Lignocellulosic biomass is a renewable and abundant resource with great potential for bioconversion to value-added bioproducts like enzymes. Cellulase is the potential industrial enzyme because of its utility in many tremendous industries and bioconversion of lignocellulosics into soluble sugars. Saccharum spontaneum has low lignin content as compared to cellulose and hemicellulose so it is a potential source for cellulase production. Pretreatment methods removes lignin from lignocellulose structure and also these methods can hydrolyze part of the hemicellulose and increases the enzyme accessibility to cellulose. My research efforts have been aimed in low cost, augmented celulase production by using pretreated Saccharum spontaneum and optimization of fermentation process using cellulolytic Bacillus species.
Enzyme production from lignocellulosic biomass is sustainable owing to their ubiquitious nature and non-competitivness with food crops. Agrowastes accumulate in envonment in substantial amounts as pollutants, and primarily comprise of cellulose and hemicellulose that can be saccharified by cellulases to produce fermentable sugars yielding bioethanol. However, cellulase production cost is major impediment in bioenergy production scenario. Saccharum spontaneum is an abundantly found agrowaste with high cellulose content which can be employed for cellulase production through biological route. In present investigation, cellulase production was significantly elevated through substrate delignification and process optimization by employment of fungal strain Trichoderma viride. Therefore, cost effective cellulase production can be achieved by exploiting cheaper substrates, effective pretreatment and process enhancement strategies for economical fermentation.
This work is all about producing bioethanol as an alternative fuel from lignocellulosic biomass. Lignocellulosic biomass used here is saccharum spontaneum; a hardy weed prevalent in all over india and subtropical climate with little or no economic value. Microorganism used here is Pichia stipitis a yeast that can degrade both hexoses and pentoses efficiently. This work is novel in its approach of using a different substrate and an efficient microbe.
Cellulase is a multienzyme system responsible for hydrolysis of cellulose to glucose. It is commercially very important enzyme for the generation of glucose from lignocellulosic waste. Production of glucose is commercially viable process for the direct conversion of cellulosic material to glucose. Cellulase can be synthesized and purified by the growth of A. niger and other microbes under optimized condition which could be used for the production of glucose, ethanol etc from lignocellulosic waste for the benefit of mankind.
This book describes about the isolation and screening of Lignocellulolytic microorganisms especially fungi and bacteria for pulp and paper industry. The main aim of this work is to address the following points- * Isolation of lignocellulolytic bacteria and fungi through degraded wood and soil samples collected from different locations of reserve forest of F. R. I., Dehradun. * Production of cellulase enzyme through fermentation process. * Screening of the enzymes produced by lignocellulolytic microorganisms. * Estimation of CMCase and FPase activity by using DNS reagent.
Microorganisms bring about most of the cellulose degradation occurring in nature. In the present study, optimization for cellulase production by Aspergillus niger was investigated by using paddy straw as substrate.Cellulase enzyme was produced by the fungus extracellularly. Optimization of cellulase production was done by using various physical (Temperature, pH, Salinity and Incubation time) and chemical parameters (Carbon sources and nitrogen sources) which could influence the enzyme activity. Cellulase production was maximum at the temperature 20°C and minimum at 40?C. The optimal pH for the cellulase production was observed maximum in 6.0 and minimum in 7.0. Cellulase production was maximum at 48 hours and minimum at 24 hours. Cellulase production was maximum with when fructose was used as a carbon source and minimum with sucrose. Cellulase production was maximum when Malt extract was used as a nitrogen source and minimum with yeast extract. The cellulase enzyme extract was partially purified and its protein fraction was stained with its molecular weight determination by using SDS-PAGE. It revealed two protein bands with the molecular weights of about 83 kD and 50kD.
This study aims to produce Cellulase Enzyme using Trichoderma reesei and to characterize the same. The development of the cellulase enzyme production medium (CEPM) was started by varying the nitrogen source. Five different nitrogen sources tryptone, soya, yeast, casein and peptone were tested for maximum cellulase activity. Soya was found to produce more cellulase activity. Five different carbon sources namely, cellulose, glucose, potato starch, corn starch and starch were tested for maximum activity. Potato starch was found to produce more cellulase activity. Varying concentrations of soya i.e., from 1% - 5% were then tested. Maximum cellulase activity was seen with 5% soya. Varying concentrations of potato starch from 1% - 5% were then tested. Maximum cellulase activity was seen with 5% potato starch. The effect of pH and temperature on the cellulase activity was also studied. The molecular weight of the cellulase produced was found by running an SDS-PAGE. Two prominent bands were obtained, one at 40kDa and the other at 30kDa. The cellulase activity was also seen using the double layer assay procedure (Congo red plate assay).
Microbial enzymes catalyzing the degradation of cellulose substances play an important role in food, animal feed, textile, fuel, chemical industries. Cellulase is an inducible enzyme complex involving synergistic action of endoglucanase (Cx), exoglucanase (C1) and cellobiase (CB). It is produced by number of bacteria and fungi. The objectives of this study included; bacterial and fungal production of cellulases, evaluation of the physiological behaviour of cellulase producers under nutritional and environmental conditions. Studies were focused on enzyme extraction, partial purification, kinetics behaviour of the enzyme and physicochemical properties. Using some agricultural wastes and by- products as cheap materials for the cellulase production and using shake flasks, solid state cultivation and bioreactor as a batch culture.
Escalating trends in fossil fuel consumption has lead to shortage of energy domains. Cellulosic biomass is regarded the most promising substitute for supplementation of energy demands. Enzyme production from lignocellulosic biomass via biological route seems to be very attractive and sustainable due to ubiquitous nature of biomass and its non-competitiveness with food crops. The key element in bioconversion process of lignocellulosics to biofuels is the hydrolytic enzymes chiefly cellulases. Cellulases are the third largest industrial enzyme in the world and gaining rejuvenated interest due to tremendous applications. Therefore, reduction in cellulase production cost, improvement in cellulolytic potential of microbes and enhancement in sugar yields are extremely accountable to bioethanol production cost. In this context, improvement of microbial strains for over expression of cellulase has evoked tremendous research efforts in commercial fermentation process. Conclusively, proficient cellulase yield by strain improvement of Trichoderma viride and process optimization by exploiting cheaper substrate can govern cost reduction in enzyme production process.
Most of the aquatic systems of tropical & sub tropical countries are infested with weeds, mainly Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes). Since all efforts to eradicate the weed have failed, the concept of "eradication through utilization" has gained importance, worldwide. We have focused on devising suitable strategies for the utilization of these weeds. In this book, our work on the development of a novel solid state fermentation technology for using water hyacinth biomass as substrate for production of industrial enzyme, cellulase, is presented. Three bacteria associated with aquatic weeds have been isolated, identified & used to produce cellulase enzyme using hyacinth as substrate under SSF. Various process parameters influencing enzyme yield have been optimized & a lab scale SSF system has been developed. Scale-up experiments using trays & SSF under non-sterile conditions has been tried. Enzyme produced was partially purified & characterized. Results are highly encouraging for the development of similar technologies for managing such weeds in other countries as well. The impact of weeds will be reduced & local level employment generated if such technologies are adopted.
In the modern era, paper has taken the most important role in the human life. The pulp and paper industry marks uniqueness with respect to the noble product coming out of it in the form of paper. Depletion of forest resources compels the paper industries for waste paper recycling. Deinking of sorted office paper (SOP) is very difficult by conventional techniques. Toner particles produced during conventional repulping process with high cost chemicals are too large to be removed by the flotation and washing processes and are a major technical obstacle for greater use of these varieties. The effect of various enzymes concoctions reduces dirt counts and ERIC values and improved pulp brightness and deinkability of SOP. Enzymes concoctions also reduce ink particles size in terms of number of specks and number of specks/cm3 and stickies. The increased surface roughness determined by AFM and SEM techniques is due to ink detachment and FTIR validates the deinking efficiency due to disappearance of various bands after deinking. A mixture of enzymes containing cellulase, xylanase, amylase and lipase in presence of surfactant during deinking is effective to produce writing and printing grades.
The study was conducted for the production of cellulase enzyme through liquid state bioconversion of palm oil mill effluent (POME) by filamentous fungi and characterization of the produced enzyme. Several experiments such as selection of filamentous fungi, optimization of media and process parameters, development of the separation/purification conditions for ultra-filtration, characterization and evaluation of purified cellulase enzyme through hydrolysis of oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) were carried out to achieve the entire objectives of the study. The results on isolation indicated that among the strains isolated, the strains IBPC108R, IBEC302B and IBEC305B gave the highest FPAse activity (0.3 U/ml) after 2 days of fermentation and IBEC302B showed the highest CMCase activity (0.42 U/ml) after 3 days of fermentation. Among the laboratory stocks, Aspergillus IBO-102MNB, gave the highest FPAse activity (0.28 U/ml) and Aspergillus IBO-103MNB gave the highest CMCase activity (0.62 U/ml) after 2 days of fermentation. Among the strains tested, the Trichoderma reesei RUT C-30, a commercial
Cellulases are a group of enzymes which can effectively degrade the cellulose, thus converting into glucose units which are further fermented by Sacchromyces cervisae into ethanol. These cellulases are produced by a variety of organisms like insects, bacteria and fungi. Fungi are the most potent producers of cellulases in both submerged and solid state fermentation processes. Generaly, cllulase production from fungi is time taking process i.e. their single batch is mostly completed in six to seven days of fermentation period. To overcome this long time span an attempt was made to produce cellulase from bacterial species. The present study was carried out to isolate and identify the cellulose degrading bacteria from soil samples.
Microbial cellulases find applications in various industries and forms a major group of the industrial enzymes. Keeping all the advantages associated with microbial enymes, in this study Cellulase production have been carried out using the fungal strain of Trichoderma reesei by using three different lignocellulosic biomass under solid state fermentation (SSF)conditions. The effect of different basic fermentation parameters on enzyme production were studied. Cellulase obtained, find applications in biofuels productions and bioremediations.
With the recent development of biotechnology, there has been vast interest to use cellulose-digestive microorganisms to convert lignocellulosic biomass to glucose that can be used in different applications such as production of fuel ethanol, use in animal feed, use in waste water treatment and in brewing industry. In the last few decades, the exponential increase in the application of cellulases in various fields demands extension in both qualitative improvement and quantitative enhancement. Quantitative enhancement requires strain improvement and medium optimization for the overproduction of the enzyme as the quantities produced by wild strains are usually too low. The spectacular successful examples of strain improvement in industry are mostly attributed to the extensive application of mutation and selection. Such improved strains can reduce the cost of the processes with increased productivity and may also possess some specialized desirable characteristics. Thus, enhanced cellulase production by strain improvement of Bacillus PC-BC6, optimization of process parameters and using pretreated substrate can be a cheaper source.