Intergovernmental Finance in Hungary illustrates the decade-long transformation of the Hungarian subnational system with a focus on subnational finance. This comprehensive guide presents government practitioners and other readers with rich real-life evidence on most municipal activities. It builds upon dozens of policy analyses prepared by local and international specialists and covers various aspects of municipal life, such as: revenue and expenditure assignments, taxation, intergovernmental transfers, strategic planning, outsourcing, public-private partnership, utility regulation, asset and liability management, municipal enterprises, household arrears, project financing, borrowing, and insolvency resolution. Part one is an overview of developments and policy proposals in the 1990s. Part two provides 28 case studies that address: how to enhance the intergovernmental system, how to build local government expertise in strategic management and finance, and how to design a competitive framework for financing subnational governments. Hungary's early and substantive reforms have provided ample opportunities to test and measure in a transition economy the impact of decentralization structures and instruments that have worked well in developed nations. The process is still incomplete and the results are imperfect, but Hungary's transition and its innovative and adaptive local governments have proven the merits of fiscal decentralization.
There is a growing literature on the political economy of public finance, however most of it deals with central government behaviour. Observation of the first and second generation of the fiscal federalism literature together with the political economy of intergovernmental grants and the widening literature on political budget cycles makes it obvious that although decentralization is a continuing policy trend in reality there are institutional, political factors that can increase the chances for inefficient policy outcomes. Infrastructure investment finances - at all levels of government – are especially prone to election cycles and corruption, due to high visibility, high expenditures, lobbying by special interests, possible control by politicians, yet they strongly effect long run growth prospects and productivity of a country. As a major political influencing factor affecting public finance decisions can come through the incentives of election cycles, this analysis finds evidence of electoral cycle effects and partisan (political color) considerations in intergovernmental grant distribution and in municipal investment activities – for the case of Hungary.
The India Public Finance and Policy Report: Fiscal Issues and Macro Economy gives a comprehensive overview of the fiscal performance of Indian states over the last decade and how intergovernmental transfers have impacted it. It constructs a composite index of fiscal performance, offering new insights on the state of public finance in the country from a contemporary, historical, and futuristic perspective.
Intergovernmental relations (IGR) is commonly associated or even equated with federalism. Federalism is actually a system of intergovernmental relations. It deals with the anatomy of the governmental system while IGR take care of physiological aspect. There are many forces at work in the structuring of Public Administration in Nigeria. Perhaps the best way of understanding the contemporary Nigerian administrative state is to view it as a contest or tension between fragmentation and diversity on one hand and co-ordination and uniformity on the other. In this book, attempt is made to distinguish between intergovernmental relations and federalism. Effort is also made to trace the evolution of federalism and intergovernmental relations in Nigeria. The historical perspectives on federal-state relations is followed by objectives of intergovernmental relations, state creation and IGR and lastly the author gives an insightful assessment of Intergovernmental fiscal relations as well as its implications on Nigerian federalism.
This volume intends to provide a thorough investigation of the spatial processes and spatial types of tourism in Hungary based on the application of the tourism index. Thus, such topics are concerned as supply, demand, spatial trends and present situation of international and Hungarian tourism. After the introductory chapters the book focuses on the demonstration of the applicability of the tourism index in Hungary which was developed by the author with a special emphasis on the spatial and regional aspects and the formation of the tourism product types.
Federal form of government is now becoming the finest means of dealing with diversity and particularly an instrument of circumventing or minimize conflict is post-modern politics. Though there are some underlined values and principles of the system, some federations like Ethiopia, despite their level of allegiance to the venture, still remains in the making and perhaps corrupting the arrangement for political gains. A look at the manner of the Intergovernmental Relations, as argued in this work, can be mentioned as an exemplar of such a trend.
The benefits of using a portfolio system in a writing classroom, according to studies of in-class use starting over a decade ago include the following: allowing students to reflect upon their prior work, to revise their papers so as to demonstrate their improvements over the course of a semester, and also to organize their papers to create a sense of unity and variety of writing ability. Since there has been little research conducted into the student experience as it relates to the use of portfolio systems, this document seeks to analyze that student experience, based on student observations from a questionnaire distributed to forty-three students from three separate classes in the Fall 2009 semester at SIUC.
On the span of European countries defeated by the Allies, Hungary''s position changed according to its political relations with the Soviet Union. American public opinion, attentive to what was happening in Central Europe in the 1950s, acquired its information through the US press (both newspapers and periodicals), as well as in literature and cinema. After a brief overview of the Magyar presence in the USA from the 1848 Freedom Fighters to the Second World War, the author questions the evolution of the cultural influence of Hungary in the United States at the beginning of the Cold War. It aims at showing that a cultural explanation also exists for the non-intervention of the US military forces during the October 1956 uprising. It eventually questions the accuracy of the image of Hungary in the United States.
The ratification of the East African Community (EAC): the regional intergovernmental organization of the Republics of Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Rwanda and Burundi, in July 2000 calls for a close examination of the countries’ economic policy decisions that affect the level and stability of prices, long-term interest rates, the fiscal position and the nominal exchange rates. The EAC countries established a Customs Union in 2005, a Common Market in 2010, and started negotiations towards a Monetary Union in 2011. This research work seeks to explore the question: “Are the five countries that comprise the EAC ready to form a Common Currency Area?” In light of the literature on common currency, this research looks at the trade relationships, economic structure, and the shocks affecting the East African Community in order to examine the feasibility of a Common Currency.
This book offers a comprehensive thousand-year history of the land, people, society, culture and economy of Hungary, from its nebulous origins in the Ural Mountains to the 1988 elections. It tells above all the thrilling story of a people who became a great power in the region and then fought against - and were invaded by - Ottomans, Germans and Soviets. The Hungarian people preserved nevertheless a continuous individuality through their Ural-born language and a specifically Hungaro-European culture. Формат: 13,5 см x 21,5 cм.
Management planning in NATURA 2000 sites is a very complex issue. It is especially relevant at this point in time because the process of designation in most of the Member States is finishing and proper management of the sites needs to be established. This publication aims to assess the actual situation in management planning for NATURA 2000 sites and propose the best practice guidelines through the execution of: An analysis of the actual situation in NATURA 2000 and management planning in Europe – theoretical overview based on literature overview, online sources and expert opinion ; a more in-depth analysis of the situation with regards to management planning for NATURA 2000 sites in selected Member States (MS) – practical results and an overview at the national level, based especially on an online survey completed by the national experts for NATURA 2000 issues in selected Member States. The analysis is based on the responses of 10 Member States, namely the Germany, Netherlands, Denmark, Cyprus, Hungary, Slovakia, Poland, Austria, Romania and UK. ; a proposal of guidelines for management planning in NATURA 2000 sites, based on best-practice observed from the analysis
The first comprehensive treatment in any language on the history of customary law in Hungary, starting with Stephen Werboczy's customary law code, the Tripartitum. This code influenced the composition, structure, and procedures of the courts and retained authority even when a parliamentary government was established in the nineteenth century.
"The social enterprise is the correctional mechanism of the globalized world" - said Mihaly Karacsony upon introducing the new act on social co-operatives (Karacsony ), whilst the daily Vilaggazdasag called them, in its issue of 26 July 2007. the „conscience of capitalism”. A decade after the first trials in the USA, the notion of a social enterprise – with the help of the media – has become part of governmental policy in both the US and the UK. Today we may state that social enterprises are part of the Hungarian initiatives, too. In the past few years we could observe several initiatives in Hungary the goal of which was to make the social enterprise a commonly known and practiced notion. The social role and the economic importance of such enterprises is not yet considerable in Hungary, but certain examples suggest that there are huge reserves of resource in this field. CECOP , the Brussels-based European Confederation of Workers’ Co-operatives, Social Co-operatives and Participative Enterprises conducted a survey amongst organisations of the not-for-profit sector.
Fiscal federalism has been an important topic among public finance theorists in the last decades. developing and transition countries have developed a variety of forms of fiscal decentralisation as a possible strategy to acheive effective and efficient government structures. As a formar socialist country Mongolia has had highly centralised governmental sector. Mongolia has introduced a number of decentralisation measures, which followed a top down approach and were slowly implemented without any integrated decentralisation strategy in the last decade. the critical problem associated with intergovernmental transfers is that there is not a stable, predictable and transparent system of transfer allocation.
The concept of experience is one of the fundamental subjects in the history of philosophy. In general, this significant concept is treated and presented in terms of the epistemological problems. Especially in modern philosophy, the concept of experience is limited by considering it only as sense-experience of the human subject. It is argued in this study, this limitation is caused by a conceptual distortion of modern philosophy, such as subjectivization and idealization. On the other hand, the naturalistic account presents another conception of experience as lived-experience, which includes culture, nature and history as well as the notion of sense-experience. John Dewey’s naturalist approach and his naturalistic metaphysics of experience present the notion of lived-experience as the main subject of philosophy. This study aims to present and evaluate naturalistic conception of lived experience through John Dewey’s philosophy of experience.