It is now globally accepted that children with disabilities should be educated in inclusive settings alongside their peers. Kenya is still lagging behind in keeping abreast with the global trends and developments in inclusive education. In this respect, this book focuses on some factors impeding the progress in implementation of inclusive education in Kenya. One of the highlighted factors in this book is teachers’ attitudes and values. Research has shown that teachers’ positive attitudes toward inclusion depend strongly on their experiences with learners who are perceived as “challenging”. Teacher education/training, the availability of support within the classroom, class size and overall workload are also other factors which influence teachers’ attitudes. Further, the development of enabling mechanisms such as national policies on inclusion, local support systems and appropriate forms of curriculum and assessment are important in creating the right context for the development of inclusion. Inclusion has important benefits for all children as it produces schools with more enriching learning environments where diversity is viewed as a positive force which must be celebrated.
While it is one thing to adopt policies of inclusion and establish inclusive schools, a more difficult thing is the implementation of inclusive education. This book therefore highlights the challenges that have hindered effective implementation of inclusive education in schools in the North Rift Region, Kenya. In addition, this book has shown how education managers and teachers interpret the purpose and clarity of special needs education by presenting vivid findings. It has further highlighted policy dilemmas surrounding the implementation of inclusion in Special Needs Education; the relationships that exists between teachers and learners with special needs in an inclusive environment; the level of support by education managers towards the implementation of inclusive education and the level of social participation between teachers and learners in an inclusive environment. In the end, the book has given a clear and concise summary and recommendations.
This study reports on educators’ attitudes towards inclusive education. The study had three objectives. The objectives intended to examine educators’ attitudes towards inclusive education, to determine the extent to which educators were influence by factors such as qualifications, age, gender, phase, experience and class size and finally to find out whether educators, who have contact with special education personnel, hold positive attitudes towards inclusive education. The investigation was carried out by means of a questionnaire which was administered to groups of black and white educators teaching in mainstream settings, a remedial centre and a pilot school for inclusive education. The study is based in KwaZulu-Natal. Fifty – eight percent of the educators were found to have negative attitudes towards inclusive education, whereas forty-two percent displayed a positive attitude towards inclusive education. Results also indicated that the variables of age, gender, qualification, experience, grade and class-size have an influence on educators’ attitudes towards inclusive education. The results furthermore show that fifty-nine percent of educators did not have contact with special
According to UNESCO’s 2010 survey results of 58 member countries, 34 of the countries had less than 1 percent of children enrolled in special education programs. Ten of these countries provided special education provision for less than .01 percent of children. However, the demand to educate students with disabilities in inclusive educational settings continues to grow. Thus, there are many national initiatives aimed at finding ways of creating forms of inclusive educational settings that can respond to children with special needs. In this study, the purpose was to better understand the processes of local adaptation and modification of UNESCO’s inclusive education policies, the possible resistances to global forces in inclusive education in Turkey, and the consequences of the implications of those policies in Ankara, Turkey from local educators’ views. With that goal in mind, recently adopted Turkish inclusive educational policies implemented after the Salamanca Statement in 1994 were reviewed on a selective basis.
This is a work project in special education. The project is all about challenges facing the implementation of inclusive education policy in Rarieda sub-county in Siaya Kenya. The Kenyan government has been formulating very good policies on inclusive education but their implementation has not been forth coming. The purpose of this work was therefore to determine some possible factors that hinders the implementation of such policies and what can be done to respond to such challenges. The key respondents were head teachers of public primary schools who I believed were in a better position to understand such challenges. the main data collection instruments was interviews and the approach was purely qualitative. Results indicated that stigmatization and attitude, lack of training to key stakeholders, lack of enough resources, curriculum and policy issues are some of the challenges facing the implementation of inclusive education policy.
Uganda like many other developing countries faces the challenge of training teachers to manage inclusive education. Uganda''s problems emanate from: lack of trained tutors in the field of Special Needs Education; rigidity of the curriculum; unclear policies; negative attitudes about persons with disabilities; and mostly, inadequate finances for the administration and procurement of resources relevant to inclusive education. Some of the strategies offered include among others; training pre-service teachers in the use of a variety of teaching methods; recruitment of students and staff with special needs in all Ugandan Primary Teacher Colleges; involvement of different stakeholders in the training of teachers; engaging pre-service teachers in intensive school-based practical activities; and utilizing co-curricular activities with the aim of training pre-service teachers to appreciate children''s varied special learning needs and talents and develop in them a sense of self-esteem. The book recommends a need to retrain teacher educators at different levels in Special Needs Education as an initial step in having a sustainable inclusive education system in Uganda.
The objectives of the study were; to identify social and cultural factors that influence attitudes of learners towards inclusion; establish the teachers’ attitudes towards inclusive education; examine school administration views on students’ attitudes towards inclusion; examine the role played by Ministry of Education in addressing the issue of attitudes among learners with VI & those without towards inclusive education. The study was carried out in two integrated primary schools in Nairobi with a target population was 886 comprising Ministry of Education officials, (MoE), head teachers, class teachers & learners. Sampling procedure employed was purposive sampling for all participants. The sample size consisted of two MoE, two headteachers, seven class teachers, 12 learners with VI and 40 sighted learners. Two instruments were used in the study namely questionnaires & interview guide.The findings indicated that headteachers and MoE officials view inclusive education as a good idea. However, most parents are not concerned with integration and are marginally involved.
In this book, the general views about special needs and inclusive education; individuals with various needs and impairments; the causes, symptoms, characteristics, identification, assessment together with teaching and learning strategies of individuals with these different needs and impairments are treated. Hence, it will be very helpful for educators and students who are working at the universities and colleges as well as for those governmental and nongovernmental organization employees who are concerned about special needs and inclusive education.
This book explores the process of preparing teachers for inclusive education.The author draws insight from a research study on the English education system and then generates lessons for the countries of the South as they attempt to reform their education curricula in favour of inclusive education. A special reference is made to Zambia as a point of reflection. The book is consistent with the international community's strong thrust towards the concept of inclusive education. In particular, the United Nations organisations have argued that the principle of inclusive education should be at the centre of education reforms in order to address the challenges of exclusion. This would suggest that teacher education should be at the core of inclusive education development. However, there is no consensus on how teachers should be prepared for for it, leaving many education systems perpetuating practices that lead to marginalisation and exclusion of some learners. To this effect, this book serves as a catalyst in the implementation of inclusive education. It is a must read for schools, colleges, universities, teacher educators, education planners, inclusive education activists and scholars.
Inclusive education is advocated since the universal declaration of Human Rights in 1948. Inclusive education is based on the belief that every child has the fundamental right to education and must be given the opportunity to achieve and maintain an acceptable level of learning. It is obvious that the primary responsibility for the education of students with disabilities in the inclusive settings rests on the shoulder of regular classroom teachers. As a result, a positive attitude of regular classroom teachers towards inclusion, and teacher self- efficacy belief contributes for effective implementation of inclusive program. This book therefore, provides information about the contribution of special needs education training to teachers'' attitude and self efficacy belief in teaching in the inclusive settings. This book Provide educational policy makers with empirical data on which to base special education decision as well as could possibly contribute as a feedback for college and university course work needed to help secondary teachers promote success in the inclusion setting.
Successful implementation of inclusion in regular schools is enhanced when regular class teachers have positive attitudes towards inclusion. This book explores teachers'' attitude towards inclusive education. It first gives a historical background of special education in Zambia, the policy and legal provisions and how they have affected inclusive education. It also looks at the efficacy and social debates of inclusion. The book is idea for students taking introductory courses in special education at undergraduate level.
This study examined the integration of Inclusive Education (I.E) for the visually impaired students in Primary Teacher Training Colleges (PTTC) in Kenya. It focused on the effectiveness of PTTC in the provision of Teacher Training services to the visually impaired students. This study adopted a survey design, utilizing qualitative approach to provide in-depth understanding and insight, and quantitative approach to analyse the data. The study findings, revealed that; government support at the level of preparation for the integration of I.E is crucial, there is a significant relationship between the strategies for capacity building and the effectiveness of the Inclusive program in PTTC, the effects of Inclusive Education in the PTTC are both academic and non academic, the challenges faced in the integration of I.E in PTTC are varied and stakeholders involvement is vital in improving the effectiveness of Inclusive Education The study concluded that; it is essential to make adequate preparations in advance for the effectiveness of I.E, community involvement increases the likelihood of sustainability of the inclusive education, Inclusive Education.
The paper explores the background to the marginalization of children with disabilities in Kenya. It explains the background to the philosophical development of the Small Homes Approach by the Catholic Diocese of Machakos Development Office to accessing inclusive education to children with physical disabilities in mainstream schools. It provides the context for the transformation process from segregated provision of education in Special schools to Small Homes. It argues for the adoption of the “Small Homes” approach as a progressive Programme to address learning difficulties that prevent effective learning by children with physical disabilities in segregated Special schools. The paper contextualizes the benefits of the Small homes approach to the pupils with disabilities. In recognizing these benefits, the paper explores, through presentation of research findings, the merits in using the Small Homes approach in the provision of inclusive education to children with physical disabilities.
Few people would deny the increasing global drive towards inclusive education. Implications of this include education for learners with hearing impairment (HI) in inclusive mainstream schools. This book explores communication strategies utilized by teachers and other professionals for learners with HI in inclusive mainstream school settings based on empirical research. Issues discussed include strategies used for communication, factors affecting communication strategy selection, how they compare to those of hearing learners, and views about their suitability. Strategies discussed include listening training, use of sign language interpreters, visuals cues and aids among others. School policy is presented as a significant factor in choice of communication strategy. Others include professional competencies, amplification technology and class environment. Debates around what communication strategy is most suitable for learners with hearing impairment in inclusive settings are also presented. This book targets educators and teaching staff in academic institutions, college and university students in the field of education, particularly in special and inclusive education.
The rights of special needs learners to be educated in the mainstream schools are spelled out in Article 23 of the convention which reminds politicians and education decision makers that a child with a disability should not be excluded or discriminated against. It calls for a child to be educated in a manner that will allow the child to achieve the fullest possible social integration and individual development. Mainstreaming or Inclusion expose children with special needs to a broader curriculum which benefits them psychologically and socially since it does not limit their interaction to only other handicapped children. Due to the above benefits, many countries have legislated the policy on integration including Kenya. However, despite the benefits o integration, majority of the special needs learners especially the visually impaired are in special schools. This book summarizes the findings of a research that aimed to unveil the challenges of integrating the exceptional children with special reference to the visually impaired.