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An introduction to micro and nano replication processes and applications Micro/Nano Replication: Processes and Applications provides an overview of the fundamentals, processes, and applications involved in micro and nano replication in the manufacturing of product parts. A major field of nanotechnology, the study of micro/nano replication is sure to become one of increasing importance as the construction of completely new devices based on innovative concepts and crafted at the molecular level increases. Designed to help the reader understand and learn to work with the growing number of tools for molding plastic components, the book covers the key topics related to replication, including patterning technology, the modification of mold surface properties, and much more. In addition, it addresses the strengths and weaknesses of different molding processes. With a strong focus not only on how micro/nano replication works, but also the broader implications for the industry, the book is packed with examples of real world applications. These are drawn from a variety of fields, including information storage devices, optoelectronic elements, optical communication, and biosensors, in order to provide a complete view of the importance of micro and nano processes. A valuable introduction to a new but fast-growing field, Micro/Nano Replication is an essential resource for anyone looking to get a head start on understanding this emerging discipline.
Reflecting the profound impact of critical theory on the study of the humanities, this collection of original essays examines the texts and artifacts of the Anglo-Saxon period through key theoretical terms such as ‘ethnicity’ and ‘gender’. Explores the interplay between critical theory and Anglo-Saxon studies Theoretical framework will appeal to specialist scholars as well as those new to the field Includes an afterword on the value of the dialogue between Anglo-Saxon studies and critical theory
Epigenetics is the study of both heritable and non-heritable changes in the regulation of gene activity and expression that occur without an alteration in the DNA sequence. This dynamic and rapidly developing discipline is making its impact across the biomedical sciences, in particular in toxicology where epigenetic differences can mean that different individuals respond differently to the same drug or chemical. Toxicology and Epigenetics reflects the multidimensional character of this emerging area of toxicology, describing cutting-edge molecular technologies to unravel epigenetic changes, the use of in vivo and in vitro models, as well as the potential use of toxicological epigenetics in regulatory environments. An international team of experts consider the interplay between epigenetics and toxicology in a number of areas, including environmental, nutritional, pharmacological, and computational toxicology, nanomaterials, proteomics and metabolomics, and cancer research. Topics covered include: environment, epigenetics and diseases DNA methylation and toxicogenomics chromatin at the intersection of disease and therapy epigenomic actions of environmental arsenicals environment, epigenetics and cardiovascular health toxicology, epigenetics and autoimmunity ocular epigenomics: potential sites of environmental impact in development and disease nuclear RNA silencing and related phenomena in animals epigenomics – impact for drug safety sciences methods of global epigenomic profiling transcriptomics: applications in epigenetic toxicology Toxicology and Epigenetics is an essential insight into the current trends and future directions of research in this rapidly expanding field for investigators, toxicologists, risk assessors and regulators in academia, industry and government.
With extensive coverage of synthesis techniques and applications, this text describes chemical biology techniques which have gained significant impetus during the last five years. It focuses on the methods for obtaining modified and native nucleic acids, and their biological applications. Topics covered include: chemical synthesis of modified RNA expansion of the genetic alphabet in nucleic acids by creating new base pairs chemical biology of DNA replication: probing DNA polymerase selectivity mechanisms with modified nucleotides nucleic-acid-templated chemistry chemical biology of peptide nucleic acids (PNA) the interactions of small molecules with DNA and RNA the architectural modules of folded RNAs genesis and biological applications of locked nucleic acid (LNA) small non-coding RNA in bacteria microRNA-guided gene silencing nucleic acids based therapies innate immune recognition of nucleic acid light-responsive nucleic acids for the spatiotemporal control of biological processes DNA methylation frameworks for programming RNA devices RNA as a catalyst: The Diels-Alderase-Ribozyme evolving an understanding of RNA function by in vitro approaches the chemical biology of aptamers: synthesis and applications nucleic acids as detection tools bacterial riboswitch discovery and analysis The Chemical Biology of Nucleic Acids is an essential compendium of the synthesis of nucleic acids and their biological applications for bioorganic chemists, chemical biologists, medicinal chemists, cell biologists, and molecular biologists.
Just the core concepts you need to score high in your biology course Biology Essentials For Dummies focuses on just the core concepts you need to succeed in an introductory biology course. From identifying the structures and functions of plants and animals to grasping the crucial discoveries in evolutionary, reproductive, and ecological biology, this easy-to-follow guide lets you skip the suffering and score high at exam time. Get down to basics – master the fundamentals, from understanding what biologists study to how living things are classified The chemistry of life – find out what you need to know about atoms, elements, molecules, compounds, acids, bases, and more Conquer and divide – discover the ins and outs of asexual and sexual reproduction, including cell division and DNA replication Jump into the gene pool – grasp how proteins make traits happen, and easily understand DNA transcription, RNA processing, translation, and gene regulation Open the book and find: An overview of cells and their substructures Elementary chemistry The key facts about reproduction and DNA The 411 on energy and organisms What you need to know about evolution Coverage of ecosystems and populations Ten great biology discoveries Learn: Core concepts taught in an introductory biology course The structures and functions of plants and animals The key discoveries in evolutionary, reproductive, and ecological biology
Psychologists, political scientists, and experts in election law present a multidisciplinary perspective on voting. Personality characteristics such as motivation, values, and efficacy are considered, as are demographic variables such as education, age, and social class Examines the reciprocal relationship that exists in the functions of voting for individual and society: the interplay between persons and institutions gives rise to the perception that a government is or is not legitimate, and to the sense that an individual does, or does not, belong
Tectonic geomorphology is the study of the interplay between tectonic and surface processes that shape the landscape in regions of active deformation and at time scales ranging from days to millions of years. Over the past decade, recent advances in the quantification of both rates and the physical basis of tectonic and surface processes have underpinned an explosion of new research in the field of tectonic geomorphology. Modern tectonic geomorphology is an exceptionally integrative field that utilizes techniques and data derived from studies of geomorphology, seismology, geochronology, structure, geodesy, stratigraphy, meteorology and Quaternary science. While integrating new insights and highlighting controversies from the ten years of research since the 1st edition, this 2nd edition of Tectonic Geomorphology reviews the fundamentals of the subject, including the nature of faulting and folding, the creation and use of geomorphic markers for tracing deformation, chronological techniques that are used to date events and quantify rates, geodetic techniques for defining recent deformation, and paleoseismologic approaches to calibrate past deformation. Overall, this book focuses on the current understanding of the dynamic interplay between surface processes and active tectonics. As it ranges from the timescales of individual earthquakes to the growth and decay of mountain belts, this book provides a timely synthesis of modern research for upper-level undergraduate and graduate earth science students and for practicing geologists. Additional resources for this book can be found at: www.wiley.com/go/burbank/geomorphology.
DNA typing of non-human DNA is a fast developing area of research and professional practice. The application of DNA typing in wildlife forensic science is one of these prime uses of DNA typing and is gaining increasing profile. The use of DNA profiling in wildlife forensic science falls into two broad areas: species testing and genetic linkage. Species testing answers the question ‘what species is this?’ and genetic linkage answers the question ‘did these two samples come from the same organism or population?’ Wildlife DNA Analysis: Applications in Forensic Science provides an accessible introduction to both of these key areas. Clearly structured throughout, the introduction highlights the different types of crime where these techniques are regularly used. This chapter includes a discussion as to who performs forensic wildlife examinations, the standardisation and validation of methods, and the role of the expert witness in this type of alleged crime. This is followed by a detailed section on the science behind DNA typing including the problems in isolating DNA from trace material and subsequent genetic analysis are also covered. The book then undertakes a comprehensive review of species testing using DNA, including a step-by-step guide to sequence comparisons. A comparison of the different markers used in species testing highlights the criteria for a genetic marker. A full set of case histories illustrates the use of the different markers used. The book details the use of genetic markers to link two or more hairs/feather/leaves/needles to the same individual organism and the software used in population assignment. The problems and possibilities in isolating markers, along with the construction of allele databases are discussed in this chapter. The book concludes with evaluation and reporting of genetic evidence in wildlife forensic science illustrated by examples of witness statements. •An accessible introduction to this fast developing area of research within forensic science •Case studies throughout to link theory and practice and to highlight the use of DNA testing in species testing. •Covers both crimes against wildlife and offences where wildlife can provide vital evidence •Assumes only a basic background knowledge of DNA •Includes a comprehensive review of species testing using DNA, including a step-by-step guide to sequence comparisons
By integrating technology, supporting infrastructure and efficient application, the all-in-one guide presents molecular diagnostics as an essential component of modern, personalized clinical practice. It considers all important aspects, from the hardware and software needed, to recent improvements in blood- and non-blood-based biomarker tests. Chapters on ethical challenges and a look at current trends and the latest innovations are also included. Bridging the gap between industry and academia, this is a highly useful resource for practitioners as well as for developers of modern, DNA- and RNA-based molecular diagnostics.
Plants interact with a wide variety of organisms in their natural growing environments. Key amongst these relationships is the interplay between plants and diverse fungal species that impact plants in complex symbiotic, parasitic and pathogenic ways. Biocomplexity of Plant-Fungal Interactions explores a broad spectrum of research looking at both positive and negative interactions of these relationships on plants and their ecosystems. Biocomplexity of Plant-Fungal Interactions takes a more holistic view of the plant-fungal interactions than most traditional volumes on the topic. Focusing on the truly complex biological interplay among plants and fungi, as well as other organisms—mammals, insects, bacteria, viruses, this book provides a unique perspective on this fundamentally important relationship. Chapters are written from molecular, evolutionary and ecological perspectives to provide readers with a full understanding of the diverse implications of plant-fungal interactions. Written by a global team of experts from varied scientific backgrounds, Biocomplexity of Plant-Fungal Interactions will be an essential title for readers looking for a better understanding of the diverse array of interactions between plants and fungi in natural ecosystems.
China Between Empires – The Northern and Southern Dynasties
Thanks to Einstein's relativity theories, our notions of space and time underwent profound revisions about a 100 years ago. The resulting interplay between geometry and physics has dominated all of fundamental physics since then. This volume contains contributions from leading researchers, worldwide, who have thought deeply about the nature and consequences of this interplay. The articles take a long-range view of the subject and distill the most important advances in broad terms, making them easily accessible to non-specialists. The first part is devoted to a summary of how relativity theories were born (J Stachel). The second part discusses the most dramatic ramifications of general relativity, such as black holes (P Chrusciel and R Price), space-time singularities (H Nicolai and A Rendall), gravitational waves (P Laguna and P Saulson), the large scale structure of the cosmos (T Padmanabhan); experimental status of this theory (C Will) as well as its practical application to the GPS system (N Ashby). The last part looks beyond Einstein and provides glimpses into what is in store for us in the 21st century. Contributions here include summaries of radical changes in the notions of space and time that are emerging from quantum field theory in curved space-times (Ford), string theory (T Banks), loop quantum gravity (A Ashtekar), quantum cosmology (M Bojowald), discrete approaches (Dowker, Gambini and Pullin) and twistor theory (R Penrose).