This book discusses the global greenhouse gas emissions which cause the global warming in the atmosphere. For the increase of global warming the ice in two poles, Himalayas and Antarctica are melting, as a result the ocean levels are raising. On the basis of present global warming, scientists forecast that most of the coastal areas will be submerged by 2050 and the living organisms in land and water are in dangerous position and some species has already extinct and will extinct in future from the nature if global warming cannot be controlled. According to International Energy Agency data, the USA and China together emit approximately 40% of global CO2 emissions, and about 35% of total greenhouse gases. Many governments in developed countries have called for greenhouse gas emissions to be cut by up to 80% by 2050 in order to stabilize atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gas.
The quality and credibility of national greenhouse gas inventories relies in the first place on the integrity and reliability of the methodologies used within the process of determining the amount of biomass in forests, estimating the resulting carbon-stocks and finally calculating emissions from ecological disturbances such as wildfires. Any discrepancies and arithmetical inaccuracies are of relevance in different areas and on different levels of politics and can have severe consequences concerning political decision-making in connection with a country''s measures in the fields of climate change mitigation and adaptation. Since the accuracy of mathematical results (numbers, rates and amounts) produced by concerning arithmetical operations is therefore of utter importance, this work aims to evaluate the correctness and consistency of different methodological approaches in this connection applied by several Annex I-parties to the UNITED NATIONS FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE (UNFCCC).
Climate change is a global phenomenon, which is causing due to emissions of greenhouse gases, mainly from fossil fuels combustion and deforestations. It may cause far-reaching harmful impacts: changes in rainfall patterns might have serious impacts on food production; floods and droughts could become more frequent and may accelerate out-migration; many human and ecosystem services could have serious impacts due to changes in temperature and rainfalls patterns. This research has attempted to evaluate and quantify the greenhouse gases emitted from different points of the wastewater treatment system under various temperatures and oxygen amounts.
The objective of this study was to determine therelative importance of different factors incontrolling the amount and partitioning of gaseousnitrogen losses from denitrification in anagricultural soil. Denitrification (nitrous oxide +dinitrogen) and nitrous oxide emissions were measuredon repacked soil cores using acetylene inhibition.Both the amount and partitioning of gaseous nitrogenlosses could best be explained by consideration ofthe relative supply of, and demand for, terminalelectron acceptors (TEAs). Increasing soil watercontent and carbon addition, which limit oxygensupply, increased denitrification through increaseddemand for alternate TEAs. Nitrate addition had noeffect on denitrification except when soil nitrateconcentration was low. The primary product ofdenitrification was nitrous oxide except where highcarbon availability (i.e. high demand for TEAs) waspresent in combination with low soil nitrateconcentration (i.e. low alternate TEA supply),resulting in increased reduction of nitrous oxide.
The greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions arise in all sectors of an economy such as power station, industrial processes, transportation fuel, agricultural by products, fossil fuel processing, biomass burning and solid waste disposal. An increased concentration of GHGs has enormous adverse environmental impact such as temperature rise, flooding in one part and desertification and sedimentation in another part, migration and extinction of species, reduction in agricultural production and scarcity of freshwater availability. Therefore, Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is an opportunity for the developing countries in achieving sustainable development thereby launching GHGs emission reduction projects and helping developed countries to meet their emission limitation and reduction target committed under the Kyoto Protocol. This research reveals to identify greenhouse gas emissions reduction options for municipal solid waste treatment and to evaluate the environmental, social and economic benefits of municipal solid waste treatment in clean development mechanism perspectives.
At present, municipal solid waste (MSW) management is a serious problem in many developing countries. This is mainly the rapid population growth and the high rural to urban migrations. The insufficient collection and inappropriate disposal of solid waste contributes to the emission in the atmosphere of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and therefore different alternatives for the management have to be optimized in order to reduce these emissions. This study focused on potential GHGs emissions reduction options of municipal solid waste treatment so as to propose as a clean development mechanism (CDM) strategy and its environmental and economic impacts on solid waste management. Different disposal options (i.e. landfilling, composting and incineration) have been considered. The effect of energy recovery both in landfills and incinerators has also been addressed.
This study deals with assessment of carbon dioxide emissions of selected models of private automobiles and the mitigation measures being undertaken in Mekelle city. The study explores the main causes of motorized transport expansion, the trend in motorized transport expansion and the current status of urban transport in the city in line with its implication to climate change. Relevant literature on the field of the study are reviewed and gaps are identified. Finally, the study has forwarded possible measures on how to reduce vehicular greenhouse gas emission that need to be executed by the city administration, city transport office, regional administration, regional transport bureau, civil society and drivers.
The greenhouse effect(GHE) is a concern to everyone on this planet.Citizens need to be scientifically literate in relation to this phenomenon in order to participate in democratic decision-making and to take appropriate actions in their daily lives. As the GHE is a global issue it will require collective and individual actions to prepare for the likely climatic changes and to reduce the further impact of the GHE.The main focu of this book is on high school students'' beliefs about, understandings of the GHE and their intentions to act in ways that would reduce greenhouse gas emissions. High school students strongly believe that the GHE is real and affecting the climate at present and will also affect it in the future. They consider that the GHE is a relatively important social issue and they believe that governments should conduct programmes to raise community awareness and enact strict laws to reduce the release of greenhouse gas. The Propositional Knowledge Statement (PKS) that is science concepts necessary for an understanding of the GHE in terms of its causes, effects, mechanism and actions that can be taken to reduce greenhouse gas emission.
This work gives a bigger picture of gas flaring in Nigeria with emphasis on emissions emitted into the immediate environment from the flared gas. Gas flaring activities and its associated problems in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria is of great concern to the global and local communities. Emissions from gas flaring sites in the region of the country in view consist of particles outside the conventional greenhouse gases and obnoxious gases which impact the region negatively. Black carbon (BC) is the major component of particulate matter emitted during the burning of fossil fuel, biomass and biofuel. BC is a climate forcer with a global warming potential of 900 and ranked second only to carbon dioxide, which is the main global warming agent. Inventory of emissions released into the atmosphere due to flaring of gas in the country is lacking and this book for the first time presents a well-documented information in this regard. BC emissions from flared gas for the period of 49 years (1965-2013) were estimated and reported accordingly. Also, the effects of BC on the well-being of the inhabitants of this region is discussed in this book.
Strategic Bargaining and Cooperation in Greenhouse Gas Mitigations– An Integrated Assessment Modeling Approach
Nitrogen is one of the most important compounds on earth. All organisms need nitrogen to live and grow. Even the majority (78.08%) of the atmosphere (and so the air we breathe) is dinitrogen. Over the last century, human activities have dramatically increased emissions and removal of nitrogen to the global atmosphere by as much as three to five fold. Nitrous oxide is the fourth largest single contributor to positive radiative forcing, and serves as the only long-lived atmospheric tracer of human perturbations of the global nitrogen cycle. Nitrogen oxides belong to the so called indirect greenhouse gases. These indirect greenhouse gases control the abundances of direct greenhouse gases through atmospheric chemistry and contribute on this way to the greenhouse effect. For a better understanding of these feedback mechanisms it is necessary to know the source strength of nitric oxide and nitrous oxide. Thus, the knowledge about exchange processes of nitrogen is of interest and importance for scientist and policy makers, likewise.
Conventional energy generation techniques such as coal and oil power plants release large amounts of greenhouse gases due to fossil fuel combustion while renewable energy sources, in particular, hydroelectric generation, are considered climate-benign since they do not emit fossil carbon to produce energy. However, dams and their associated reservoirs are not entirely GHG-neutral and their emissions need further investigation. Namely, reservoirs contribute to a major source of methane emission owning to the energy and material inputs in the construction and the decommissioning phase as well as the anaerobic decomposition of flooded biomass in the operation phase. This book evaluates the greenhouse gas emissions associated with Nam Theun 2 hydroelectric power plant in central Laos. A life cycle perspective is coupled with two Monte Carlo Simulations and time-specific Global Warming Potential values for methane, all to predict the statistically most likely 100-yr GWP of Nam Theun 2. The analysis should help shed some light on the climate impact of dams regarding greenhouse gas emissions, and should be especially useful to researchers in hydroelectric energy generation field.
The establishment of a global limit on the emissions of greenhouse gases has been hindered by the complexity to prove the effects of manmade greenhouse gases on a global scale. In order to achieve a sustainable development it is important to limit, and when possible eliminate, emissions of industrial greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. In this context, adsorption has been established as one of the best cost-effective means of reducing emissions of greenhouse gases in the short-term. Thus, in this book, the main objective is to study at a molecular level the adsorption of greenhouse gases and to obtain a better insight into the capture processes for their future optimization. This work highlights different possibilities for the capture and separation of greenhouse gases and provides new tools for evaluating and optimizing capture systems. It shows the use of basic research in Materials Science as an established tool for evaluating and optimizing thermodynamics of engineering processes.
Global fugitive methane emissions from coal sector accounts for 8 % annually of global methane emissions from human activities, representing the loss of a valuable energy resource. Coal mine methane recovery and use represents a cost-effective means of significantly reducing methane emissions from coal mining, while increasing mine safety and improving mine economics. The world’s ten largest coal producers, including Poland, are responsible for 90% of global methane emissions. Poland’s methane emissions from coal mining contribute a large percent to the global as well as country’s total greenhouse gas emissions. This publication provides information concerning methane recovery technologies as well as the potential for expanding coal mine methane recovery in Poland.