The manual is intended for the 5th year students of the Polymer Faculty of 020015 «Chemical Technology» course. The manual reflects the current state of the elastomers science and production technologies. The focus is on technological methods, based on the scientific understanding of the chemistry in the synthesis of general-purpose and special rubbers, their properties and applications.The content of the manual corresponds to the program of the course «Technology of Elastomers». Published by the decision of the Editing and Publishing Board of Kazan National Research Technological University
A comprehensive and up-to-date overview of the major mineral and organic fillers for plastics, their production, structure and properties, as well as their applications in terms of primary and secondary functions. Edited and co-authored by Professor Marino Xanthos with contributions by international experts from industry and academia, this book presents methods of mixing/incorporation technologies, surface treatments and modifications for enhanced functionality, an analysis of parameters affecting filler performance and a presentation of current and emerging applications. Additionally, the novel classification according to modification of specific polymer properties rather than filler chemical composition provides a better understanding of the relationships between processing, structure and properties of products containing functional fillers and the identification of new markets and applications. For engineers, scientists and technologists involved in the important sector of polymer composites.
We are surrounded by polymers: Whether it's to prepare a meal, use computer keyboards and mousepads, or step onto a new playground, you'll encounter a plastic product made of polymers. Owing to the extraordinary range of properties accessible in polymeric materials, they play an essential and ubiquitous role in everyday life – from plastics and elastomers on the one hand to natural biopolymers such as DNA and proteins that are essential for life on the other. This desktop and library reference book provides a comprehensive yet concise overview of the materials, manufacture, structure and architecture, properties, processing, and applications of withing the field of polymers. The book offers a unique mix of theory and application, the essential personal reference for anyone studying or working within the field of polymers.
The design of mechanical structures with improved and predictable durability cannot be achieved without a thorough understanding of the mechanisms of fatigue damage and more specifically the relationships between the microstructure of materials and their fatigue properties. Written by leading experts in the field, this book (which is complementary to Fatigue of Materials and Structures: Application to Damage and Design, also edited by Claude Bathias and André Pineau), provides an authoritative, comprehensive and unified treatment of the mechanics and micromechanisms of fatigue in metals, polymers and composites. Each chapter is devoted to one of the major classes of materials or to different types of fatigue damage, thereby providing overall coverage of the field. The book deals with crack initiation, crack growth, low-cycle fatigue, gigacycle fatigue, shorts cracks, fatigue micromechanisms and the local approach to fatigue damage, corrosion fatigue, environmental effects and variable amplitude loadings, and will be an important and much used reference for students, practicing engineers and researchers studying fracture and fatigue in numerous areas of mechanical, structural, civil, design, nuclear, and aerospace engineering as well as materials science.
The design of mechanical structures with predictable and improved durability cannot be achieved without a thorough understanding of the mechanisms of fatigue damage and more specifically the relationships between the microstructure of materials and their fatigue properties. Written by leading researchers in the field, this book, along with the complementary books Fatigue of Materials and Structures: Fundamentals and Application to Damage and Design (both also edited by Claude Bathias and André Pineau), provides an authoritative, comprehensive and unified treatment of the mechanics and micromechanisms of fatigue in metals, polymers and composites. Each chapter is devoted to one of the major classes of materials or to different types of fatigue damage, thereby providing overall coverage of the field. This book deals with multiaxial fatigue, thermomechanical fatigue, fretting-fatigue, influence of defects on fatigue life, cumulative damage and damage tolerance, and will be an important and much used reference for students, practicing engineers and researchers studying fracture and fatigue in numerous areas of materials science and engineering, mechanical, nuclear and aerospace engineering.
Duplex Stainless Steels (DSSs) are chromium-nickel-molybdenum-iron alloys that are usually in proportions optimized for equalizing the volume fractions of austenite and ferrite. Due to their ferritic-austenitic microstructure, they possess a higher mechanical strength and a better corrosion resistance than standard austenitic steels. This type of steel is now increasing its application and market field due to its very good properties and relatively low cost. This book is a review of the most recent progress achieved in the last 10 years on microstructure, corrosion resistance and mechanical strength properties, as well as applications, due to the development of new grades. Special attention will be given to fatigue and fracture behavior and to proposed models to account for mechanical behavior. Each subject will be developed in chapters written by experts recognized around the international industrial and scientific communities. The use of duplex stainless steels has grown rapidly in the last 10 years, particularly in the oil and gas industry, chemical tankers, pulp and paper as well as the chemical industry. In all these examples, topics like welding, corrosion resistance and mechanical strength properties (mainly in the fatigue domain) are crucial. Therefore, the update of welding and corrosion properties and the introduction of topics like texture effects, fatigue and fracture strength properties, and mechanical behavior modeling give this book specific focus and character.
This is the first detailed description in English of radiation and polymeric material interaction and the influences of thermal and optical material properties. As such, it provides comprehensive information on material and process characteristics as well as applications regarding plastic laser welding. The first part of this practical book introduces the structure and physical properties of plastics, before discussing the interaction of material and radiation in the NIR and IR spectral range. This is followed by an overview of the physical foundations of laser radiation and laser sources used for plastic welding. The third part describes the main processes of laser welding thermoplastics, as well as possibilities of process control, design of joint geometry, material compatibilities and adaptation of absorption of plastics to NIR radiation. Finally, the author explains applications of laser welding plastics using several industrial case studies from the automotive industry, household goods, and medical devices. Tailored to the needs of everyone dealing with laser welding of plastics, especially engineers in packaging, component manufacturing, and the medical industry.
The Basics of Troubleshooting in Plastics Processing is a condensed practical guide that gives the reader a broad introduction to properties of thermoplastics plastics, additives, the major processes (extrusion, injection molding, rotational molding, blow molding, and thermoforming), as well as troubleshooting. The main goal is to provide the plastics processor with an improved understanding of the basics by explaining the science behind the technology. Machine details are minimized as the emphasis is on processing problems and the defects in an effort to focus on basic root causes to problems and how to solve them. The book’s framework is troubleshooting in plastics processing because of the importance it has to the eventual production of high quality end products. Each chapter contains both practical and detailed technical information. This basic guide provides state-of-the-art information on: Processing problems and defects during manufacturing Plastics materials, their properties and characterization The plastics processing techniques Plastics additives Troubleshooting of the 5 main plastics processes References for further reading
Monomers composed of carbon and hydrogen atoms are the simple building blocks that make up polyolefins – molecules which are extremely useful and which have an extraordinary range of properties and applications. How these monomer molecules are connected in the polymer chain defines the molecular architecture of polyolefins. Written by two world-renowned authors pooling their experience from industry and academia, this book adopts a unique engineering approach using elegant mathematical modeling techniques to relate polymerization conditions, reactor and catalyst type to polyolefin properties. Readers thus learn how to design and optimize polymerization conditions to produce polyolefins with a given microstructure, and how different types of reactors and processes are used to create the different products. Aimed at polymer chemists, plastics technologists, process engineers,the plastics industry, chemical engineers, materials scientists, and company libraries.
Syndiotactic Polystyrene (SPS), synthesized in a laboratory for the first time in 1985, has become commercialized in a very short time, with wide acceptance on the global plastics market. Written by leading experts from academia and industry from all over the world, Syndiotactic Polystyrene offers a comprehensive review of all aspects of SPS of interest to both science and industry, from preparation and properties to applications. This essential reference to SPS covers: The preparation of syndiotactic polystyrene by half-metallocenes and other transition metal catalysts The structure and fundamental properties, especially morphology and crystallization and solution behavior The commercial process for SPS manufacturing Properties, processing, and applications of syndiotactic polystyrenes Polymers based on syndiotactic polystyrenes, for example, by functionalization and modification, and nanocomposites Ideal for polymer chemists, physicists, plastics engineers, materials scientists, and all those dealing with plastics manufacturing and processing, this important resource provides the information one needs to compare, select, and integrate an appropriate materials solution for industrial use or research.
Clearly lays out the issues related to plastics' effects on the environment, while also serving as a practical, non-academic guide for making sustainability decisions about plastics recycling and the newest bio-based plastics Company managers, product developers, policy makers, environmental researchers, and plastics industry engineers are under increasing pressure to find ways of minimizing the environmental footprint of plastic products. This accessible book is designed to help readers understand the life-cycle impacts of various plastics, clarifying the technical research and practical arguments to show when bio-based and recycled plastics might be useful options for reducing the overall energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions, and waste associated with traditional plastics. Plastics and Sustainability compares traditional fossil fuel-based plastics with bio-based plastics in terms of properties, environmental impacts, and costs – indicating what the most effective approaches could be for using recycled, biodegradable, or various bio-based materials. The book makes objective comparisons between bioplastics and all commonly used plastics, focusing on how they affect production economics, product requirements, and retailer and consumer needs. It incorporates research concerning life-cycle assessment, production techniques, and commercial applications, and presents «green» guidelines about product design, recycling, processing efficiency, and material selection. The book also reports on recent industry developments and commercial trends in an effort to synthesize conclusions that are necessary for finding the right balance between bio-based and fossil-fuel based plastic products. Check out the author's blog at http://www.plastech.biz/blog.
The book provides comprehensive, up-to-date information on the physical properties of polymers including, viscoelasticity, flammability, miscibility, optical properties, surface properties and more. Containing carefully selected reprints from the Wiley's renowned Encyclopedia of Polymer Science and Technology, this reference features the same breadth and quality of coverage and clarity of presentation found in the original.
The world is populated with many different objects, to which we often attribute properties: we say, for example, that grass is green, that the earth is spherical, that humans are animals, and that murder is wrong. We also take it that these properties are things in their own right: there is something in which being green, or spherical, or an animal, or wrong, consists, and that certain scientific or normative projects are engaged in uncovering the essences of such properties. In light of this, an important question arises: what kind of things should we take properties themselves to be? In Properties, Douglas Edwards gives an engaging, accessible, and up-to-date introduction to the many theories of properties available. Edwards charts the central positions in the debate over properties, including the views that properties are universals, that properties are constructed from tropes, and that properties are classes of objects, and assesses the benefits and disadvantages of each. Attempts to deny the existence of properties are also considered, along with ‘pluralist’ proposals, which aim to accommodate the different kinds of properties that are found in various philosophical debates. Properties is the ideal introduction to this topic and will be an invaluable resource for scholars and students wishing to learn more about the important roles that properties have played, and continue to play, in contemporary philosophy.
Rubber Nanocomposites: Preparation, Properties and Applications focuses on the preparation, characterization and properties of natural and synthetic rubber nanocomposites. The book carefully debates the preparation of unmodified and modified nanofillers, various manufacturing techniques of rubber nanocomposites, structure, morphology and properties of nanocomposites. The text reviews the processing; characterization and properties of 0-, 1D and 2D nanofiller reinforced rubber nanocomposites. It examines the polymer/filler interaction, i.e., the compatibility between matrix and filler using unmodified and modified nanofillers. The book also examines the applications of rubber nanocomposites in various engineering fields, which include tyre engineering. The book also examines the current state of the art, challenges and applications in the field of rubber nanocomposites. The handpicked selection of topics and expert contributions make this survey of rubber nanocomposites an outstanding resource for anyone involved in the field of polymer materials design. A handy «one stop» reference resource for important research accomplishments in the area of rubber nanocomposites. Covers the various aspects of preparation, characterization, morphology, properties and applications of rubber nanocomposites. Summarizes many of the recent technical research accomplishments in the area of nanocomposites, in a comprehensive manner It covers an up to date record on the major findings and observations in the field
This book explores the fundamental role of grain boundaries in the plasticity of crystalline materials, providing a multi-scale approach to plasticity to facilitate understanding. It starts with the atomic description of a grain boundary, moves on to the elemental interaction processes between dislocations and grain boundaries, and finally shows how the microscopic phenomena influence the macroscopic behaviors and constitutive laws. Drawing on topics from physical, chemical, and mechanical disciplines, this work also explains properties of deformation at low and high temperature, creep, fatigue, and rupture.