After 7/7, there was a concern that some individuals could exploit the religious background of the bombers as an excuse for racist attacks and abuses against members of Muslim communities in British. The report confirms that in the immediate period after the attacks there was a temporary and disturbing increase in suspicion, discrimination, criticism and faith hate crimes across the UK. Understandably, this made British Muslims feel vulnerable and fear for their safety. The strong stand taken by political and Muslim community leaders both in condemning the attacks and defending the legitimate rights of Muslims saw a swift reduction in such incidents. As a result of the strong stand by Muslim political, Islamic scholar and community leaders there was a largely positive response from the media across the UK. In addition, Muslim community leaders reacted immediately and unequivocally by condemning the bombers. These factors together were decisive in countering incidents and prejudice against minorities, and preventing a trend of incidents and attacks from taking shape. The real test will be whether this initial encouraging response translates into effective long-term action that addre
This study examines the connection between Islamic religious education and terrorism. It looks at the curricula of the Azherite religious schools in Egypt. It examines how the curricula view the three themes of Jihad which are offensive Jihad, defensive Jihad, and Jihad for the purification of the soul besides the relations of Muslims with non-Muslims. Books which are used by violent Jihadist groups for membership acquisition and cadre training are also studied for Jihad themes and relations with non-Muslims. The analysis shows that the curricula are, generally speaking, a peaceful one in its principal direction, since it obviously calls for defensive Jihad and not offensive Jihad. Often, it deals with important concepts of Jihad within the confines of such subjects as the Jihad for the purification of the soul [the Greater Jihad]. Some textbooks included lessons on “Peace in Islam” and advocated the fact that peace is the origin in Islamic Shari’a and war is the exception and it is fought only for defensive reasons.
The jihadi culture nourished during General Zia-ul- Haq''s rule, had three clear objectives: A proxy war of America against Soviet Russia in name of Jihad, a proxy war of Saudi Arabia against Shia Community and Iran and to extend his military rule. Talented secret agency of Pakistan, ISI under watchful eyes of CIA created many jihadi outfits. Later on this jihad was also ‘exported'' to Kashmir and other countries as well. These Jihadi outfits get official patronage as long as they work within the parameters set up by the establishment. Religious groups promoting jihad have very organised system of recruiting and training young people to advance the cause of Islam. Poverty stricken areas with economic deprivation are fertile ground to spread extremist views. Young children are recruited from madrassas and are looked after so well that their own living style looks much inferior. They undergo ideological indoctrination where they are told that jihad is must in life of a true Muslim; and this jihad must continue till the end of their lives or until all infidels have become Muslims.
In the post ‘9/11’ legal and political environment, Islam and Muslims have been associated with terrorism. Islamic civilization has increasingly been characterized as backward, insular, stagnant and unable to deal with the demands of the twenty first century and differences and schisms between Islam and the west are being perceived as monumental and insurmountable. ‘9/11’ terrorist attacks have unfortunately provided vital ammunition to the critics of Islam and those who champion a ‘clash of civilizations’. In this original and incisive study, the author investigates the relationship between Islamic law, States practices and International terrorism. It presents a detailed analysis of the sources of Islamic law and reviews the concepts of Jihad, religious freedom and minority rights within Sharia and Siyar. In eradicating existing misconceptions, the book provides a thorough commentary of the contributions made by Islamic States in the development of international law, including norms on the prohibition of terrorism. It presents a lucid debate on such key issues within classical and modern Islamic State practices as diplomatic immunities, prohibitions on hostage-taking, aerial and maritime terrorism, and the financing of terrorism. The book surveys the unfairness and injustices within international law - a legal system dominated and operated at the behest of a select band of powerful States. It forewarns that unilateralism and the undermining of human rights values in the name of the ‘war on terrorism’ is producing powerful reactions within Muslim States: the ‘new world order’ presents a dangerous prognosis of the self-fulfilling prophecy of an inevitable ‘clash of civilizations’ between the Islamic world and the west.
Everyday Jihad – The Rise of Militant Islam among Palestinians in Lebanon (OISC)
In this ground-breaking and important book, Clark McCauley and Sophia Moskalenko identify twelve mechanisms of political radicalization that can move individuals, groups, and the masses to increased sympathy and support for political violence, drawing on wide-ranging case histories to show striking parallels between 1800s anti-czarist terrorism, 1970s anti-war terrorism, and 21st century jihadist terrorism. In the context of the Islamic State's worldwide effort to radicalize moderate Muslims for jihad, they advance a model that differentiates radicalization in opinion from radicalization in action, and suggests different strategies for countering these different forms of radicalization. Their controversial conclusion is that the same mechanisms are at work in radicalizing both terrorists and states targeted by terrorists. The implications of this conclusion are as relevant for policy makers and security officers as for citizens facing terrorist threats.
In this qualitative study, Betul Balkan examines the role of the practice of religion on the opinions of Muslim Turkish immigrants living in the Houston metropolitan area about the tension between secularism and Islam in Turkey. Drawing on in-depth interviews and participant observation at various community events, Balkan finds out how the experiences of Muslim Turkish immigrants play out in disproving the universalistic assumptions of secularization thesis.
This book depicts how religious tolerance and tension gets worth in countries like Ethiopia where its people have been renown for worshiping Judaism, Christianity, and Islam since the remote past in harmony.Therefore, this work is,to my belief,a valuable one in the contemporary world where conflicts and terrorism are being undertaken under the guise of religion.Scholars who study about the horn of Africa and more specifically Ethiopia can benefit a lot from it.
Sufism or tasawwuf (Arabic ????) is mystical and ascetic branch of Islam and one of the main in classical Islamic philosophy. There are several hypotheses for the origin of the words tasawwuf and Sufi. Common is the view expressed even medieval Muslim authors, according to the word Sufi comes from the Arabic “suf” (Arabic ??? - wool) It has long been a rough woolen garment was common attribute of ascetics and hermits, “God's people” and mystics. Sufis often erect its etymology to the root of the word “safa” (purity), “Sifat” (property) or to the expression “Ahl al-Suffa” (“people of the bench, or overhang”), which has been used in relation to the poor companions of the Prophet Muhammad, who lived in his mosque in Medina, and is distinguished by its austerity. Sufism has developed within Islam, almost nothing take from Muslim sources, but absorbed the experience mystical and ascetic practices and philosophy of Eastern Christianity. Sufism regardless of the volume of borrowings from neo-Platonism, Gnosticism, Christian mysticism or from other systems, we can consider the as “inner-Islam doctrine, mystery underlying the Koran”.
This collection reframes the debate around Islam and women's rights within a broader comparative literature that examines the complex and contingent historical relationships between religion, secularism, democracy, law, and gender equality.
Hardly a day goes by without mention of Islam. And yet, for most people, and in much of the world, Islam remains a little-known religion. Whether the issue is violence, terrorism, women's rights or slavery, Muslims are today expected to provide answers and to justify what Islam is - or is not. But little opportunity exists, either in the media or in society as a whole, to describe Islam: precisely the question this short and extremely accessible book sets out to answer. In simple, direct language it will introduce readers to Islam, to its spirituality, its principles, its rituals, its diversity and its evolution.
Taking as a starting point the widely accepted view that states confronted with terrorism must find a proper equilibrium between their respective obligations of preserving fundamental rights and fighting terrorism effectively, this book seeks to demonstrate how the design and enforcement of a human rights instrument may influence the result of that exercise. An attempt is made to answer the question how a legal order’s approach to the limitation of rights may shape decision-making trade-offs between the demands of liberty and the need to guarantee individual and collective security. In doing so, special attention is given to the difference between the adjudicative methods of balancing and categorisation. The book challenges the conventional wisdom that individual rights, in times of crisis, are better served by the application of categorical rather than flexible models of limitation. In addition, the work considers the impact of a variety of other factors, including the discrepancies in enforcing an international convention as opposed to a national constitution and the use of emergency provisions permitting derogations from human rights obligations in time of war or a public emergency. The research questions are addressed through a comparative study of the terrorism-related restrictions on five fundamental rights protected under the European Convention on Human Rights and the United States Constitution: the right to freedom of expression, the right to freedom of association, the right to personal liberty, the right to privacy, and the right to a fair trial. The book offers both a theoretical account of the paradoxical relationship between terrorism and human rights and a comprehensive comparative survey of the major decisions of the highest courts on both sides of the Atlantic.
The entry of Islam into Ghana and among the Akan people is seen in the context of its development and spread in West Africa.From the beginning therefore, Muslims established an inner nexus between Islam and the indigenous culture.Through the intensive missionary ventures of Muslim reformers, Islam became dominant and influential religion in the social,political and economic structures of Ghana and the Akan states.