Household savings is the key determinant of economic development by inducing domestic savings and ultimately investment. It also leads to high employment, industrial growth, improvement in quality of products; stabilize prices and higher GDP growth rate. The present study is an attempt to examine various factors influencing saving behavior among lower, middle and higher income groups; and Rural and Urban regions. In this study, primary source of data is collected through random sampling technique. Ordinary Least square method is employed and econometric problems are also removed from the estimated models (i.e. Heteroskedasticity, Multicollinearity etc.). This study will really help the graduate students that how to conduct research at primary level, how to solve various problems of survey, how to organize and arrange the results using econometric methods. Moreover, the study shows that how to elaborate survey results at preliminary level using percentages and graphs.
Saving is a contemporary issue for most developing countries. Now days as access to foreign capital becomes difficult, the use of domestic financial resource to promote investment and enhance economic development becomes inescapable necessity. Domestically a large portion of saving may comes from private household sector of the economy. Thus, this section of the economy needs a due surveillance and continuous supervision to empower them. As well as understanding factors that influence optimal household saving behavior is the current policy and academic issue. In saving sphere the contribution of this book is significant.
Challenging behavior in students is a world wide problem.Challenging behavior is a vexed issue in rural areas of Pakistan.There are so many causes behind challenging behavior in students.Poverty and illiteracy of parents are one of the fundamental causes of challenging behavior in the world. The book focuses on the nature and causes of challenging behavior in secondary school students in Pakistan. The book reflects the management strategies to overcome the challenging behavior.The work will be significant for the academicians,researchers,psychologists and parents.
This study looks at household savings behavior in relation to participation in SACCOS. Participants were disaggregated into those who save and those who do not save in the SACCO. Descriptive analysis of households was done to determine significant differences in the socio-economic characteristics of participants and non-participants. The determinants of the degree of SACCO participation: none membership, membership without savings and membership with savings using an ordered probit model. Weighted least squares (WLS) to determine the factors influencing the levels of deposits made in the SACCO. Results showed that the likelihood of membership and depositing in a SACCO increased with incomes, a move from a rural to urban location and having dependants in secondary schools. Households with stable income sources were less likely to join and save in a SACCO. SACCO deposits decreased with increasing distance to the district capital, Net deposits decreased with increase in level of education, wealth, trade and those with secondary school dependants. This indicates that SACCOS are not well suited to such households either in terms of prestige or adequacy and suitability of products.
Food security has been an important issue in Nepal. Food security is a complex outcome of many socioeconomic and environmental factors. The complexities of food security issue increases at the micro level. Therefore, analyzing food security at the macro level ignores many complex factors that are important for food security for particular place or households. Realizing this fact, this study analyzes the food security situation at the household level. Additionally, this study also examines the relationship between the district food sufficiency and household food security. The study concludes that some households are not being able to secure food even if they are in the food sufficient location due to many socioeconomic factors.
Village Islampure is located in Tehsil Babozai District Swat, the study area were affected due to insurgency which creates economics problems in the study area, most of the people of Islampure were poor and engaged in making handicraft, handicraft as a cottage industry is prominently contributing to life standard improvement, while bringing some positive changes through life patterns. All these life pattern are directly molding relative behavior toward attainment of certain specific objective as in industry linked through history with past increase ramification on the locals pertaining not only to livelihood but behavior modification. Also the present study is an attempt to explore the possible facts, contributing to the continuity of these industries along with its effects, upon the life pattern of its stakeholder.
Challenging behavior in students is a worldwide burning issue. parents have a significant role in behavior development of students.The study reflects the perceptions of parents towards challenging behavior in secondary school students. The study highlights the factors promoting challenging behavior in secondary school students in Punjab province of Pakistan.The study is important for the secondary school teacher training programs and behaviorists.
Parents have a significant role in behavior development of students.The book reflects the perceptions of parents towards behavior development at secondary school level in urban and rural areas of Punjab province of Pakistan.The study highlights the factors promoting behavior development in secondary school students in Pakistan.The study is significant for parents, secondary school teachers and behaviorists.
Curriculum plays a vital role in behavior development of students. The study highlights the content analysis regarding behavior development at primary school level in Pakistan. Urdu, Islamic Studies and Social Studies were analyzed regarding the concept of morality, peace, sympathy, loyalty, brotherhood and truth.The study reflects the perceptions of teachers teaching to 5th class regarding the role of curriculum in behavior development at primary school level in Pakistan.
Impact of Direct Seeding of Rice on Household Welfare in Pakistan Executive Summary The current study was carried out in the rice-wheat area of Pakistani Punjab to access the impact of direct seeding of rice sowing technology on household welfare in Pakistan. The direct seeding of rice (DSR) technology in Pakistan was introduced a couple of years back, with the idea to increase the crop yields and to save the use of inputs like water, fertilizer and labour. For estimating the impact detailed comprehensive survey was carried out in three main rice-wheat districts i.e. Gujranwala, Sheikhpura and Hafizabad. A detailed questionnaire was prepared for carrying out the analysis. The impact of direct rice sowing technology was estimated on rice and wheat crops yield, water, weedicide and labour demand. The empirical analysis indicates that adopters of direct seeding of rice sowing technology are getting higher net returns in the range of 8-9 maunds per acre. The comparative profitability analysis indicates that in case of direct seeding of rice sowing technology the cost of production is high than the conventional transplanting of rice but the net returns are more in case of direct seeding
Cotton, known as ‘white gold’, is an important cash crop in Pakistan. The Pakistani cotton industry is a vital component of the country’s economy, accounting for 1.6 % of Gross Domestic Product. Cotton was cultivated on an area of 3.19 million hectares, with production of 11.7 million bales for the year 2008-09. However cotton marketing and pricing system in the country is not developed and both the seed cotton and lint cotton are priced mostly on the basis of subjective assessment. The major problems facing the country’s cotton sector include the absence of a recognized and scientifically devised standardized quality control system,inappropriate marketing practices and fluctuating marketing arrivals. Khanewal is the important, production region in the cotton belt in Pakistan. So keeping in view its importance Khanewal district was selected purposively and then two tehsils (Khanewal tehsil and Kabirwala tehsil) were selected randomly. A representative sample of 40 cotton farmers, 20 commission agents, 20 village beoparies and 20 ginners was selected using stratified random sampling technique. The descriptive statistics was used to calculate the frequencies and percentage of sample.
A study the behavior of bankers towards Islamic banking, a cross sectional survey was conducted in the six districts named MULTAN, LODHRAN, MUZAFAR GARH, BAHAWALPUR, VEHARI and RAHIM YAR KHAN. Sampling frame consists of two banks Allied Bank and United bank of the said districts. The data has been collected and analyzed through different techniques. A randomly selected sample of 110 employees of banks was examined. It was decided to collect data through questionnaire.Questionnaire was finalized with 23 questions. And the data is collected through face to face survey. Sampling units were considered all the bankers of a bank and observation units were the employees of a bank. And it was founded that the overall behavior of bankers towards Islamic banking is positive. They want to work for the Islamic banks and seeing Islamic banks as a major portion of banking sector in future.
The Thal Desert of Pakistan has rich diversity in grasses and various habitats are available for their growth. This book encompasses a broad spectrum of agrostology in Thal area emphasizing various aspects such as morphology, foliar anatomy, palynology as well as folk use of grasses. This book would be a valuable assistance to taxonomists, foresters and range scientists in agrostological field of research.
Humanitarian aid, while useful in the short run, sometimes contributes to poverty and poor economic conditions in the long run. This occurs when the recipients lose their initiative to fend for themselves and become reliant on external aid. This study evaluated the degree to which dependency on long term aid has contributed to chronic poverty in Moroto District of Uganda. The research addressed the relationship between household production and investment pattern with number of year as aid beneficiary, while exploring the beneficiaries’ perceptions on the roles of relief aid in their livelihood. Quantitative data analyzed using multivariate regression analysis indicated a statistically significant negative relationship between household production and investment with number of years as aid beneficiary. The result of qualitative data analysis indicated that many recipients believe that if aid were to cease, they would either migrate to where aid was available, or die of starvation. This implies that organizations offering humanitarian aid to package relief aid with other programs that support the recipients’ resilience building capacity in order to save lives and reduce poverty.
The main objectives of this book are to empirically analyze the impact of leader’s change-promoting behavior on employee’s readiness for change and whether this relationship is mediated by organizational culture in the context of a developing country such as Pakistan. A sample of 205 responses is drawn from managers based in Karachi. With the help of advanced multivariate statistical techniques, the results indicate that leader’s change-promoting behavior has a significant positive impact on change readiness and this relationship is partially mediated by organizational culture in Karachi. The findings may be generalized on a larger population in Pakistan. The study supports the theory of one of the six conceptual formations of change readiness which refers it to as an employee’s capacity to change. Therefore, managers should clearly advocate the desired change with the help of their own change-prompting behavior as well as establishing a trusting culture in their organization. Both limitations and areas for future research in the context of Pakistan are also discussed.