Pattern of temperature and precipitation are changing due to global warming. Impact of climate on agriculture has been a matter of concern for food security in India. Changes in temperature, precipitation, green gas emissions, droughts, sea level are likely to enhance the risk on agriculture. The impact of climate change on agriculture is being witnessed all over the world, but countries like India are more vulnerable in view of the huge population dependency on agriculture. Here, Agriculture sector supports the livelihood security to more than 60% population. Notwithstanding that, the crops like rice and wheat are the staple food for Indians. Monsoons are changing more frequently. Droughts, floods, tropical cyclones, hot extremes and heat waves are negatively impacting agriculture production. Increasing glacier melt in Himalayas will affect the food production. Impact of climate is more high compared to the past which increasing global warming, natural calamities and may result fluctuations on many crops. In this study, climate change and its impact on rice and wheat crops of India has been analyzed.
Impact of Direct Seeding of Rice on Household Welfare in Pakistan Executive Summary The current study was carried out in the rice-wheat area of Pakistani Punjab to access the impact of direct seeding of rice sowing technology on household welfare in Pakistan. The direct seeding of rice (DSR) technology in Pakistan was introduced a couple of years back, with the idea to increase the crop yields and to save the use of inputs like water, fertilizer and labour. For estimating the impact detailed comprehensive survey was carried out in three main rice-wheat districts i.e. Gujranwala, Sheikhpura and Hafizabad. A detailed questionnaire was prepared for carrying out the analysis. The impact of direct rice sowing technology was estimated on rice and wheat crops yield, water, weedicide and labour demand. The empirical analysis indicates that adopters of direct seeding of rice sowing technology are getting higher net returns in the range of 8-9 maunds per acre. The comparative profitability analysis indicates that in case of direct seeding of rice sowing technology the cost of production is high than the conventional transplanting of rice but the net returns are more in case of direct seeding
Climate change is real and underway, so there is a need of economic assessment of impact of climate change on crop production and proper identification of adoption and mitigation measures. Lack of knowledge on climate change and its impacts on their farming system as well as weak Institutional supports to cope such impacts and poor knowledge on livelihood diversification is threatening farming communities. Climate change and agriculture are inextricably linked. Agriculture still fundamentally depends on the climatic condition and its impact on wheat production is of paramount importance for world food security.
This book describes findings of the study made to find out the possible effects of climate change on Boro rice, a major food grains that comprise about 60% of rice production in Bangladesh. Simulation results indicate that growth and yield of rice are directly related to temperature, CO2 concentrations, water requirement and planting dates etc. Temperature effects significantly on rice yield and the effect would be more pronounced if temperatures rise in 4°C. Very high temperatures have been predicted for the years 2050 and 2070 due to climate change which would cause yield reductions over 15 to 60 percent. Planting date also showed similar result and this would become more in future with rise of temperatures. CO2 concentrations have a positive impact on rice yield although higher level in future would compensate the adverse effects of increased temperatures to some extent, but it would not be able offset overall impact. Climate change causes significant reduction in rice yields. Development of improved cultivars suitable to withstand high temperatures (2°C to 4°C) and tolerant to water stress may mitigate the production problems projected for the next 50 to 100 years.
The present study carried out with the overall objective of analysing impact of climate change on dry land farming in the Virudhunagar district of Tamil Nadu, India. The study brought out the strength of association and quantitative relationship between weather parameters on the area, production and yield of different dry land crops over time, there by highlighting which climate variable is closely associated with the area allocation, productivity and total production of different crops in the district. Moreover, the study enumerated adoption and mitigation strategies followed by dry land farmers and recommended policies option to overcome the impact of climate change in long run to sustain crop productivity and thereby to improve livelihood of farmers.
Climate change is one of the most important environmental challenges with its implications on food security, water supply, health, energy etc. The wheat production in the country is highly variable due to inter seasonal weather variability and has been projected to be 109 mt by 2020 which needs sincere efforts to mitigate the effect of climatic aberrations. Specifically, the main purpose of this study was to quantify the impact of changes in temperature, solar radiation and CO2 concentration that affect the level of wheat production. The impact of climate change on wheat production can be minimized through adaptability, varietal management and agronomic practices using CERES-wheat model. In Uttarakhand, wheat productivity accounted 15 % to 30 % more with the timely sown crop (20th November) than late sowing. Wheat yield has the positive correlation with CO2 concentration and negatively correlated with temperature. This book, therefore, provides a new metric of success for farmers to deciding agricultural operations and minimize the risks and extremely important to planners in the developing countries which will be the most vulnerable to the effects of global warming.
This book titled "Impact of Climate Variability on Agriculture" Deals with retrospective climate variability and its current impacts on rainfed rice farming in Asian context; predicts future 50 years possible climate variability through intercomparison of GCMs and predicts the fate of rice agriculture based on the predicted variability. This study would serve as a milestone for further studies and a contribution for designinging practical climate change/variability adaptation strategies to minimize adverse effects of climate variability on agriculture
Subsidies are worldwide phenomenon, introduced for increasing the agricultural production. In India at present, Governments are providing subsidies on fertilizers, irrigation, electricity etc to facilitate the farmers. In this book, an attempt is made to analysis the subsidy of electricity in Punjab state of India during 1996-97 to 2008-09. This book reveals the meaning of subsidy, free electricity given to Punjab farmers, current status of electricity and the impact of free electricity on various aspects of economy.
India is the second largest producer of rice in the world. But as the rice productivity is concerned it is almost half of the world average rice productivity. In developing economies like India where resources are meager and opportunity for adopting capital intensive new technologies are limited, the best option to enhance productivity is by efficient use of the production resources as resource use efficiency is an identified important factor in enhancing the productivity level in agriculture crops. Several studies on resource use efficiency have been undertaken on paddy, wheat and other major crops sown in Punjab, but comparatively less work has been done on basmati rice which is an important crop with an area of 0.65 million hectares, in Punjab state.In Punjab’s present condition basmati rice seems to be a promising alternative of paddy, with its intensification as well as late planting not causing major damage to ground water resources due to occurrence of monsoon during sowing time. The present book will provide an insight to policy makers and researchers who can bring maximum possible gains for farmers of this region.
Climate change may affect food systems in several ways ranging from direct effects on crop production (e.g. changes in rainfall leading to drought or flooding, or warmer or cooler temperatures leading to changes in the length of growing season), to changes in markets, food prices and supply chain infrastructure. Adaptation to climate change in Egypt is a major issue to identify appropriate crop management strategies, maximize benefits and minimize risks associated with agriculture in Egypt. Scientists in Agrometeorology and Climate Change Unit, Soil, Water and Environment Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, studied the impact of climate change on some main crops in Egypt. The results indicated that: Climate change could decrease the national production of rice by 11 %, wheat and barley by 18 %, maize (corn) and sorghum by 19 % and soybean by 28 % by the year 2050, compared with their production under current conditions. Cotton seed yield would increase by 17 % if the temperature increased by 2°C and by 31 % with a 4°C increase. Climate change could increase crop water demand for summer crops (up to +16%), while it could slightly increase water demand for winter crops.
The incidence and intensity of extreme weather has been more frequent, which likely challenges human and natural systems more than normal change. The agricultural sector is most vulnerable to the eventual consequences of climate change. Noteworthy, the climate has been changing in the conventional rubber growing regions of Malaysia and the current temperature is at the higher end of the optimal temperature range for rubber crop. Thus, further increases will adversely affect growth and productivity of natural rubber. This book vividly estimates the economic impact of climate change on natural rubber production in Peninsular Malaysia and capture's the marginal impact of weather conditions on the viability of production systems along with the future climate change impact by predicting the economic impact due to the expected climate change.
Climate change will impact horticultural production in the future. The present work assesses the future climatic impact on regional horticultural production by establishing a basic frame of a climate impact modeling chain. Using high resolved simulated climate time series of future alternatives of the worlds development, long-term trends of various climate effects were assessed. For this purpose, simulated climate time series were calibrated and effects of resolution, bias, bias correction, scenario, climate model and impact model as well uncertainty propagation along the simulation chain were investigated. A multidimensional bias correction method was developed in order to optimize climate time series consistency.
This study is the first in Egypt to quantify the effect of using different fertigation treatments on wheat and maize grown in sandy soils. Furthermore, simulation of the effect of climate change was done and fertigation was considered as an adaptation option. Simulation of the effect of fertigation under climate change revealed that yield losses could be reduced under newly reclaimed soils for both crops when it was used. Furthermore fertigation could be considered as an appropriate irrigation management under climate change.
This work "Effects of Climate Variability on Wheat Crop Productivity over the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia" is the original work addressing climate variability and predictability. On the other hand it asses the impact of climate variability on crop production and recommends way forward to mitigate the negative impact of climate variability on crop production. It is highly useful for researchers,decision makers,farmers and agricultural investors. "Climate variability is an unavoidable aspect everywhere all over the world under rain fed agriculture. However, it can be managed at least partially or may even be changed to one’s advantage, even though solving the problem completely is difficult."
This book consists of five main self-contained chapters that all deal with the analyses on current rice farmers’ status (Technical efficiency, life improvement, agricultural policy, price insurance) and impact-estimates of industrial water pollution on rice production in Vietnam. The specific objectives are: (1) - to measure the technical efficiency (TE) of rice production and identify its determinants. (2) - to investigate the factors affecting farmers’ quality of life. (3) - to analyze the effectiveness and impacts of agricultural policies on rice farmers. (4) - to estimate the potential for market-based insurance schemes of rice producing households. (5) - to calculate the damage of rice production caused by water pollution.