The incidence of cancer, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular and some other diseases continues to increase and there are still no sufficiently successive healing and preventive strategies. Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) play important roles during entire life and, depending on the biochemical pathway in which they are involved, they may be regarded as growth factors, hormones or cytokines. IGFs exert their functions after binding to specific receptors and their availability is regulated by IGF-binding proteins. Altered activity in the IGF signaling pathways is connected with diseases, but data are controversial as both beneficial and harmful effects of IGFs were recorded. Traditional approaches to study biochemical pathways, mostly based on the synthesis and clearance rates, are not sufficient. Post-translational protein modifications and associations with other biomolecules may represent an intermediate level of control, which deserves more attention. This book provides an overview of the post-translational events which affect the IGF system, offering experimental data to document structural and functional changes which, as a final consequence, have altered IGF activity.
This book examines cellular mechanisms by which palmitate availability induces insulin resistance in skeletal muscle and whether AICAR and/or leptin treatment ameliorate insulin resistance, and the mechanisms involved. In this book we have shown that isolated soleus muscles are a metabolically stable and responsive model to examine substrate (glucose and fatty acids) metabolism. In addition, it was also shown in this book that there is a close association between the impairment of fatty acid oxidation rate and the induction of insulin resistance, as well as between the recovery of fatty acid oxidation and the rescue of insulin resistance. This book will be of particular interest to researchers and students in metabolism, biochemistry, endocrinology and physioilogy.
The survey report of different hospitals indicates that IDDM is more common in male compare to female in the population of patients. Duration of IDDM was very from 3 days to 50 years in different age groups. The average age and BMI were 29.24 ± 0.3 and 21.085 ± 0.1 kg/m2 respectively. The average fasting blood glucose (184.7 ± 1.7 mg/dl), Random blood glucose (276 ± 2.0 mg/dl) and the average walk duration was 40.83 ± 0.4 min. The family history of 28 patients were nil and in 26 patients show positive family history. Most common complication related to IDDM was eye (Retinopathy), muscular pain and neuropathy. The frequency varies between populations and is also related to severity and duration of disease. In IDDM patients, loss of hypoglycemic warning symptoms and abnormal sweating were more common compared to others. Blood pressure varies from l20/ 80 mm Hg to 210/130 mm Hg. Stress was directly related with IDDM. So, all the patients were under stress. Mostly ECG was normal but only 6-7 patients show abnormal ECG. Medication is important for all the IDDM patients and they have used insulin injection in units, twice a day or at 3 times per day. Mostly they were used Humulin-R.
A comprehensive guide to making better capital structure and corporate financing decisions in today's dynamic business environment Given the dramatic changes that have recently occurred in the economy, the topic of capital structure and corporate financing decisions is critically important. The fact is that firms need to constantly revisit their portfolio of debt, equity, and hybrid securities to finance assets, operations, and future growth. Capital Structure and Corporate Financing Decisions provides an in-depth examination of critical capital structure topics, including discussions of basic capital structure components, key theories and practices, and practical application in an increasingly complex corporate world. Throughout, the book emphasizes how a sound capital structure simultaneously minimizes the firm's cost of capital and maximizes the value to shareholders. Offers a strategic focus that allows you to understand how financing decisions relates to a firm's overall corporate policy Consists of contributed chapters from both academics and experienced professionals, offering a variety of perspectives and a rich interplay of ideas Contains information from survey research describing actual financial practices of firms This valuable resource takes a practical approach to capital structure by discussing why various theories make sense and how firms use them to solve problems and create wealth. In the wake of the recent financial crisis, the insights found here are essential to excelling in today's volatile business environment.
Tissue injury related to liver surgery stimulates the release of stress hormones and proinflammatory cytokines to produce the necessary elements needed for healing. An exaggerated stress limits the liver’s capacity to regenerate by depleting its energy stores. This change in metabolism leads to an insulin resistant state in the patient and associated hyperglycaemia. Dextrose supplementation coupled with intravenous insulin given perioperatively affords superior surgical outcomes through preservation of liver glycogen and strict glycaemia control. The goal of this work was to investigate the benefits of a metabolic support protocol involving carbohydrate loading and insulin infusion provided by a hyperinsulinemic normoglycaemic clamp, for patients undergoing major hepatic resection.