HIV/AIDS: A Critical Discourse Analysis of selected Zimbabwe broadcasting Corporation Television Advertisements that deal with HIV/AIDS issues is a book that examines the communicative strategies used in addressing destigimatisation, protection against HIV/AIDS, prevention of mother to child transmission, HIV/AIDS transmission modes and abstinence from pre-marital sex. It uses CDA as an analysis tool. It establishes that language is persuasively used in the adverts to destigmatise HIV/AIDS, inform the audience about HIV/AIDS transmission and protection. It also encourages behaviour change and instills confidence in those living with HIV/AIDS to live positively. The book will be useful to students of language and advertising discourse.
The ultimate aim of this study is to show the status of HIV and AIDS implementation in secondary schools. HIV and AIDS was declaired a national disaster and teachers were expected to infuse and integrate HIV and AIDS messages in their teaching subjects.It is important to present to the students a curricula that prepares them to the new realities that threaten their very existence. It is hoped that students will be in a position to make informed choices and decisions concerning their sexual lives; thereby scale down the spread of AIDS pandemic. The study shows that schools lack adequate learning-teaching materials on HIV and AIDS; and that teachers and students hold positive attitudes toward the teaching of HIV and AIDS.However, due to inadequate in-servicing on integration and infusion of HIV and AIDS,teachers were not using interactive teaching methods with their students. Teachers also expressed a desire that HIV and AIDS should be taught as a 'stand-alone' subject.
HIV/AIDS has assumed an endemic dimension that everyone’s perception is important to tackle the scourge. This led the quest for HIV/AIDS knowledge and risk-related behaviours of the military personnel in Enugu Nigeria. They belong to high risk groups for HIV infection and there was paucity of such study amongst them. HIV/AIDS is a leading health problems in the developing countries Nigeria inclusive; the projections of annual deaths caused by AIDS has increased in Nigeria from less than 50,000 in 1999 to about 170,000 in 2007 and the number of Nigerian children orphaned as a result of parental AIDS deaths is projected to be near 1.2 million in 2007. Many army personnel in this book reported participating in high risk sexual behaviors,which may increase their risk of acquiring and spreading HIV/AIDS despite the overall relatively high knowledge level about HIV/AIDS transmission and prevention. This book was written for people around the world for cautiousness about HIV/AIDS; especially the army personnel.
Millions of people in East Africa are suffering from overlapped public health challenges of humanitarian crisis (natural and human-made) and HIV/AIDS pandemic. Public Health Programs on both challenges lack integration that is a missed opportunity. Thus,humanitarian and HIV/AIDS programs based on countries context in East Africa need to be integrated so as to be efficient and effective to address the challenges.
HIV/AIDS related stigma and discrimination are probably as old as the disease itself. Despite the fact that Sweden is one of the countries providing top quality medical care to people living with HIV/AIDS, the epidemic of HIV related stigma and discrimination looms large at different levels in the Swedish society. This paper sets out to discover how stigma and discrimination are obstacles to HIV prevention, care and treatment. The main findings of this study include among others: that HIV/AIDS related stigma and discrimination exists in Sweden and it is a big obstacle to HIV/AIDS prevention, care and treatment. Forms of stigma include self stigma, which is the most common form of stigma in Sweden plus stigma from society. Discrimination is seen in the healthcare system, the media, migrations board and the justice system. The Swedish Communicable Diseases Act also seems to be enhancing stigma and discrimination. The negative treatment in society and various institutions, plus the harassment of People Living with HIV/AIDS by the media prevents people from testing for HIV/AIDS and also from seeking care and treatment.
The study intended to establish the level of HIV/AIDS knowledge and attitudes among the people with disabilities (PWDs) in North Kamagak location,South Rachuonyo District, Nyanza province (Kenya). The objectives of the study were to establish the level of knowledge of HIV/AIDS infection and preventive measures among PWDs, to find out how social stigma and discrimination towards PWDs hinders their accessibility to HIV/AIDS infection and preventive measures and to determine PWDs’ attitudes towards HIV/AIDS preventive measures. The findings reveal that level of knowledge on HIV/AIDS preventive measures among the PWDs is still low. There is evidence of social stigma and discrimination that makes the PWDs to shy off from HIV/AIDS infection and prevention delivery points thus most are unable to get access to corrective HIV/AIDS information and methods of prevention. Most of the respondents were quite informed that knowing one’s sero-status is a significant step towards the fight against HIV/AIDS, however a significant number of them had not been tested due to social stigma and discrimination in case they tested HIV positive.
Various governmental and non governmental efforts are being exerted to combat the HIV/AIDS pandemic by sentinel surveys. Unfortunately, there has not been any organized survey in Nigeria to extensively determine the opportunistic infections associated with HIV/AIDS. This book therefore, highlights specifically on some pulmonary bacterial and fungal opportunistic infections in Kano metropolis, the isolation and identification of opportunistic bacterial and fungal agents causing pulmonary infections, the relationships between pulmonary opportunistic pathogens and CD4 count and immune status and viral load of HIV positive clients. This will contribute towards management and care of AIDS clients and will provide the need for monitoring by health care facilities and related agencies.
The aim of this research is to assess the level of knowledge on HIV/AIDS and its risk factors, attitude towards HIV/AIDS and AIDS patients and its transmission and to identify high risk behaviors associated with HIV/AIDS among university students in Xinjiang. A cross–sectional survey was conducted among students enrolled Xingjiang University and Xinjiang Medical University. Data was collected using self-administered standardized questionnaire on KAP re HIV/AIDS among 400 students. Mean knowledge scores is significantly different by ethnicity, sex, subject major, and year of study in university. Only 33.3% of the respondents had positive attitude towards HIV/AIDS patient. With regards high risk behavior associated with HIV transmission, 15.8% had at least 1 risk behavior related to unprotected sexual exposure Conclusion: HIV/AIDS health education efforts should be intensified in non-medical universities, among female, first year and Uyghur and other minorities’ students. About two-thirds of the students had negative attitude towards HIV/AIDS and HIV/AIDS patients. Around 15% of these students reported having at least 1 high risk behavior related to unprotected sex
The study analyses the Shona cultural measures to arrest the HIV and AIDS epidemic in Zimbabwe. To some extent, conventional therapy to the cure of HIV and AIDS is still flawed though some significant progress has been made in coming up with life-prolonging Anti-retroviral drugs. We contend that discourses about mitigating the AIDS epidemic must take the cultural-epidemiological approach to compliment efforts that modern medical technology has done towards finding a cure to the epidemic.
HCPs' Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices HIV and AIDS contribute to nearly one-fifth of disease burden in sub-Saharan Africa. The challenge of HIV and AIDS disease is further compounded by the health care providers' struggle to acquire necessary knowledge and skills to deliver effective HIV and AIDS prevention, care and treatment services. Many countries have therefore initiated human capacity development programs focusing on training of the health care providers to support HIV and AIDS prevention, care and treatment services as part of the effort to scale up HIV and AIDS services. In order to describe their characteristics and to determine the physicians' knowledge, attitudes and practices on HIV and AIDS a group of physicians attending a Training of Trainers (TOT) course in HIV and AIDS held in Nairobi were surveyed. Individual physician data characterizing their knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and practices was collected using an anonymous group-administered questionnaire. This study indicated that the more the number of years a physician was in health care practices the better his/her knowledge, attitudes and practices in provision of HIV and AIDS treatment and care services.
Hiv/Aids services are offered through Primary Health Care services in rural South Africa. The fixed and mobile clinics are responsible facilities. The mining and the farming points also benefit from these facilities. Primary Health Care Nurses and the Doctors work as a team. Hiv/Aids is a threat to the communities and counselling and testing are practised. Purpose of the study was to comparatively examine the efficacy of mobile and fixed clinic health care services in Hiv/Aids prevention in the rural areas. Hundred pregnant women from the fixed and mobile clinics participated in answering the questionnaire during their antenatal care visits. The data recorded on the questionnaires by the participants was used to compare and analyse the pregnant women's feelings about Hiv/Aids services of fixed and mobile clinics. Group discussions were also held prior self completion of questionnaires. Questionnaires were administered by the researcher and the two health promoters. It was found that participants in both mobile and fixed clinics have attended Hiv/Aids health care services. Fixed and mobile clinics are respectively viewd as offering better health care services to pregnant women.
This book is an ethnography of information behaviour of people infected with or affected by HIV/AIDS (PI/A HIV/AIDS). It seeks to generate deeper understanding of the real world ‘lived information experiences’ of PI/A HIV/AIDS, with the aim of informing information management practice, strategy and policy to better contribute to the fight against HIV/AIDS. This book brings a new dimension to the fight against HIV/AIDS by suggesting that because HIV/AIDS is a social, cultural and a biological phenomenon, attempts to fight it must take into account the complex social and cultural interactions that can both help and hinder the spread of the disease. Information behaviour is a key component of such interactions, and understanding the way it affects, and is affected by its broader context may be an influential factor in helping the fight against HIV/AIDS. Although Information is a critical resource for PI/A HIV/AIDS, research on their information behaviour is scanty. Hence this work explores HIV/AIDS-related information behaviour from the point of view of PI/A HIV/AIDS in order to unearth the dilemmas, frustrations, emotions, and challenges associated with HIV/AIDS information.
HIV/AIDS Communication Handbook is a communication and media management resource tool for governmental and non-governmental organizations involved in community mobilization, advocacy and behaviour change programmes, especially in the area of health/HIV/AIDS. The author borrows from his rich research on HIV/AIDS communication in Nigeria to present a globally applicable programmatic communication guide for Government institutions, non-governmental organizations,private sector organizations, community based organizations, faith-based organizations, civil society organizations and international agencies into health-related programmes. The book provides a theoretical foundation and practical assistance for a resulted-oriented communication in health programming using copious examples from successful and failed interventions around the world. The author also exposes his own systemic model - the Octopus HIV/AIDS Communication Model - for HIV/AIDS programming.
Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is home for 67% of HIV- infected individuals, 68% of new HIV infections and 72% of AIDS-related deaths. Up to 80% of infected adults remain undiagnosed and lack access to adequate prevention, treatment, care and support services. Although the availability of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has increased rapidly to reach over three million people in low- and middle-income countries, coverage remains at about 44% of people in need of it. Furthermore, high attrition rates (20-30% loss to follow up) are reported within HIV/AIDS care programs. It is therefore critical to study, analyse and implement strategies to improve efficiency of HIV/AIDS care and treatment programs in the region. This book addresses challenges in HIV diagnosis, linkage and retention in comprehensive HIV/AIDS care and treatment programs, and clinical-biomedical research to maximise clinical and immunological outcomes of HIV treatment. We target local and international clinicians, scientists, investors and donors that are interested in combating HIV/AIDS within the unique socio-cultural, economic and health care delivery context in SSA.