Pattern of temperature and precipitation are changing due to global warming. Impact of climate on agriculture has been a matter of concern for food security in India. Changes in temperature, precipitation, green gas emissions, droughts, sea level are likely to enhance the risk on agriculture. The impact of climate change on agriculture is being witnessed all over the world, but countries like India are more vulnerable in view of the huge population dependency on agriculture. Here, Agriculture sector supports the livelihood security to more than 60% population. Notwithstanding that, the crops like rice and wheat are the staple food for Indians. Monsoons are changing more frequently. Droughts, floods, tropical cyclones, hot extremes and heat waves are negatively impacting agriculture production. Increasing glacier melt in Himalayas will affect the food production. Impact of climate is more high compared to the past which increasing global warming, natural calamities and may result fluctuations on many crops. In this study, climate change and its impact on rice and wheat crops of India has been analyzed.
Climate change is real and underway, so there is a need of economic assessment of impact of climate change on crop production and proper identification of adoption and mitigation measures. Lack of knowledge on climate change and its impacts on their farming system as well as weak Institutional supports to cope such impacts and poor knowledge on livelihood diversification is threatening farming communities. Climate change and agriculture are inextricably linked. Agriculture still fundamentally depends on the climatic condition and its impact on wheat production is of paramount importance for world food security.
Most of the farmers perceived the change in climate at present in terms of change in terms of change in rainfall pattern, duration, timing, intensity, onset of monsoon and change in summer and winter temperature in terms of hotness and coldness. There was significant change in farming system and usual farming practices. The sources of water sources were drying. The monsoon rain was decreasing and farm becomes drier year after year. Due to lack of timely rainfall and assured irrigation facilities, the productivity trend was declining at the rate of 0.027 tonha-1 in Dhading while in chitwan it was increasing at the rate of 0.039 tonha-1 and farmers get less benefit from farming activities. Trend analysis showed decreasing trend of maximum (-0.0490 CYear-1) and average temperature (-0.0230 CYear-1) with increasing minimum temperature (0.001oCYear-1) in Chitwan (Rampur) while in case of Dhading (Dhune Besi) the maximum temperature was increasing (0.0120 CYear-1) with decreasing average (-0.0120 CYear-1) and minimum temperature (-0.0360 CYear-1). Farmers were practicing different coping and adaptation strategies in their farm based upon their experience to tackle changing climate.
The survey research was conducted to study the impacts of climate variability on maize production in central Nepal in Dhading and Chitwan districts. Sixty farmers from each site were selected randomly for the study. Descriptive statistics along with trend analysis and logit regression model were used for analysis of the data. Majority of farmer (79.17%) perceived changes in climate variability in the recent years. 86.67% of total household perceived that monsoon rainfall was shifted later, 90% of farmers perceived pest dynamics, 92.59% felt increased pest population in compare to 10 years back, 76.85% experienced emergence of new pest and 34.26% experienced pest resurgence. In Chitwan, annual average temperature and maximum temperature are decreasing but minimum temperature is increasing by 0.001 degree celsius whereas in Dhading maximum temperature is increasing in contrast to decreasing annual average and minimum temperature. The trend analysis strongly support farmer perception that summer was hotter and winter was less cold as compared to the past in Dhading which is found contrasting in Chitwan.
Impact of Direct Seeding of Rice on Household Welfare in Pakistan Executive Summary The current study was carried out in the rice-wheat area of Pakistani Punjab to access the impact of direct seeding of rice sowing technology on household welfare in Pakistan. The direct seeding of rice (DSR) technology in Pakistan was introduced a couple of years back, with the idea to increase the crop yields and to save the use of inputs like water, fertilizer and labour. For estimating the impact detailed comprehensive survey was carried out in three main rice-wheat districts i.e. Gujranwala, Sheikhpura and Hafizabad. A detailed questionnaire was prepared for carrying out the analysis. The impact of direct rice sowing technology was estimated on rice and wheat crops yield, water, weedicide and labour demand. The empirical analysis indicates that adopters of direct seeding of rice sowing technology are getting higher net returns in the range of 8-9 maunds per acre. The comparative profitability analysis indicates that in case of direct seeding of rice sowing technology the cost of production is high than the conventional transplanting of rice but the net returns are more in case of direct seeding
Climate change may affect food systems in several ways ranging from direct effects on crop production (e.g. changes in rainfall leading to drought or flooding, or warmer or cooler temperatures leading to changes in the length of growing season), to changes in markets, food prices and supply chain infrastructure. Adaptation to climate change in Egypt is a major issue to identify appropriate crop management strategies, maximize benefits and minimize risks associated with agriculture in Egypt. Scientists in Agrometeorology and Climate Change Unit, Soil, Water and Environment Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, studied the impact of climate change on some main crops in Egypt. The results indicated that: Climate change could decrease the national production of rice by 11 %, wheat and barley by 18 %, maize (corn) and sorghum by 19 % and soybean by 28 % by the year 2050, compared with their production under current conditions. Cotton seed yield would increase by 17 % if the temperature increased by 2°C and by 31 % with a 4°C increase. Climate change could increase crop water demand for summer crops (up to +16%), while it could slightly increase water demand for winter crops.
South Africa is a net wheat importer as domestic production is insufficient to meet domestic demand. This study investigates the impact of imported wheat on the production costs of a South African milling company. The difference in cost price, per ton, of locally produced wheat is compared with imported cultivars. Composition of the wheat sales market is analyzed to assess the market share of each company, the regions of trade, sale per product type and sale per pack size. The components which make-up the production costs are studied to assess the major cost drivers. Correlation analysis and simple linear regression (OLS) of data gathered through the case study indicates a substantial and significant relationship between the variable producer cost per ton and the end selling price to the customer. Wheat milling firms can incur significant cost savings through the use of imported wheat in the production process.
No doubt all of us are facing the consequences of climate change but poor people being the most vulnerable sector of the society may find them selves in great trouble. Climate change is one of the most important global environmental challenges, with implications for food production, water supply, health, energy, etc. Food security directly or indirectly related to climate changes. Any alteration in climatic parameters such as temperature and humidity which govern crops grows will have a direct impact on the quality of food produced. This book addresses these challenges. The responsibility for greenhouse gas emissions’ increase lies largely with the industrialized world, though the developing countries are likely to be the source of an increasing proportion of future emissions. The projected climate change under various scenarios is likely to have implications on food production, water supply, coastal settlements, forest ecosystems, health, energy security, etc. The adaptive capacity of communities likely to be impacted by climate change is low in developing countries. The efforts made by the Kyoto Protocol provisions are clearly inadequate to address the climate change challenge. T
Tamil Nadu is India's fifth largest producer of rice, next to West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Punjab and Uttar Pradesh. The Cauvery delta region of the composite Thanjavur district in the state is known as the Rice Bowl of South India. Rice is grown in 2.1 million hectares accounting for about one-third of the gross cropped area under diverse environments in the state, like; rain-fed tank, tank, tank cum well, canal (river) and canal (reservoir) irrigation systems. The rice productivity growth had been declining at the rate of -0.40 per cent (during period 1990-91 to 1999-00) as the yields of existing varieties had already been plateauing. Recent breakthroughs in the development of tropical hybrid rice technology had how ever provided an alternative option for raising yield levels for sustained production growth in rice especially in favourable irrigated eco-systems. A nation-wide network on Development and Use of Hybrid Rice Technology – initiated by the ICAR with support from the UNDP,FAO and IRRI. Under this network,TNAU has released four rice hybrids so far, namely; CORH 1, CORH 2 ADTRH 1 and ADTRH 2.Hence, it was decided to take-up this hybrid technology impact study.
Ex-post impact assessment of research investment on cassava production technologies was done to validate past funding on research based on economic surplus approach. Adoption survey on selected cassava production technologies conducted in the target states revealed that the average Adoption Quotient (AQ) was observed to be good in Kerala (56.34%), Tamil Nadu (63.63%) and Andhra Pradesh (51.20%). An economic surplus of Rs.3585.87 millions was generated in the target domain. Net Present Value (NPV) of economic gains was estimated to be Rs.3548.76 millions. Present value of research investment on cassava production technologies through cassava R & D system in the country were estimated to be Rs.37.11 millions. This investment resulted in the benefit cost ratio (BCR) of 96.63:1 with a high internal rate of return (IRR) of 104%. This research investment was proved to be highly economical and provided evidence to the policy makers that supporting further research investment on underground, under exploited tropical root crops like cassava is an economically viable proposition.
Climate change is one of the most important environmental challenges with its implications on food security, water supply, health, energy etc. The wheat production in the country is highly variable due to inter seasonal weather variability and has been projected to be 109 mt by 2020 which needs sincere efforts to mitigate the effect of climatic aberrations. Specifically, the main purpose of this study was to quantify the impact of changes in temperature, solar radiation and CO2 concentration that affect the level of wheat production. The impact of climate change on wheat production can be minimized through adaptability, varietal management and agronomic practices using CERES-wheat model. In Uttarakhand, wheat productivity accounted 15 % to 30 % more with the timely sown crop (20th November) than late sowing. Wheat yield has the positive correlation with CO2 concentration and negatively correlated with temperature. This book, therefore, provides a new metric of success for farmers to deciding agricultural operations and minimize the risks and extremely important to planners in the developing countries which will be the most vulnerable to the effects of global warming.
India is the second largest producer of rice in the world. But as the rice productivity is concerned it is almost half of the world average rice productivity. In developing economies like India where resources are meager and opportunity for adopting capital intensive new technologies are limited, the best option to enhance productivity is by efficient use of the production resources as resource use efficiency is an identified important factor in enhancing the productivity level in agriculture crops. Several studies on resource use efficiency have been undertaken on paddy, wheat and other major crops sown in Punjab, but comparatively less work has been done on basmati rice which is an important crop with an area of 0.65 million hectares, in Punjab state.In Punjab’s present condition basmati rice seems to be a promising alternative of paddy, with its intensification as well as late planting not causing major damage to ground water resources due to occurrence of monsoon during sowing time. The present book will provide an insight to policy makers and researchers who can bring maximum possible gains for farmers of this region.
This book describes findings of the study made to find out the possible effects of climate change on Boro rice, a major food grains that comprise about 60% of rice production in Bangladesh. Simulation results indicate that growth and yield of rice are directly related to temperature, CO2 concentrations, water requirement and planting dates etc. Temperature effects significantly on rice yield and the effect would be more pronounced if temperatures rise in 4°C. Very high temperatures have been predicted for the years 2050 and 2070 due to climate change which would cause yield reductions over 15 to 60 percent. Planting date also showed similar result and this would become more in future with rise of temperatures. CO2 concentrations have a positive impact on rice yield although higher level in future would compensate the adverse effects of increased temperatures to some extent, but it would not be able offset overall impact. Climate change causes significant reduction in rice yields. Development of improved cultivars suitable to withstand high temperatures (2°C to 4°C) and tolerant to water stress may mitigate the production problems projected for the next 50 to 100 years.
The lives of the entire global community are increasingly jeopardized by the effects of climate change. Agriculture which everybody depends on for food is the most highly affected sector. Rice, the second most staple food crop in Ghana has experienced a tremendous decline in yield over the decades in Northern Region of Ghana. Each year, farmers are changing their ways of cultivating rice either consciously or unconsciously. In order to conduct evidence base research, both primary and secondary data were subjected to econometric analyses to empirically determine the evidence of climate change, its effects and farmers’ adaptive capacity levels in the study area and Ghana as a whole. The results of the study indicate that climate change is evident. The commonly used adaptation strategy for rice production is the increased in the cultivation of rice near water bodies. On the average, farmers are moderately adaptive to climate change. Also, high adaptive capacity farmers obtain 9 more 50kg bag of paddy rice than low adaptive capacity farmers. From the rice yield regression results, if average annual temperature increases by 10C, rice yield will decrease by 0.15mt/ha.
Climate change poses an increasing threat to the sustainability of agricultural production and livelihood strategies of poor rural people worldwide. The concentration of green house gases in the atmosphere has increased significantly. The amount of Carbon dioxide has increased by 31%, Methane by 151% and Nitrous oxide by 17 %. Increasing concentration of the anthropogenically produced green house gases (Carbon dioxide, Methane, Nitrous Oxide, Chlorofluorocarbons and Water vapour) are responsible for the changes in the climate of the Earth. The rise of temperature is greater in Nepal than the average of global rise with intense rains, floods and drought. Gradually, year-by-year changes in temperature have also been observed, with a 0.09?C per year increase recorded in the Himalayas and 0.04?C per year increase in the Terai with higher increases in winter. Farmers should have proper knowledge on adaptation practices like use of drought varieties, water harvesting technology, land management techniques, and use of resource conservation technology like mulching, zero tillage etc. as immediate response of farming communities against climate change.