Lactobacillus species play a major role in fermented dairy products and also contribute to the therapeutic aspects of human health. Rapid methods are required for quality control of fermented dairy products, in vivo identification of probiotic strains and species of Lactobacillus and monitoring fermentation process. Though there is a fact that milk and dairy foods hampers DNA extraction due to the presence of proteins, fats and salts, Lactobacillus was identified by PCR from raw milk using modified DNA isolation technique. Incidence of lactobacillus in milk was found to be 85% among which L.delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus was 60% and L.acidophilus was 40%. In order to validate the PCR for identification of lactobacilli from raw milk without pre-enrichment technique, the raw milk was intentionally inoculated with lactobacilli to make a concentration of 107, 105, 103, 10 cfu/ml and PCR was carried out. It concludes that at least 103 cfu/ml of lactobacilli is required to identify the lactobacillus from raw milk by PCR.
Bovine mastitis, an inflammation of mammary glands, is the most important and costly disease in the dairy industry and affects the quality as well as quantity of milk. The control of bovine mastitis might be possible through improvement of husbandry and management practices such as herd size, type of farm, milk yield, ventilation status and cleanliness, etc in water buffaloes. The parity and age also effect on the incidence of mastitis.
The presented study was conducted in selected areas of central highlands of Ethiopia to evaluate the hygienic practices being carried out by the small holder dairy farmers of various dairy products including raw milk. The aim of the study was to determine the microbial and chemical properties of milk and asses the marketing situation of milk and milk products. The study was carried out with 173 smallholder dairy farmers, 74, 50 and 49 respondents each from Holetta, Selale and Debre Brhan respectively. The average of total solids, total proteins, fat,carbohydrate and ash percentages of milk were 12.97, 3.52, 4.53, 4.36 and 0.64 respectively. The average total bacteria, coliform and entrobacteria counts of milk samples were 7.6, 3.6 and 3.2 Log CFU/ml respectively; there was no significant difference between the areas. The level of contamination of milk was high and about 88.8% of the pathogens were entrobacteria.The price of whole milk was almost similar in all study areas whereas higher price was observed for butter in Debre Brhan and Ayib in Holetta. Incidence of microbial contamination of milk is a challenge for quality milk production and consumption in the area.
Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) are the prime source of good quality milk and meat in Pakistan and other developing countries. In Pakistan there are 28.4 million heads of buffaloes, which play a key role in the rural economy of the country. Buffaloes provide more than seventy percent of milk consumed in the country. Pakistan is the fifth largest milk producer in the world. The gastro-intestinal tract of animals provides a shelter for a wide variety of parasites. Ascariasis is the most important parasitic disease of buffalo calves. Its incidence in Pakistan is high upto 37.7% to 48%. Toxocara vitulorum parasites cause this disease in young buffaloes. So this study was planned to record the prevalence of Ascariasis in buffalo calves by using Direct Smear Method, Floatation Method and Sedimentation Method
The identity of Lactobacilli colonizing the vagina of premenopausal African women has not been studied with the most recent polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and gene sequencing techniques. The resultant paucity of information on Lactobacilli leaves a very large gap in the knowledge of the species that may be propagated and used as biotherapeutic agents. This book determined the Lactobacilli colonizing the vagina of women of childbearing age, tested if the Lactobacilli isolated exhibited probiotic properties, compared culture-independent and dependent methods in Lactobacillus identification, looked at the safety of known probiotics in an animal model and ascertained the receptivity of probiotics among premenopausal women for the maintenance of urogenital and gastrointestinal health. This book presents a new understanding of the nature of the vaginal Lactobacillus microbiota of some women in Africa and some strains of the lactobacilli identified possessed probiotic properties for biotherapeutic applications. The book is useful to Microbiologists, Students, and Biomedical Scientists working on Lactic acid bacteria.
Sandesh occupies a prominent place among indigenous milk products and carries lot of market potential. Sandesh is the most popular chhana based sweet delicacy of the eastern part of India particularly in West Bengal and Bangladesh. Certain alteration is necessary in the processing technique for conversion of buffalo milk to obtain good quality chhana thereby good quality Sandesh. Some of the treatments which can be adopted are adjustment in fat percent of milk, adjustment in salt balance of buffalo milk, homogenization of milk, change in the coagulation temperature, etc. In India, buffalo milk account for over 55 percent of the country’s total milk production. So, the main source of marketable surplus is buffalo milk. In recent years, there has been growing interest in the manufacture of Sandesh and other chhana based product from cow and buffalo milk.
Over the years bovine mastitis is responsible for reduced milk production, leading to economic losses worldwide. In addition to being difficult to eradicate, mastitis requires antimicrobial therapy. In Brazil, despite the incidence of food poisoning caused by Staphylococcus aureus being unknown, previous studies indicate the important role of raw milk and dairy products in human outbreaks. Similarly, Staphylococcus spp. is the main genus of bacteria that causes mastitis in cattle. This book, therefore, provides the evaluation of the occurrence of biofilm-producing strains of Staphylococcus aureus in the milking environment of 10 farms located in state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The analysis should help to improve mastitis control of the cattle by knowing the transmission route of the pathogen.
This book provides the view of the Dairy production and prevailing constraints associated with cow milk hygiene, the hygienic conditions of cow’s milk and the microbial load of raw milk, milk-borne bacterial pathogens at farm level and selling points and the possible fecal contamination of milk produced by dairy farmers in Hawassa city. The bacteriological quality of the pasteurized milk from selling points and water source used for cleaning milk and milk product handling equipments also combined to see overall quality of the marketable fluid milk in the city. The overall aim of the present work is to contribute to the effort towards improving the quality of raw milk through providing information on quality and safety of raw milk produced and marketed in Hawassa city.
Competition in milk procurement has encouraged unhealthy practice of adulteration and use of undesirable preservatives. Dairy plant which accepts milk with adulterants/preservatives is unethical dairies. Hence it is necessary to analyze the reason for spoilage of milk in transit and to take remedial measure to improve the quality of raw milk. Many diseases like T.B., milk sickness, undulant fever, dysentery, diarrhea, diphtheria, scarlet fever, cholera, septic sore throat, and gastroenteritis can spread through unclean milk. Therefore, possibility of it, as a source of biological hazards cannot be overlooked. Due to its dietary importance the production of safe, clean and wholesome milk is of utmost importance. Problem of maintaining quality of milk can be tackled by elimination of preservatives, two time milk collection, use of sanitary condition, quick transport, timely cooling and analysis of milk for quality its suitability for processing in dairy.
The investigation was conducted with the objectives to study economics of milk and milk products, marketing of milk and milk products and to analyse strengths and weaknesses of private and cooperative marketing systems.A random sample of 60 farmers comprising of 30 milk producers selling milk to private and 30 milk producers selling milk to cooperative sectors was drawn for the study purpose. In case of cooperative milk product production, Dugdh Utpadak Sahkari Sangh, Khatima was selected Then a random sample of 10 private milk product producers was drawn from Rudrapur and Khatima blocks of district Udham Singh Nagar. The important policy implications of the study are Development of efficient milk collection centres with proper cooling facilities and transportation networks at farmers level by the cooperatives could reduce the cost of transportation and thus help in maintaining quality of milk and milk products. Steps may be taken by dairy cooperatives to consider the cost of milk production besides fat and SNF, in fixing the procurement price of milk.The private milk product producers should enhance their scale of production in order to reduce manufacturing cost.
Production of milk is a key activity worldwide since dairy products' supply and demand is not balanced due to ever increasing need. Milk and milk products are used in different forms and marketed through both formal and informal ways. About 5% of milk and milk products produced are marketed in rural areas in traditional manner with poor handling. Quality is an important issue in production of hygienic products especially for safety of consumers in which both microbial and chemical properties of milk produced in Boditti, Wolaita, South Ethiopia was considered. Overall, this book will help producers, different stakeholders, students, researchers and governmental organizations in making information accessible.
Mastitis is generally recognized as an important factor that influences the quality of milk and dairy products. Milk from infected cows is characterized by increased somatic cell (SC) counts associated with changes in the components and properties of raw milk. Mastitis losses to the dairy industry are related to alterations in milk composition, reduced calcium, lactose and casein levels, and increases in sodium, chloride, and levels of serum proteins. However, one of the most important adverse effects of high SC counts in milk on the dairy industry includes undesirable sensory attributes caused mainly by proteolytic and lipolytic enzymes. This book covers the effects of major enzymes related to somatic cells on the quality of milk and dairy products, such as reduced shelf life and changes in sensory attributes, mainly due to off-flavors formation.
The relevance of Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as industrial microbes today is next only to that of the common baker?s yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The interest in LAB as health-promoting organisms dates back to the early 20th-century, when Elie Metchnikoff suggested that the consumption of Lactobacteria contributes to the prolonging of life by modifying the gastrointestinal microbiota of the individuals. The production and consumption of health-promoting lacto-fermented probiotics for human use have increased, and the molecular mechanisms of Lactobacilli interactions with the host both in health and disease represent a growing field in bacteriological survey. Many women become frustrated by the intermittent use of antimicrobial moieties whose therapeutic efficacy is waning due to the escalating incidence of microbial strains that are becoming refractory to the current arsenal of drugs. The flora of the urogenital tract is abnormal in patients with recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) compared with those of healthy women. The use of probiotics to restore the normal vaginal flora and to provide a competitive bacterial barrier is becoming increasingly acceptable.
Camel milk is commonly consumed raw by pastoralists in arid areas who may be unaware of the risks posed by such milk. It was therefore very important to determine the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae, which are some of the most common pathogens in such milk. The results indicated the potential health risk of consuming raw camel milk and increasing incidences of resistance of mastitis organisms to the common antibiotics. There is need to educate camel milk producers on hygienic milk production as well as inform the raw camel milk consumers on dangers involved. Marketing of camel milk and products can be enhanced using the attributes appropriate for each product in the respective district.
Venous thromboembolism commonly manifests as deep vein thrombosis of the leg, but it may also occur in other veins like cerebral sinus, veins of the arm, retina and mesentery. According to American Heart Association, more people suffer from deep vein thrombosis (DVT) annually than heart attack or stroke. The incidence of DVT in the general population has been estimated to be 80?100 per 1,00,000 annually in the western societies, 4?75 per 1,00,000 in South?Asia. In India, the incidence of DVT is not well highlighted and literature survey shows scanty works in this field. Most of the literature available in India is from the orthopaedic departments, overall incidence of DVT in general population is largely unknown. The routine applicability of prophylactic anticoagulation in our patients is also not well defined.