Burning of spilled oil on the ocean surface or in-situ combustion is one of the techniques used in oil spill clean up operations. With the passage of time, as the crude oil stays on the ocean surface, evaporation of the lighter components of the crude oil and mixing of water with the oil due to wind and ocean turbulence create emulsions that are more dense and more viscous than oil.This makes the ignition of the oil harder to achieve.Prior studies have shown that emulsions containing more than a certain fraction of water do not burn,and thus present a difficulty in applying the in-situ combustion technique. Many normally incombustible materials can be ignited when subjected to a certain minimum heat flux,and sustained fire and flame spread can be achieved on these materials.In the present work,this principle is applied to the emulsion combustion problem so that,if successful,the window of opportunity for in-situ combustion of oil spills can be widened.It is proposed that there exists a threshold heat flux level for most of the emulsions such that,when emulsion is exposed to a heat flux equal to or greater than the threshold heat flux,sustained fire and flame spread can be achieved.
The Atmosphere and Ocean is a fully revised and updated student friendly physical introduction to the atmosphere and ocean. Now in its Third Edition, the book continues to provide students with an accessible description of the atmosphere and ocean with emphasis on their physical properties and inter-dependence. Clearly structured throughout, the book demonstrates that the atmosphere and ocean are both subject to the influence of the earth's rotation and therefore they have a common dynamical basis. The author clearly demonstrates the fundamental differences between the two environments and provides the reader with a much better understanding of the atmosphere and the ocean and an appreciation of their closest interactive relationship. There have been many developments in the field over the past ten years and this latest edition of a highly successful textbook brings together new material on the ocean-atmosphere system and climate, the observed circulation of the atmosphere and ocean and radiation in the atmosphere and ocean. Fully revised and updated 3rd Edition of student friendly physical introduction to the atmosphere and ocean. Now includes new chapters on observed circulation of the atmosphere and ocean, energy flows in the ocean atmosphere system, modeling the ocean and atmosphere, the ocean atmosphere system and climate. Well structured and written in an authoritative yet accessible style suitable for 2nd and 3rd year students taking courses in meteorology, oceanography and related Earth Sciences or as an introduction for graduate students. Emphasis placed on physical properties and inter-dependence of the ocean and climate. Part of the RMetS (Royal Meteorological Society) book series, Advancing Weather and Climate Science