This book focuses on the history of Islam in the Volta Region of Ghana with special emphasis on Ave Afiadenyigba. As a background to the study, the book traces the origins of the faith in North Africa, West Africa, Ghana and ultimately the study area. It examines the roles of Muslim scholars, healers, merchants and traditional rulers in the advent and spread of Islam in the sub region. This book further discusses the advent of Muslim sects in the study area and highlights the contributions of early Muslim settlers and converts to the introduction and development of Islam to the area. This book also touches on the beliefs and practices of the indigenous inhabitants of the study area and the nature of Muslim-Muslim and Muslim Christian relations . This book will help readers appreciate the history and development of Islam in Ghana in general and the Volta Region in particular.
Islam, family planning and the issues pertaining to contraception have always been under debate with different schools of thoughts and in different eras. Religion Islam has been interpreted as one of the major barriers in promoting birth spacing and contraceptives even for improving maternal and child health. Pakistan as a developing country faces this huge challenge of overgrowing population amidst illiteracy and poverty, with almost a stagnant contraceptive prevalence rate. This book presents a compilation of how family planning and contraception is seen, understood, promoted and practised in various Islamic countries. Henceforth, this evidence should guide the readers, researchers, academics and the family planning advocates to follow the guidelines and verdicts of authentic schools of Islam such as from Iran and Egypt and incorporate them in their country specific programmes.
The revival of Islam and the reform of Muslim societies is the subject of passionate debate and is vital to the social, cultural and political values of Muslim societies and of the non-Muslim world. This study analyses the work of Dr Muhammad Tahir-ul-Qadri, presenting key issues for the reconciliation of Islamic Revivalism within the Islamic world and between conflicting religious and political ideologies. The Revival of Islam has not been studied as a part of Islamic Sciences or educational institutions yet has become a burning issue for scholars in the light of secular and religious affairs. Dr Habib introduces the work of Dr Al-Qadri then addresses his thoughts on Islamic Revivalism. There follows a detailed analysis of the reconstruction of Political, Economic, Juristic and Spiritual thought. This work is for anyone concerned about Islamic Revival, as it analyses secular pragmatism, Islamic scripture and law, and the place of Islam in the world. It will be of vital interest to religious scholars of all faiths, and addresses many of the issues which currently appear as barriers to inter-faith relations.
The main goal of the research was to find-out barriers of bilateral tourism flow between India and Europe from 1981 to 2011 and suggest policies to these barriers to capture these lucrative markets for the potential development of bilateral tourism flow. The methodology used in this study combined a review of the literature with an analysis of tourist flow data and limited case study analysis. Statistical tools percentage analysis, Correlation and linear regression analysis were used and comparative charts to assist in empirical analysis. As per study, the economic recession, economic growth, GDP of the country India and Europe, currency exchange rate of Euro in relation with Indian rupees, price of the tourism products, terrorism, wars between countries due to international political relation, inconvenient government policies, air service agreements (ASA), private sector participation and growth, knowledge about the tourist destinations, regional competitive disadvantage, working structure, social behavior of people, etc. factors became barriers to the bilateral tourism flow between India and Europe. There is pace of growth of inbound and outbound tourism between India and Euro.
As a land between empires, Arabia was multi-faceted, intriguing and challenging to dominate. Winged by the Persians in the East and Greeks, later Romans in the West, trust and loyalty were often swayed by political interests and religious adherence for the population of pre-Islamic Arabia. In this study of a centuries old relation between Rome and Arabia, the author takes us through colorful personalities of vassals such as King Arethas of Nabataea and Odenathus of Palmyra, later succeeded by his ambitious and rebellious widow, the enigmatic Zenobia; to Arabs who adorned the imperial robe like Elagabalus, Philippus Arabicus and Septimus Severus. Vassals and kings, emperors and generals played inportant role in the construction of the Fertile Crescent before the advent of Islam from Hejaz, and the eventual dominance of Islam in these lands. They also brought with them to Rome exotic deities with misunderstood rites which later became part and parcel of the mainstream Roman faith. These issues are explored in a work that celebrates the epilogue of Europe's ever enduring fascination of the East.
The dominant image of Islam in the West conveys the idea that the religion of approximately one fifth of the world's population is an intolerantly ideological and prone to violence. Instead of taking critical analyses of Western attitudes toward Islam and Arabs seriously, many who claim knowledge of the Muslim world focus largely on threads of hatred and fear articulated through religious discourse, without reflection on the complex and deeply conflicting situations in which these sentiments emerge. In this context, the oriental writings of the American author Leon Uris represent a biased depiction of Islam and Arabs in the West. The general picture which Uris has for all Muslims and Arabs in his oriental works, such as Exodus and The Haj, is that they are backward, scheming, fanatic terrorists, cutthroats, liars, oversexed, hate-filled, brutal, swindlers, corrupt, among many other blemishes. Such depictions have been reiterated so frequently in his writings that they seem to reflect reality for many Western readers. The impact of these negative stereotypes has been very extensive because there are a few works in which Islam and Arabs are depicted in objective and fair terms.
Constitutionalism, Human Rights, and Islam after the Arab Spring offers a comprehensive analysis of the impact that new and draft constitutions and amendments - such as those in Jordan, Morocco, Syria, Egypt, and Tunisia - have had on the transformative processes that drive constitutionalism in Arabic countries. This collection of essays, written by an expert team of constitutional and comparative law scholars and practitioners, provides an overview of the recent constitutional experience of Arab countries, explores the potential and actual impact of Islam and Sharia on the notion of modern constitutionalism, and offers insight into the ways in which Western ideals may be reconciled with the Islamic tradition.
Since the attacks of September 11, 2001, law enforcement has focused a great deal of energy in deterring threats of terrorist’s attacks towards the United States and its interests. The majority of Americans agree that terrorism should be a top priority of federal and state law enforcement agencies. The issue that often arises and is heavily debated in the United States has been the way in which law enforcement agencies combat terrorist threats and the Constitutionality in which monitoring and prosecuting terrorist have been enforced. Law enforcement in the United States is learning how to defend itself against terrorist while balancing national security and civil liberties. Despite the perception that terrorism is an imminent threat to all American citizens, the reality is that federal and local law enforcement agencies are presenting, stopping and deterring terrorism internationally and domestically.
The work discusses the authenticity of local Islamic cultures and the practice of local Islamic cultures in Malabar. Historians had emphasized that the advent of Islam in Malabar was in its early years. The nine century long Arab interference from sixth century to the fifteenth century caused to the cultural exchange between Malabar and Arabia. When Islam spread in to the rural areas of Malabar many low caste and middle class Hindus converted to Islam and as a result many Hindu customs mixed with the Islamic culture. The local culture of Malabar had influenced Islamic culture to an extent. Thus there formed a local Islamic culture in Malabar which is different from the other Islamic cultures. This special Islamic culture will be received because the local customs had much consideration in Islam if it was not opposing the primary Islamic references.
This dissertation argues that there is an ideological antagonism between the Islamic reformists and the Islamic fundamentalists, pertaining to the establishment of the Islamic Republic of Iran. The claim of this work is that the same elements of liberalism, the ideas of individualism and liberal rights and the same elements of communitarianism, the ideas of community and the common good are quite generally found within Islamic political discourses. The reformists rejected the fundamentalists’ religious dogmatism, intolerance and monopolistic policy, and they introduced liberal ideas of self-autonomy, tolerance and pluralism. The fundamentalists’ arguments built on rejection of what they called “Western freedom” and “American democracy”. The “Islamic democracy” and “Islamic freedom” of the fundamentalists were constructed by negation of the “West”, instead stating that God, the divine sources, and justice are the main principles. One of the most important results of this study is the demonstration of the battle between two hegemonic projects: “liberal Islam” of the reformists and the “communitarian Islam” by the fundamentalists.
Boko Haram desire to redeem non-Muslims from perdition, liberate Muslims from persecution, protect Islam from criticism, and revenge perceived acts of injustices against Muslims. The group has embarked on this aim by allotting blame, vilifying the enemy-Other, pressing for a holy war, encouraging martyrdom, and alluding to an apocalypse. Boko Haram’s audience is made to believe that Allah has assigned Boko Haram the task to liberate and restore an Islamic haven in Nigeria. Therefore, opposition from the Nigerian government or Western forces is constructed as actions of opposition, thus killing members of the opposition becomes a celestial and noble cause. This juxtaposition serves to encourage the violent Jihad which leaders of Boko Haram claims Allah assigned them to lead in the first place. As a result of this cyclical communication, media houses, the Nigerian government, Christians, and Western ideals become the symbolic evil, against which Muslims, sympathizers and would-be-recruits must unite. By locking Islam against the Nigerian government, Western ideals and Christianity in a characteristically hostile manner, Boko Haram attempts to preclude any real solution.
In this gripping study, award-winning historian Michael Burleigh lays bare the workings of the terrorist mind and explores the nature of terrorism, from its origins in the West to today's global threat of jihadist violence. This searing analysis focuses on the distorted morality that drives terrorists to organise and operate, revealing who they are and the wider support encouraging them. Compelling and assured, "Blood and Rage: A Cultural History of Terrorism" sheds an unflinching light on this globalised threat, and has been fully updated to include the recent Mumbai terror attacks and continued military clash in Gaza.
In order to better understand and apply rational action theory to the terrorist actions of al Qaeda and associated groups, terrorist bombings conducted between 2002 and 2007 were analyzed and compared to those carried out by a far more traditional terrorist organization, the Euskadi Ta Askatasuna (ETA). As expected, attacks carried out by al Qaeda and their affiliates created casualties at a much higher rate than those conducted by the ETA, even when discounting the attacks of 9/11/01. The analyses evince the fact that the Islamic groups frequently carry out attacks in order to cause large numbers of casualties where other terrorist groups attempt to limit casualties, for political and ideological reasons. The rationality of traditional terrorist groups is well established in the literature and is reinforced by these analyses. However, they also suggest the application of rational action theory to religious Islamic terrorism. While mass-casualty and suicide terrorism may seem irrational, when one considers the goals of religious Islamic terrorism as well as the religious and political context in which those organizations operate, rational action serves as a sound explanation.
When Jack Ryan foils an Ulster Liberation Army terrorist attack on the Prince of Wales and his family, his courageous actions no only win him the admiration of an entire nation, they also arouse the enmity and hatred of that nation's most dangerous men. Now a ULA target himself, Ryan plunges into the murky world of counter-intelligence, where he uncovers a connection between the ULA and an international underground network that places him at the forefront of the deadly battle against international terrorism and pitches him into the most desperate struggle of his life...