excellent guide is an indispensable handbook for soil decontamination firms, disposal site operators, laboratories for environmental analysis and ecotoxicology, environmental bureaus, soil scientists, agricultural scientists, soil microbiologists, agricultural scientists, engineers.
Полный вариант заголовка: «An account of travels into the interior of Southern Africa, in the years 1797 and 1798 : including cursory observations on the geology and geography of the southern part of that continent, the natural history of such objects as occurred in the animal, vegetable, and mineral kingdoms, and sketches of the physical and moral characters of the various tribes of inhabitants surrounding the settlement of the Cape of Good Hope. To which is annexed, a description of the present state, population, and produce of that extensive colony / by John Barrow».