Lactobacillus species play a major role in fermented dairy products and also contribute to the therapeutic aspects of human health. Rapid methods are required for quality control of fermented dairy products, in vivo identification of probiotic strains and species of Lactobacillus and monitoring fermentation process. Though there is a fact that milk and dairy foods hampers DNA extraction due to the presence of proteins, fats and salts, Lactobacillus was identified by PCR from raw milk using modified DNA isolation technique. Incidence of lactobacillus in milk was found to be 85% among which L.delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus was 60% and L.acidophilus was 40%. In order to validate the PCR for identification of lactobacilli from raw milk without pre-enrichment technique, the raw milk was intentionally inoculated with lactobacilli to make a concentration of 107, 105, 103, 10 cfu/ml and PCR was carried out. It concludes that at least 103 cfu/ml of lactobacilli is required to identify the lactobacillus from raw milk by PCR.
The relevance of Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as industrial microbes today is next only to that of the common baker?s yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The interest in LAB as health-promoting organisms dates back to the early 20th-century, when Elie Metchnikoff suggested that the consumption of Lactobacteria contributes to the prolonging of life by modifying the gastrointestinal microbiota of the individuals. The production and consumption of health-promoting lacto-fermented probiotics for human use have increased, and the molecular mechanisms of Lactobacilli interactions with the host both in health and disease represent a growing field in bacteriological survey. Many women become frustrated by the intermittent use of antimicrobial moieties whose therapeutic efficacy is waning due to the escalating incidence of microbial strains that are becoming refractory to the current arsenal of drugs. The flora of the urogenital tract is abnormal in patients with recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) compared with those of healthy women. The use of probiotics to restore the normal vaginal flora and to provide a competitive bacterial barrier is becoming increasingly acceptable.
The identity of Lactobacilli colonizing the vagina of premenopausal African women has not been studied with the most recent polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and gene sequencing techniques. The resultant paucity of information on Lactobacilli leaves a very large gap in the knowledge of the species that may be propagated and used as biotherapeutic agents. This book determined the Lactobacilli colonizing the vagina of women of childbearing age, tested if the Lactobacilli isolated exhibited probiotic properties, compared culture-independent and dependent methods in Lactobacillus identification, looked at the safety of known probiotics in an animal model and ascertained the receptivity of probiotics among premenopausal women for the maintenance of urogenital and gastrointestinal health. This book presents a new understanding of the nature of the vaginal Lactobacillus microbiota of some women in Africa and some strains of the lactobacilli identified possessed probiotic properties for biotherapeutic applications. The book is useful to Microbiologists, Students, and Biomedical Scientists working on Lactic acid bacteria.
Animal Husbandry plays an important role in upliftment of the economic status of the rural and urban people. Diseases directly reduce farm income by causing considerable losses in both production and stock as well as forcing farmers to spend money and labour on their control and indirectly by placing restrictions on the exports. The present study aims to analyze the status of different diseases in livestock which causes increased morbidity, mortality and decrease in rates of production and reproduction of animals. The study focuses on the analysis of morbidity and mortality due to various diseases in different species. It also documents the effects of diseases on the milk production, body weight, wool production and estrous cycle, pregnancy and services per conception in livestock.
The presented study was conducted in selected areas of central highlands of Ethiopia to evaluate the hygienic practices being carried out by the small holder dairy farmers of various dairy products including raw milk. The aim of the study was to determine the microbial and chemical properties of milk and asses the marketing situation of milk and milk products. The study was carried out with 173 smallholder dairy farmers, 74, 50 and 49 respondents each from Holetta, Selale and Debre Brhan respectively. The average of total solids, total proteins, fat,carbohydrate and ash percentages of milk were 12.97, 3.52, 4.53, 4.36 and 0.64 respectively. The average total bacteria, coliform and entrobacteria counts of milk samples were 7.6, 3.6 and 3.2 Log CFU/ml respectively; there was no significant difference between the areas. The level of contamination of milk was high and about 88.8% of the pathogens were entrobacteria.The price of whole milk was almost similar in all study areas whereas higher price was observed for butter in Debre Brhan and Ayib in Holetta. Incidence of microbial contamination of milk is a challenge for quality milk production and consumption in the area.
The FDI World Dental Federation recognises that oral cancer is a major public health issue worldwide, where cancer of the lip, mouth and pharynx combined is the sixth most common site of malignancy. Oral cancer remains a highly lethal and disfiguring disease. Therefore, a systematic oral mucosal examination, by visual means and digital palpation, should be part of every dental examination procedure and every dentist must be aware of the most rapid and adequate referral pathway for the effective management of these lesions
This book presents a documentation of the economic potential and significance as well as geotechnical and hydrogeologic analyses of some remote barite deposits in the Abakaliki Basin, southeastern Nigeria. Integrated geophysical probes, remotely sensed data and field mapping of the ore bodies are techniques employed in assessing reserves while evalution of potential geotechnical challenges that may be envisaged are prosecuted from geotechnical mapping and hydraulic field tests. The results and methodology, as expressed, are considered pertinent for application in surface mine design, particularly, in soft earth systems.
Cerebral infarction is the commonest pathology detected in Saudi population using a computed tomography scanner, in the period of September to December 2011 at the radiology department of the king Khalid hospital at Al-Kharj province. Where this study was designed with an objective, to determine the incidence of commonest brain pathology in Saudi population, when the brain is investigated using computed axial tomography modality.
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) counseling and testing provides an entry point to comprehensive HIV/AIDS management. In Africa, most women attending antenatal clinics are usually counseled and tested for HIV only once that is during the initial visit and yet there is chance that they could contract HIV later on in pregnancy. Moreover, the women could also be in window period at the time of initial testing and could eventually turn HIV positive. Failure to repeat the test therefore later on in pregnancy leaves a gap in Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission (PMTCT). This book churns out first hand evidence of HIV incidence among erstwhile HIV negative pregnant women in Kakamega County - Kenya. The book also looks at factors that influence the decisions of the women to retest for HIV. The recommendations from this book provide practical solutions to governments and agencies in developing nations and the world at large by helping the policy makers craft strategies to curb Mother to Child Transmission of HIV.
This micro level study of a district in the drought prone Rayalaseema region provides an indepth analysis of incidence of poverty of rural labourers where the rural employment, wages and income of the labourers depend significantly on rainfall and availability of groundwater on which agricultural growth of this region depends.The incidence of poverty among the rural labour households was assessed using head count method on the basis of income, expenditure and calorie intake of food. To measure the severity of poverty, Sen's poverty measure has been computed on the basis of income, expenditure and calorie intake of food. In addition to the above, human poverty index has been estimated which facilitates to understand the factors depriving the rural labourers to have a decent and appropriate standard of living. All the concepts used in the study have been defined.
Antibiotics are commonly used in agriculture and industry and their discharge is commonly seen in rivers, like the Buffalo River. To study the effect of urban pollution on the antibiotic resistance in Aeromonas, 229 Aeromonas isolates were collected from fish tissues as well as sediment and water samples collected from the Buffalo River and a non-urban site (Cazenovia Creek). Seven different Aeromonas taxa were identified using biochemical tests. All Aeromonas isolates were tested for their resistance to six different antibiotics (cephalothin, cefoxitin, ceftriaxone, nalidixic acid, piperacillin, and tetracycline). This study can be used to guide future studies in antibiotic resistance from the Buffalo River watershed.
Tuberculosis is regarded as one of the most widespread diseases in all parts of the world and posed a risk to public health, according to the world health organization (WHO) statistics for the year 2005, there are 1.7 billion people are infected with TB (about one third the world population).At the global level about the victims of this disease (3) million people a year are expected to die about (30) million people in this contract as a result of tuberculosis, almost four times the number of deaths due to disease HIV and AIDS in the same period of time. Bovine TB is considered the most important types of tuberculosis transmitted from animals to humans, where livestock are the main reservoir for this disease.The bovine tuberculosis around the proportion of 5-20% of the incidence of tuberculosis in general in humans and this means that there are about (6 million) people expected their death as a result of bovine tuberculosis, the current ten years, and there are most cases of tuberculosis in developing countries, including the Arab Republic of Egypt and the spread of M. bovis in the human being is clearly inherent in the spread in cattle and this one of the best ways to eliminate it
Diabetes is major health problem with high morbidity and mortality. Currently affects more than 285 million people worldwide according to the Mexican Diabetes Federation. Candidiasis is a common disorder, especially in patients with diabetes. It is caused by an overgrowth of Candida in the mouth, digestive tract, vagina and other tissues. People with diabetes have high levels of glucose in the blood are more susceptible to oral candidiasis. A dental prosthesis is an artificial element that is used to restore the anatomy of a tooth or teeth, also the restoration of the relationship between the jaws, while correcting the vertical dimension and improve both the natural dentition and periodontal structures. The study aims to determine the incidence of Candida albicans in patients diabetes with total or partial prosthesis.
There are reports of food borne illnesses associated with the consumption of fruit juices and a lot of food borne illnesses have been reported at several places all over the world. Pakistan is one of the culprits of this issue. Present study was undertaken for detection of the possible sources of E.coli O157:H7 in street vended fresh fruit juices sold along the road sides of Lahore city, Pakistan which maintain unhygienic conditions and assessed its safety for human consumption.162 fresh juice samples of sugar cane, plum, tamarind, peach, lemonade and slush that were taken from different areas of Lahore and analyzed for the presence of E.coli O157:H7. It is suggested that unpasteurized fruit juices and contaminated water used in juice making is the potential vehicle for E.coli O157:H7 transmission.
The book covers the field of security interest in movable property vis-a-vis the rights of consumer credit in Rwandan Law. It focuses on those credit contracts in which the legal relationship between the consumer and the dominant party. This research is carried out in response to the problems linked to pre-contractual phase while negotiating a credit contract secured by security interest in movable property, as well as the issues linked to the recovery of the debts secured by security interest by the sale of the collateral which undermine the rights of the consumer credit. The research identifies that the protection of consumer credit should be based on the premise that if creditors are aware of the limitations on enforcing a security interest in movable property they will only advance credit if they can be confident in repayment by some other means. In conclusion, the research is expected to discuss about the proposed legal mechanisms on protecting consumer credit in security interest by proposing the government’s intervention for a consumer credit code and the consumer credit redress mechanisms to be established in case of realization of the security interest.