The research work entitled “Synthesis, Characterization and Properties of Polymeric Smart Nanocomposites: Pressure Sensitive Adhesives & Superabsorbent Polymers” carries out the results of investigations into the study of the properties of certain copolymers and composites. Basically it has shown interest in designing and measuring different properties of new smart polymers (IPN hydrogels, Pressure sensitive adhesives (PSAs), Superabsorbent biodegradable materials). Regarding nano PSAs and their synthesis, mechanical and biomedical properties has been described in Part-I. In Part-II, synthesis, characterization and their biodegradability of eco-friendly superabsorbents and hydrogels has been described. This work may be useful to persons from Industrial background in both R & D and Quality Dept. for their basic understanding.
Providing an updated and comprehensive account of the properties of solid polymers, the book covers all aspects of mechanical behaviour. This includes finite elastic behavior, linear viscoelasticity and mechanical relaxations, mechanical anisotropy, non-linear viscoelasicity, yield behavior and fracture. New to this edition is coverage of polymer nanocomposites, and molecular interpretations of yield, e.g. Bowden, Young, and Argon. The book begins by focusing on the structure of polymers, including their chemical composition and physical structure. It goes on to discuss the mechanical properties and behaviour of polymers, the statistical molecular theories of the rubber-like state and describes aspects of linear viscoelastic behaviour, its measurement, and experimental studies. Later chapters cover composites and experimental behaviour, relaxation transitions, stress and yielding. The book concludes with a discussion of breaking phenomena.
The book summarizes many of the recent technical research accomplishments in the area of engineering polymers, such as oxygen containing main chain polymers (Polyether and Polyesters). The book emphasizes the various aspects of preparation, structure, processing, morphology, properties and applications of engineering polymers. Recent advances in the development and characterization of multi component polymer blends and composites (maco, micro and nano) based on engineering polymers are discussed in detail. The content of the book is unique as there are no books which deal with the recent advances synthesis, morphology, structure, properties and applications of engineering polymers and their blends and composites including nanocomposites. It covers an up-to-date record on the major findings and observations in the field.
“High Performance Polymers and Their Nanocomposites” summarizes many of the recent research accomplishments in the area of high performance polymers, such as: high performance polymers-based nanocomposites, liquid crystal polymers, polyamide 4, 6, polyamideimide, polyacrylamide, polyacrylamide-based composites for different applications, polybenzimidazole, polycyclohexylene dimethyl terephthalate, polyetheretherketone, polyetherimide, polyetherketoneketone, polyethersulfone, polyphenylene sulphide, polyphenylsulfone, polyphthalamide, Polysulfone, self-reinforced polyphenylene, thermoplastic polyimide.
A state-of-art guide on the interdisciplinary aspects of design, chemistry, and physical properties of bio-inspired self-healing polymers Inspired by the natural self-healing properties that exist in living organisms—for example, the regenerative ability of humans to heal from cuts and broken bones—interest in self-healing materials is gaining more and more attention. Addressing the broad advances being made in this emerging science, Self-Healing Polymers and Polymer Composites incorporates fundamentals, theory, design, fabrication, characterization, and application of self-healing polymers and polymer composites to describe how to prepare self-healing polymeric materials, how to increase the speed of crack repair below room temperature, and how to broaden the spectrum of healing agent species. Some of the information readers will discover in this book include: Focus on engineering aspects and theoretical backgrounds of smart materials The systematic route for developing techniques and materials to advance the research and applications of self-healing polymers Integration of existing techniques and introduction of novel synthetic approaches and target-oriented materials design and fabrication Techniques for characterizing the healing process of polymers and applications of self-healing polymers and polymer composites Practical aspects of self-healing technology in various industrial fields, such as electronics, automotive, construction, chemical production, and engineering With this book, readers will have a comprehensive understanding of this emerging field, while new researchers will understand the framework necessary for innovating new self-healing solutions.
The widespread demand for, and use of dental adhesives has fueled an intense development of better and easier dental adhesives in rapid succession and dentists have literally been inundated with successive “generations” of adhesive materials. The “generational” definitions help in identification of chemistries involved, the strength of dentinal bond and the ease of use for the practitioner.The clinical use of resin composites has expanded considerably over the past few years due to increased esthetic demands by patients, new improved formulations and simplification of bonding procedures. Evaluation of bond strength provides a screening mechanism use of adhesives and an indication of the potential for their clinical success.the purpose of this study was to find and compare the shear bond strength of three different generation of adhesive systems fifth, sixth and seventh to dentin of human molars using same composite.
The accessible compendium of polymers in carbon nanotubes (CNTs) Carbon nanotubes (CNTs)—extremely thin tubes only a few nanometers in diameter but able to attain lengths thousands of times greater—are prime candidates for use in the development of polymer composite materials. Bringing together thousands of disparate research works, Carbon Nanotube-Polymer Composites: Manufacture, Properties, and Applications covers CNT-polymers from synthesis to potential applications, presenting the basic science and engineering of this dynamic and complex area in an accessible, readable way. Designed to be of use to polymer scientists, engineers, chemists, physicists, and materials scientists, the book covers carbon nanotube fundamentals to help polymer experts understand CNTs, and polymer physics to help those in the CNT field, making it an invaluable resource for anyone working with CNT-polymer composites. Detailed chapters describe the mechanical, rheological, electrical, and thermal properties of carbon nanotube-polymer composites. Including a glossary that defines key terms, Carbon Nanotube-Polymer Composites is essential reading for anyone looking to gain a fundamental understanding of CNTs and polymers, as well as potential and current applications, including electronics (shielding and transparent electrodes), flame retardants, and electromechanics (sensors and actuators), and their challenges.
Major drawbacks associated with the use of natural fibres as reinforcement in polymers include the poor wetting and the very weak interface which commonly occur between the fibres and most of the polymers used as matrices. Better interfaces can, however, be obtained by modifying the fibres by physical or chemical treatments. With the aim of a better understanding, this research focused on fundamental issues concerning the behaviour of the industrial hemp fibre reinforced polylactide (PLA) and unsaturated polyester (UPE) composites and the underlying mechanisms controlling these. This work investigated the effects of interaction of the materials (fibre and matrix) and the change in chemistry, morphology, and stress transfer that they impart on the hemp fibre reinforced PLA and UPE composites.
Over the years, biodegradable polymers have gained mutual interests due to continual environmental pollution caused by non-degradable polymers. This book emphasises on the blending of biodegradable polymers, namely poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) and oil palm empty fruit bunch fibers. The properties of the resulting blends and possible leached toxic chemicals from the biocomposites were studied.
Conducting composites are mixtures of conducting fillers and insulating polymers. The conducting fillers generally employed comprise metals, conducting polymers and fibers. Such a composite should have high conductivity and dielectric constant to find use in antistatic applications, EMI shielding and microwave absorption. Metals as fillers assure both these criteria. However, metal-polymer composites demonstrate corrosiveness, poor control of conductivity, flexibility and processability, low strength to weight ratio, high cost and because of the low aspect ratio of metal particles, mediocre mechanical strength. Since fibers have high aspect ratios, conducting fiber composites display superior mechanical properties, flexibility, non-corrosiveness and cost effectiveness. But, conducting polymers are hard to be melt-spun into fibers because of their meager processability. This book offers a solution to this obscurity. It illustrates a novel technique of preparing conducting fibers by etching and in situ polymerization. It comprises the preparation of conducting fiber composites and their dielectric and microwave behavior.
Metal Matrix ceramic-reinforced composites are rapidly becoming strong candidates as structural materials for many high temperatures and aerospace applications. Metal matrix composites combine the ductile properties of the matrix with a brittle phase of the reinforcement, leading to high stiffness and strength with a reduction in structural weight. The satisfactory performance of metal matrix composites depends critically on their integrity, the heart of which is the quality of the matrix-reinforcement interface. The nature of the interface depends on the processing of the metal matrix composite component. The Al/SiCp composites studied, processed in specific thermo-mechanical conditions in order to attain higher values of interfacial fracture strength, due to precipitation hardening and segregation mechanisms, also exhibited enhanced bulk mechanical and fracture resistant properties. An analytical model to predict the interfacial fracture strength in the presence of material segregation was also developed during this research effort.
Written by an expert in the field of nanomaterials, composites, and polymers, this book provides up-to-date information on recent advances in various aspects of polymer composites reinforced by carbonaceous nanofillers, including their fabrication and their electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties. It also extensively covers applications of these nanocomposites in fuel cells, sensors, electromagnetic interference shielding, human implants and scaffolds.
This book emphasizes mainly on polyurethanes, raw materials to synthesize it, its applications and synthesis of polyurethane-based block copolymers. Polyurethanes are arguably the most multifaceted family of polymers. Polyurethanes can be prepared range from soft elastomeric polymers to hard elastoplastics. Polyurethanes are used as structural materials, coatings, adhesives, hydrogels and sealants. This book presents the details of polyurethane synthesis and its chemistry, preparation of different kinds of polyurethane ionomers and block copolymers.
An experimental investigation is carried out to examine the use of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in producing a new generation of fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composites. First, the nanotubes are used to produce epoxy nanocomposites. The experiments showed significant improvements in flexure properties of the MWCNT-epoxy nanocomposites when functionalized nanotubes are used. Second, MWCNT-epoxy nanocomposites were used to fabricate woven carbon fabric composites in order to examine their static, impact, and creep behaviors. The MWCNTs improved the off-axis tension, off-axis flexure, FRP lap shear joint responses. In addition, they reduced the creep of epoxy adhesives at FRP-concrete interface, enhanced the fracture toughness, and altered the impact resistance significantly. In general, the MWCNTs are found to affect the performance of the FRP composites when matrix failure governs the behavior. The improvement in the mechanical response with the addition of low contents of MWCNTs would benefit many industrial and military applications such as strengthening structures using FRP composites, composite pipelines, aircrafts, and armored vehicles.
Conjugated polymers (CPs) with various conductive fillers have recently attracted much attention because of their suitability in various fields like in electronic devices, rechargeable batteries, sensors, supercapacitors etc. In many instances polymers need to fulfill contradictory demands which are not possible with a single polymer or mixture of two polymers. Attempts have been made earlier to incorporate plastics or insulators with CPs in order to improve the processability of the composite material without losing the mechanical properties. This book deals with chemical synthesis of carbon filled polyaniline and polypyrrole composites and evaluation of their electrical and electrochemical properties. The influences of carbon fillers like graphite, graphene oxide and expanded graphite on electrical properties of the polymer composites and their applications in sensors and supercapacitors have also been reported. We hope that this book contributes a little knowledge to the rapidly advancing field of carbon filled ?-conjugated polymers and also opens up the possibilities of further research on this field.