Economic literature conclusively establishes that the countries which invested heavily in education (and higher education) realized higher growth rates than those which neglected it. It has, therefore, become imperative for the developing countries like India, to give due importance to both quantitative and qualitative expansion of this sector. The expansion and growth of the university and higher education sector depends crucially, if not entirely, on the input of financial resources into the system. It is, therefore, important to analyze the flows of financial resources made into this sector. Thus, accordingly, the study makes an analysis of the trends in public expenditure on education sector (and its sub-sectors) over a fairly long period of almost a quarter of a century and that too taking into consideration the inter-state and inter-regional picture. Further, this book also studies the budgets of the several universities in the country by taking a huge sample of 25 per cent of the universities. Also keeping in view the fact that no such systematic study with national level and region-wise coverage is available, the study also tends to fill this gap in literature.
Demand-side financing interventions such as scholarship programs are promising to be viable financing strategies of reaching out to the poor and marginalized children in order for them to access basic education. Although such financing strategies have been praised as successful in mostly Latin American countries, very little is systematically known about how this would work in poor African countries such as Malawi. This study therefore examines demand-side financing strategy through an evaluation of a scholarship program implemented in Malawi.It uses qualitative mode of inquiry through in-depth interviews of 36 key participants as a primary method of data collection.In addition, it reviews program documents and conducts cohort analysis of some beneficiaries of the program. Findings are mixed, where on one hand success stories are registered and on the other hand, critical challenges are identified putting assumptions of such programs under a microscope.The study intends to inform policy makers and educational practitioners to critically re-examine such financing strategies in-order to design better programs for poor and marginalized children.
Since 1994, the World Bank has proposed cost sharing regarding tertiary education financing in order to address the crucial issues of improving access,equity and sustainable finance in tertiary institutions. In 1996, this cost sharing concept was introduced in fully public supported universities in Ghana due to declining government revenue in the 1980s and increasing demand for university education. In this cost sharing, public finance constitutes about 80% of universities' income while private finance forms about 20%. This study was conducted to investigate issues of equity and accessibility associated with this university education financing strategy in Ghana. The book adds to the economics of education literature on Sub-Sahara Africa and it should be very useful for students and researchers of economics of education as well as policy makers.
The work centers around the development of university education in India from 1857-1887. It analyses the historical and chronological developments of the university education in relation to the changing socio-political situations. Data were mainly collected from printed official reports and surveys. In analysing the development of higher education in India the methodology adopted was obviously historical and the problem is looked at from the point of view of relevant social science disciplines and there is an attempt to write it in the light of new history of education that has emerged in the west. The study highlights the fact that the university system was strongly influenced by the British model of higher education.
Globally, financing of higher education has assumed a lot of significance. After the financial crisis of 2008, the problem of funding has become more difficult especially in the west. This book attempts to study issues relating to financing of higher education in India; the study focuses on the State of Goa, a federal constituent of the Union of India. The thrust is on finding out the budgetary allocations and spending by the State on higher education over a study period of fifteen years. It assumes importance in the context of increasing share of privately funded education in Goa as well as in other parts of India. Simultaneously, there has been a significant fall in the growth of public funding in higher education. The book gives an overview of growth of tertiary education globally. It covers various challenges and issues in higher education such as access and equity, internationalisation, privatisation, participatory ratios,export of higher education. The book will interest readers and researchers across different domains-education, management, economics and commerce. Policy makers, education administrators and every one who has a stake in education will find this work useful.
With higher education facing growing demand, severe budget limitations, and rising costs globally, countries are developing different means of increasing funding resources. This book examines the policies of financing higher education in Egypt, looking at the elite programs that use English or French as the language of instruction. The distinctiveness of these programs, as a policy of financing higher education, lies in the implementation of “private” units within public universities that charge high tuition to some students even though tuition is prohibited by the constitution. This book offers the first empirical examination of the impact of high tuition fees charged in the Foreign Language Instructed Programs (FLIP) on generating non-governmental resources, increasing student satisfaction, and maintaining equitable access. The author also investigates the forms of cost sharing policies applied in Egyptian universities. This work is especially timely in light of heightened attention to the innovations of financing higher education. The analysis sheds light on a unique policy, and should be useful to policy makers and scholars interested in higher education finance and policy.
Students loan scheme has become very important in financing higher education for both developed and developing countries. This book describes the challenges of financing higher education with particular reference to Tanzania Students Loan Board.It identifies issues like criteria and equality in loan disbursement among eligible beneficiaries and also possible solutions to the challenges. The text includes a review of current literature on various issues affecting higher education finance across the globe and finally zeros down to the case of Tanzanian Higher Education Finance. It critically analyzes the steps taken by Tanzanian government to finance higher education over the years versus the global trends in higher education finance.Critical review of literature was supplemented with primary data from the Tanzania''s case. It will therefore give the readers an informed basis to the analysis of the global trends on financing higher education.
This work deals with the financing structure of professional higher education of Punjab. From the study, it becomes clear that the financing practices of higher education of the state need serious attention. The financing of higher education has been a complicated problem due to theoretical and practical problems in Punjab and India as well particularly during post- economic reforms period, when more than 89 per cent of the professional education of the state were under private ownership. It has been largely a state funded activity with about three-quarters of the total expenditure being borne by government. The share of non-government sources such as fees and voluntary contributions have been declining. At the same time, the need of higher education has been growing rapidly. It is being increasingly realized that public budgets cannot adequately fund higher education, particularly when sectors of mass education are starved of even bare needs. The Punjab state has spending less on education from public resources. Per student expenditure on education at real prices has registered negative growth during the last decades. Thus Punjab is yet to ready for privatization.
Dr. Ram Singh is currently Associate Professor, School of Social Sciences, College of Post Graduate Studies, Central Agricultural University, Barapani, Meghalaya, India. He has a wide research experience and worked in different national and international institute of repute viz, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, Haryana, India, Central Soil Salinity Research Institute, Karnal, Haryana, India, Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, Haryana, India and International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT). He is also guiding and teaching post graduate students. His main fields of interest are Agricultural Economics, Natural Resource Economics and Agricultural Marketing. He has authored 27 research papers, 4 popular articles, 12 abstract papers which have been published in various national and international journals and 1 book chapter, 1 project report and 1 research bulletin at research level. He has also participated and presented papers and posters in many national and international seminars, workshops, symposium and conferences. Presently he is Member Executive Committee in Indian Society of Agricultural Marketing, Nagpur (India).
This book attempts to analyse the importance of education for the economic growth of a country. It outlines the time series analysis of education growth in India along with the growth of Gross Domestic Product (GDP), exports, social sector expenditure and Foreign Direct Investment (FDI). This book focuses on the regional disparity in attaining education in different states of India by applying convergence analysis. It is visualized that the findings of the study would be useful in particular to the students of economics, researchers in education sector as well as academicians interested in analyzing the economic growth and productivity.
In this era of globalization the old grounds for small scale industries promotion like employment creation and balanced regional development are losing their relevance.In the context of new economy, the core objectives need to be reinterpreted because we were used to explore the potential of small scale industries in terms of local resources, local processes and absorption of local labour only.. Small scale industrial firms should enhance their competitiveness by adopting newer technologies, through better design features, customer- oriented services, quality distribution and logistic management to set a global quality bench-marking. Though there has been an elaborate institutional mechanism for dispensing credit to micro and small enterprises, historically, the outstanding bank credit to micro and small enterprises in absolute terms and the percentage of net bank credit has been used as an indicator to the credit flow to the sector.This book will be very useful to planners, researchers, policy makers and those interested in Indian industry in general and Punjab industry in particular.
Higher Education is the driving force for Socioeconomic development of a nation. One of the most important features of higher education in India is education through colleges, which may be professional or general in nature. These colleges may be Government or private or deficit grants-in-aid colleges. The state Government purely controls Government colleges in all respects whereas private colleges are controlled and administered by the private parties or trusts. But a deficit grants-in-aid college is neither purely Government College nor private college. A deficit grants-in-aid college is one where state Government provide fund for staff payment, etc. after adjusting some portion of the student tuition fee of this required fund. The present study is mainly confined on Financing of Higher Educational Institutions (viz., deficit grants-in-aid colleges) of Lakhimpur district. Further, an attempt has been made to study the problems of deficit grants-in-aid colleges as well as its affiliation and management along with the development of collegiate educations in Assam and Lakhimpur district. This book is highly useful for the research scholars who want to do study in this area.
Distance Learning programme enhances equitable access to higher education in Kenya. The Bachelor of Education (Arts) by distance learning was initiated at the University of Nairobi nearly two decades ago to enable teachers upgrade their skills for improved service delivery. Learners in this programme are expected to finance their education from own resources. However, the rising cost of living delays completion of the programme by up to 30%, as resources are diverted to cater for immediate family needs. Data from the School of Continuing and Distance Education (SCDE) and University of Nairobi Enterprises and Services Limited (UNES) for 2006 show that out of a total enrollment of 6,740 learners, only 4,467 (66%) were actively pursuing the course; implying that about 2,273 (33%) were inactive mainly because of financial constraints. The situation is attributed to limited financing programmes at the national level. Although HELB was established to further higher education, limited financial support from the exchequer makes it difficult to provide assistance to learners outside regular academic programmes.
My father told me that “nothing can be more valuable to earn than education”. Although the challenges faced during the preparation of this study seemed at one point immense, however, my supervisor and mentor, Dr. Muhammad Rashid, has been a great supporter and provided me with the vision, knowledge, and guidance to successfully complete this study. The study aims at (1) to investigate the value of university education relative to high school education, and (2) to compare the value of a university degree from a private university relative to a university degree from a public university. Despite the paucity of data and other limitations which restrict generalization of the results of the study, this report has proposed a framework to comparatively analyze the value of education. Given time and adequate funding, a comprehensive study, based on the previously proposed framework, can be undertaken in the future.
The Muslim community of India constitues the largest minority group anywhere in the world. They are the third largest Muslim population of the world after Indonesian and Pakistani Muslims. The history of sixty-one years of independent India shows that Muslims are being deprived of employment and education opportunities, basic health facilities and political representation. They are amongst the most deprived sections of the society. The liberalization and privatization process of 1991 allowed the entrance of globalization into the Indian society. The new era of economic, and in turn social development, raised the expectations of equal opportunities to development and progress for all the sections of society, especially for minorities. This study is an attempt to analyze whether the religious minorities, especially Muslim minority of India, are also among the beneficiaries of globalization or they still are deprived and among have-not's. In this regard different investigation reports has been consulted especially Sachhar Commission report on the Soio-Poiltical and Economic status of Minorities in India.