In accordance with advancements of fuzzy set theory and its applications in decision making problems, there is a recent trend to provide versatile decision support systems for different Inventory Management problems. Again, managing inventory in a real organizations provides an understanding that gives the managers’ new insights and capabilities to determine better solutions in problems like production management, supply chain management, project management, etc. Inventories are kept so that demands may be met, orders filled, requirements satisfied, etc. So the problem of analyzing inventory problems in a real environment is an eternal task. It has been argued in a large body of recent literature that fuzzy sets theory could provide an appropriate framework for dealing with uncertainties in areas where intuition and subjective judgment play an important role. In such cases uncertainty is caused by the imprecision of natural language description rather than the existence of statistical frequency of the occurrence of events. To our consideration modeling and analysis of inventory systems using fuzzy logic deserve a good platform in generating some realistic fuzzy inventory problems.
Career Paths: Accounting is a new educational resource for accounting professionals who want to improve their English communication skills in a work environment. Reviewed by accounting professionals, the series incorporates career-specific vocabulary and contexts into lessons that build students' working knowledge of English. Each unit offers step-by-step instruction that immerses students in four language components: reading, listening, speaking, and writing. Career Paths: Accounting addresses topics including bookkeeping, financial statements, taxes, career options, and office interactions. The series is organized into three levels of difficulty and offers over 400 vocabulary terms and phrases. Every unit includes a test of reading comprehension, vocabulary, and listening skills, and leads students through written and oral production.
International Accounting Standard (IAS) has been an issue on which various studies have been conducted in recent times. Due to growing international business among countries, there is strong support in favor of IAS. IAS is a well-structured set of accounting standards which will increase transparency, understandability and promote world-wide acceptance on financial reporting.Many developing countries have adopted IAS . Unlike other developing countries, Bangladesh has also adopted IAS. The writer tried to investigates the adoption process of IAS and its impact on Bangladesh’s economy and the current standard of accounting practice in Bangladesh. By employing semi-structured interviews and using archival data this study portrayed the adoption process of IAS and the current scenario of accounting practice in Bangladesh.
Indian history shows that, there are no proper practices of cost accounting policies in coal industry.Under PSU''s coal industries are working ''increasing production'' at any cost basis instead of implementing cost accounting polices for cost consciousness and cost control.At this moment to meet growing competitiveness and to achieve the cost-effectiveness in production and for high profitability and productivity,this book helps and suggests the people about the importance of cost accounting in coal industries.This book can be useful to students of Commerce and Business Management in understanding the cost accounting policies and its practices in coal industries under PSU''s
Be a pro in no time Ideal for bookkeepers, accounting clerks, and small business owners, this practical guide goes beyond general accounting principles to teach readers how to prepare and manage their companies' books. In this new edition, readers will find completely revised and updated information on handling sales and services, and updated tax information reflecting changes in the tax code. Perfect for the many practicing accountants who are unlicensed bookkeepers, accounting clerks, and small business owners There are 3.1 million accountants, bookkeepers, and accounting clerks in the U.S. There are an estimated 23 million small business owners in the U.S., many of whom manage their own books
A practical application guide to ensure governmental GAAP compliance In applying Governmental GAAP (Generally Accepted Accounting Principles), state and local government officials face a potential maze of complexity. Wiley GAAP for Government 2004 addresses the latest material from the Government Accounting Standards Board and AICPA in straightforward language for practical application. Coverage includes much-needed analysis and clarification of statements, interpretations, and technical bulletins, as well as special consideration of school districts, public authorities, and individual pension plans. Written for use by practitioners, this book represents an up-to-date companion for implementing these new accounting pronouncements. Warren Ruppel is the assistant comptroller responsible for the accounting and financial reporting for one of the largest cities in the country.
"Long Walk to Accounting Research". This book is a bona fide record of research work done by the author who is previously submitted to the University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh, in thesis dissertation format for the award of Doctor of Philosophy in Accounting and Information Systems. The Book has undertaken to draw up Doctoral Award from the viewpoint of scarceness of an Accounting Research in the field of Disclosure of Financial Reporting. It will be of immense value to research students, especially students of accounting and of business disciplines. It will also be a major source of reference for businessmen as well as their business personnel and professional staff, who require an authoritative and accounting research guide to assist them in their work. This authoritative deed offers comprehensive coverage of research on disclosure of financial reporting, an invaluable resource for accounting students, researchers, teachers and professionals in the discipline of accounting. It is to be mentioned that this efforts also covers the writing guidelines for the authors engaged in preparing articles on financial reporting. LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing, Germany, June 2012.
Banks play important roles in promoting national development. In order to provide efficient services and to perform their statutory roles effectively, banks are required to comply with established standards. In Nigeria, the Statement of Accounting Standards (SAS) such as accounting by banks and non-banks financial institutions (SAS10) and accounting for employees’ retirement benefits (SAS8), Companies and Allied Matters Act (CAMA) and the Central Bank of Nigeria’s directives and regulations provide guidelines to banks in the preparation and presentation of the records of their financial transactions. In recent time, some Nigerian banks appear to be engaging in non-standardized and unprofessional practices, which could lead to distress and liquidation. The objectives of this study therefore are to: (i.) assess the level of Nigerian banks’ compliance with statement of accounting standards as established by the Nigerian Accounting Standards Board, (ii.) examine the performance of Nigerian banks over a period of time and (iii.) appraise the relationship between level of compliance with Statement of Accounting Standards and performance of Nigerian banks.
This book aims to give an overview about the most recent trends in demand forecasting and inventory management and interlinks those theoretical areas with a practical application in the food industry. This industry faces various challenges like fluctuating demands or perishability of products. As a result, reliable demand forecasting and proper inventory management could eventually lead to remarkable cost savings, thus being a competitive advantage.
The most comprehensive and authoritative review of B-School fundamentals—from top accounting and finance professors For years, the Portable MBA series has tracked the core curricula of leading business schools to teach you the fundamentals you need to know about business-without the extreme costs of earning an MBA degree. The Portable MBA in Finance and Accounting covers all the core methods and techniques you would learn in business school, using real-life examples to deliver clear, practical guidance on finance and accounting. The new edition also includes free downloadable spreadsheets and web resources. If you’re in charge of making decisions at your own or someone else’s business, you need the best information and insight on modern finance and accounting practice. This reliable, information-packed resource shows you how to understand the numbers, plan and forecast for the future, and make key strategic decisions. Plus, this new edition covers the effects of Sarbanes-Oxley, applying ethical accounting standards, and offers career advice. • Completely updated with new examples, new topics, and full coverage of topical issues in finance and accounting—fifty percent new material • The most comprehensive and authoritative book in its category • Teaches you virtually everything you'd learn about finance and accounting in today's best business schools Whether you’re thinking of starting your own business or you already have and just need to brush up on finance and accounting basics, this is the only guide you need.
The most practical, authoritative guide to not-for-profit GAAP Wiley Not-for-Profit GAAP 2012 is a comprehensive, easy-to-use guide to the accounting and financial reporting principles used by not-for-profit organizations. Written with the needs of the financial statement preparer, user, and attestor in mind, this guide provides a complete review of the authoritative accounting literature that impacts all types of not-for-profit organizations. At the same time, Wiley Not-for-Profit GAAP 2012 features many examples and illustrations that will assist professionals in applying authoritative literature to real-life situations. Easy-to-use information that enables users to find needed information quickly Coverage of accounting principles specifically related to not-for-profit organizations, as well as accounting principles applicable to all types of organizations Specific coverage of accounting issues for different types of not-for-profit organizations A disclosure checklist that helps financial statement preparers and attestors ensure that all disclosures required by GAAP have been considered Flowcharts, diagrams, and charts, wherever possible, to help facilitate the user's understanding of the material presented Destined to become the reference you keep at your side, Wiley Not-for-Profit GAAP 2012 strives to be a thorough, reliable reference that nonprofit accounting professionals will use constantly.
The main idea behind this paper is to highlight the background and current movements of International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) and Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) toward convergence of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) and US Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP). Subsequent to introductory chapter the second chapter discusses the historical perspectives describing the various events that shaped the IASB and FASB current efforts towards convergence of IFRS and US GAAP. The third chapter describes the strategies policies and procedures adopted by the IASB/FASB to achieve the goal for international accounting convergence. The focus is on the maintainability of investors'' interest and integrity of capital markets that can only be achieved by observing methods required for high quality accounting standards. Fourth chapter identifies the substantive differences and similarities between IFRS and US GAAP and catalogue those differences in which a specific accounting treatment is permissible under one basis of accounting standards but not permissible under the other.
Accounting education is assumed to be presently caged in fulfilling “beauty” concepts. This book criticizes this cage and proposes alternative view of accounting education form. The beauty concepts are masculinity, colonization and relativity. Currently, accounting education is regarded beautiful if it uses masculine approach that relies greatly on rationalism; if it is used to control and maintain status quo through colonization; as well as if it has no values or regards that all values are at the same levels, which is the essence of relativity. The three are the philosophical foundation of accounting education that represents the characters of secularism. Extended Dialogic Methodology, an adapted and extended methodology from Paulo Freire is used to break the beauty cage. The result is a reconstruction of a liberated accounting education, starting from its philosophy right down to accounting education practices. However, at the end of the day, it is realized that there are always concepts of beauty that would like to be achieved, and in the process we are doing nothing more than moving from one cage of 'beauty' into another.
The main objective of this study is to determine how individuals involved in the accounting process view the role of accounting information in an economic environment where capital markets are dominant. The study also attempts to determine whether International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) play a part in fulfilling this role. To this end, I compare the perceptions of financial officers, financial analysts and auditors from twenty distinctly market environments. By means of a survey, I investigate whether producers of accounting data (financial officers), users of that data (financial analysts), and controllers of accounting information (auditors) share the same views on the usefulness and goals of the financial accounting process. Extending the study to several countries is a useful means for determining whether and how the economic environment affects the respondents’ views of accounting information. I use descriptive statistics, univariate tests and multiple correspondence analyses (MCA) to analyze the responses to our multiple-choice questions. Results suggest that respondents' activity has less influence on their answers than the country where they are located.
Book DescriptionNow in its Third Edition, Financial Accounting by Kimmel, Weygandt, and Kieso has been tested and approved in the classroom. This best-selling text has helped students hit the road with a practical set of tools, and the confidence they need to use those tools effectively in making business decisions. Financial Accounting provides students with an understanding of those concepts that are fundamental to the use of accounting. Starting with a "macro" view of accounting information, the authors present real financial statements and establish how a financial statement communicates the financing, investing, and operating activities of a business to users of accounting information. They motivate students by grounding the discussion in the real world, showing them the relevance of the topics covered to their future career. Student Workbook: This valuable study guide, written to use side-by-side with the Financial Accounting textbook provides the guidance and assurance you need to exceeed in the course. Included a re study objectives, demonstration problems, true/false and multiple-choice questions, solutions, to exercises, chapter outlines, and blank working papers.