The manual is intended for the 5th year students of the Polymer Faculty of 020015 «Chemical Technology» course. The manual reflects the current state of the elastomers science and production technologies. The focus is on technological methods, based on the scientific understanding of the chemistry in the synthesis of general-purpose and special rubbers, their properties and applications.The content of the manual corresponds to the program of the course «Technology of Elastomers». Published by the decision of the Editing and Publishing Board of Kazan National Research Technological University
In-depth knowledge on tribological applications of hybrid composites Synthesis and Tribological Applications of Hybrid Materials provides a comprehensive overview of tribological properties of hybrid composites. The book offers an understanding of the processes, materials, techniques and mechanisms related to the tribological concepts and includes information on the most recent developments in the field. With contributions from an international panel of experts, the book discusses the synthesis and characterization of hybrid materials, as well as their applications in biotechnological and biomedical fields. The book covers a wide-range of versatile topics such as: Tribological assessment on accelerated aging bones in polymeric condition; Nano fracture and wear testing on natural bones; Tribological behaviour of glass fiber with fillers reinforced hybrid polymer composites and jute/glass hybrid composites; Wear properties of glass fiber hybrid, and acid- and silane-modified CNT filled hybrid glass/kenaf epoxy composites; Hybrid natural fibre composites as a friction material; and much more. This important resource: -Discusses recent advancements in the field of tribology and hybrid materials -Offers a guide for professionals in the fields of materials science, mechanical engineering, biomaterials, chemistry, physics and nanotechnology -Integrates theory, synthesis and properties of nybrid materals as well as their applications -Offers an outlook to the future of this burgeoning technology Written for materials scientists, surface chemists, bioengineers, mechanical engineers, engineering scientists and chemical industry professionals, Synthesis and Tribological Applications of Hybrid Materials is a comprehensive resource that explores the most recent developments in the field.
We are surrounded by polymers: Whether it's to prepare a meal, use computer keyboards and mousepads, or step onto a new playground, you'll encounter a plastic product made of polymers. Owing to the extraordinary range of properties accessible in polymeric materials, they play an essential and ubiquitous role in everyday life – from plastics and elastomers on the one hand to natural biopolymers such as DNA and proteins that are essential for life on the other. This desktop and library reference book provides a comprehensive yet concise overview of the materials, manufacture, structure and architecture, properties, processing, and applications of withing the field of polymers. The book offers a unique mix of theory and application, the essential personal reference for anyone studying or working within the field of polymers.
A comprehensive and up-to-date overview of the major mineral and organic fillers for plastics, their production, structure and properties, as well as their applications in terms of primary and secondary functions. Edited and co-authored by Professor Marino Xanthos with contributions by international experts from industry and academia, this book presents methods of mixing/incorporation technologies, surface treatments and modifications for enhanced functionality, an analysis of parameters affecting filler performance and a presentation of current and emerging applications. Additionally, the novel classification according to modification of specific polymer properties rather than filler chemical composition provides a better understanding of the relationships between processing, structure and properties of products containing functional fillers and the identification of new markets and applications. For engineers, scientists and technologists involved in the important sector of polymer composites.
The design of mechanical structures with improved and predictable durability cannot be achieved without a thorough understanding of the mechanisms of fatigue damage and more specifically the relationships between the microstructure of materials and their fatigue properties. Written by leading experts in the field, this book (which is complementary to Fatigue of Materials and Structures: Application to Damage and Design, also edited by Claude Bathias and André Pineau), provides an authoritative, comprehensive and unified treatment of the mechanics and micromechanisms of fatigue in metals, polymers and composites. Each chapter is devoted to one of the major classes of materials or to different types of fatigue damage, thereby providing overall coverage of the field. The book deals with crack initiation, crack growth, low-cycle fatigue, gigacycle fatigue, shorts cracks, fatigue micromechanisms and the local approach to fatigue damage, corrosion fatigue, environmental effects and variable amplitude loadings, and will be an important and much used reference for students, practicing engineers and researchers studying fracture and fatigue in numerous areas of mechanical, structural, civil, design, nuclear, and aerospace engineering as well as materials science.
The design of mechanical structures with predictable and improved durability cannot be achieved without a thorough understanding of the mechanisms of fatigue damage and more specifically the relationships between the microstructure of materials and their fatigue properties. Written by leading researchers in the field, this book, along with the complementary books Fatigue of Materials and Structures: Fundamentals and Application to Damage and Design (both also edited by Claude Bathias and André Pineau), provides an authoritative, comprehensive and unified treatment of the mechanics and micromechanisms of fatigue in metals, polymers and composites. Each chapter is devoted to one of the major classes of materials or to different types of fatigue damage, thereby providing overall coverage of the field. This book deals with multiaxial fatigue, thermomechanical fatigue, fretting-fatigue, influence of defects on fatigue life, cumulative damage and damage tolerance, and will be an important and much used reference for students, practicing engineers and researchers studying fracture and fatigue in numerous areas of materials science and engineering, mechanical, nuclear and aerospace engineering.
Duplex Stainless Steels (DSSs) are chromium-nickel-molybdenum-iron alloys that are usually in proportions optimized for equalizing the volume fractions of austenite and ferrite. Due to their ferritic-austenitic microstructure, they possess a higher mechanical strength and a better corrosion resistance than standard austenitic steels. This type of steel is now increasing its application and market field due to its very good properties and relatively low cost. This book is a review of the most recent progress achieved in the last 10 years on microstructure, corrosion resistance and mechanical strength properties, as well as applications, due to the development of new grades. Special attention will be given to fatigue and fracture behavior and to proposed models to account for mechanical behavior. Each subject will be developed in chapters written by experts recognized around the international industrial and scientific communities. The use of duplex stainless steels has grown rapidly in the last 10 years, particularly in the oil and gas industry, chemical tankers, pulp and paper as well as the chemical industry. In all these examples, topics like welding, corrosion resistance and mechanical strength properties (mainly in the fatigue domain) are crucial. Therefore, the update of welding and corrosion properties and the introduction of topics like texture effects, fatigue and fracture strength properties, and mechanical behavior modeling give this book specific focus and character.
This book is a collection of papers from The American Ceramic Society's 35th International Conference on Advanced Ceramics and Composites, held in Daytona Beach, Florida, January 23-28, 2011. This issue includes papers presented in the Mechanical Behavior and Performance of Ceramics & Composites Symposium on topics such as processing-microstructure properties correlations; fracture mechanics, modeling and testing; tribological properties; applications; and processing.
Those working with tribology often have a background in mechanical engineering, while people working with lubricant development have a chemistry/chemical engineering background. This means they have a tradition of approaching problems in different ways. Today’s product development puts higher demands on timing and quality, requiring collaboration between people with different backgrounds. However, they can lack understanding of each other’s challenges as well as a common language, and so this book aims to bridge the gap between these two areas. Lubricants: Introduction to Properties and Performance provides an easy to understand overview of tribology and lubricant chemistry. The first part of the book is theoretical and provides an introduction to tribological contact, friction, wear and lubrication, as well as the basic concepts regarding properties and the most commonly made analyses on lubricants. Base fluids and their properties and common additives used in lubricants are also covered. The second part of the book is hands-on and introduces the reader to the actual formulations and the evaluation of their performance. Different applications and their corresponding lubricant formulations are considered and tribological test methods are discussed. Finally used oil characterisation and surface characterisation are covered which give the reader an introduction to different methods of characterising used oils and surfaces, respectively. Key features: Combines chemistry and tribology of lubricants into one unified approach Covers the fundamental theory, describing lubricant properties as well as base fluids and additives Contains practical information on the formulations of lubricants and evaluates their performance Considers applications of lubricants in hydraulics, gears and combustion engines Lubricants: Introduction to Properties and Performance is a comprehensive reference for industry practitioners (tribologists, lubricant technicians, and lubricant chemists, etc) and is also an excellent source of information for graduate and undergraduate students.
This is the first detailed description in English of radiation and polymeric material interaction and the influences of thermal and optical material properties. As such, it provides comprehensive information on material and process characteristics as well as applications regarding plastic laser welding. The first part of this practical book introduces the structure and physical properties of plastics, before discussing the interaction of material and radiation in the NIR and IR spectral range. This is followed by an overview of the physical foundations of laser radiation and laser sources used for plastic welding. The third part describes the main processes of laser welding thermoplastics, as well as possibilities of process control, design of joint geometry, material compatibilities and adaptation of absorption of plastics to NIR radiation. Finally, the author explains applications of laser welding plastics using several industrial case studies from the automotive industry, household goods, and medical devices. Tailored to the needs of everyone dealing with laser welding of plastics, especially engineers in packaging, component manufacturing, and the medical industry.
The Basics of Troubleshooting in Plastics Processing is a condensed practical guide that gives the reader a broad introduction to properties of thermoplastics plastics, additives, the major processes (extrusion, injection molding, rotational molding, blow molding, and thermoforming), as well as troubleshooting. The main goal is to provide the plastics processor with an improved understanding of the basics by explaining the science behind the technology. Machine details are minimized as the emphasis is on processing problems and the defects in an effort to focus on basic root causes to problems and how to solve them. The book’s framework is troubleshooting in plastics processing because of the importance it has to the eventual production of high quality end products. Each chapter contains both practical and detailed technical information. This basic guide provides state-of-the-art information on: Processing problems and defects during manufacturing Plastics materials, their properties and characterization The plastics processing techniques Plastics additives Troubleshooting of the 5 main plastics processes References for further reading
A multidisciplinary reference of engineering measurement tools, techniques, and applications—Volume 2 «When you can measure what you are speaking about, and express it in numbers, you know something about it; but when you cannot measure it, when you cannot express it in numbers, your knowledge is of a meager and unsatisfactory kind; it may be the beginning of knowledge, but you have scarcely in your thoughts advanced to the stage of science.» – Lord Kelvin Measurement falls at the heart of any engineering discipline and job function. Whether engineers are attempting to state requirements quantitatively and demonstrate compliance; to track progress and predict results; or to analyze costs and benefits, they must use the right tools and techniques to produce meaningful, useful data. The Handbook of Measurement in Science and Engineering is the most comprehensive, up-to-date reference set on engineering measurements—beyond anything on the market today. Encyclopedic in scope, Volume 2 spans several disciplines—Materials Properties and Testing, Instrumentation, and Measurement Standards—and covers: Viscosity Measurement Corrosion Monitoring Thermal Conductivity of Engineering Materials Optical Methods for the Measurement of Thermal Conductivity Properties of Metals and Alloys Electrical Properties of Polymers Testing of Metallic Materials Testing and Instrumental Analysis for Plastics Processing Analytical Tools for Estimation of ParticulateComposite Material Properties Input and Output Characteristics Measurement Standards and Accuracy Tribology Measurements Surface Properties Measurement Plastics Testing Mechanical Properties of Polymers Nondestructive Inspection Ceramics Testing Instrument Statics Signal Processing Bridge Transducers Units and Standards Measurement Uncertainty Data Acquisition and Display Systems Vital for engineers, scientists, and technical managers in industry and government, Handbook of Measurement in Science and Engineering will also prove ideal for members of major engineering associations and academics and researchers at universities and laboratories.
Providing guidelines for implementing sustainable practices for traditional petroleum based plastics, biobased plastics, and recycled plastics, Sustainable Plastics and the Environment explains what sustainable plastics are, why sustainable plastics are needed, which sustainable plastics to use, and how manufacturing companies can integrate them into their manufacturing operations. A vital resource for practitioners, scientists, researchers, and students, the text includes impacts of plastics including Life Cycle Assessments (LCA) and sustainability strategies related to biobased plastics and petroleum based plastics as well as end-of-life options for petroleum and biobased plastics.
Survey’s the issues typically raised in discussions of sustainability and plastics Discusses current issues not covered in detail previously such as ocean litter, migration of additives into food products and the recovery of plastics Covers post-consumer fate of plastics on land and in the oceans, highlighting the environmental impacts of disposal methods Details toxicity of plastics, particularly as it applies to human health Presents a clear analysis of the key plastic-related issues including numerous citations of the research base that supports and contradicts the popularly held notions
This volume addresses the specific subject of fatigue, a subject not familiar to many engineers, but still relevant for proper and good design of numerous steel structures. It explains all issues related to the subject: Basis of fatigue design, reliability and various verification formats, determination of stresses and stress ranges, fatigue strength, application range and limitations. It contains detailed examples of applications of the concepts, computation methods and verifications.