It is hard to imagine a more timely and readable contribution to the current debate over policy towards Iran and the Middle East. Said Shams provides the essential theoretical outlook and historical context, explaining and examining the specific nature of the power shift in the late 1970s and early 1980s of twentieth century in Iran. The Primary focus is on the rise of the Islamist oppositional movement that emerged as an alternative to the official discourse and westernising project of the Pahlavi regime. Oppositional forces as a whole comprised a heterogeneous allaince including radical left wing and Islamic populist, secular nationalists, and Islamic moderate trends, all opposed to the regime of the Shah whom they viewed as dependent on and a protector of USA interests in Iran. Few emerge with credit from a story of full of tragedy and mutual incomprehension of this heterogeneous allaince.
Since 1999, Asaye has been working in the Foreign Ministry and served at different positions. Currently he is a Director in the Ministry. His experience totals more than two decades together with the four years in Education Sector where he taught English as a second language. During his assignment to missions abroad, as a diplomat, he enjoyed discussions and negotiations on different views with various ranked diplomats. Security was persistent as priority of the discussion point and still it is his prime concern. He will be more delighted if readers of this book reach him with comments and different views. Asaye is a multi-professional for he has earned his first degrees in Literature (English Language) and Economics at different times from Addis Ababa University, and MA Degree from China Foreign Affairs University in International Relations. He is a linguist, Economist and more prominently an expert in International Relations. Furthermore he has participated in various trainings and workshops that enriched his thought on security issues and other diplomatic areas. Asaye remains appreciative for readers who reach him via Assalma2@gmail.com
The main goal of the research was to find-out barriers of bilateral tourism flow between India and Europe from 1981 to 2011 and suggest policies to these barriers to capture these lucrative markets for the potential development of bilateral tourism flow. The methodology used in this study combined a review of the literature with an analysis of tourist flow data and limited case study analysis. Statistical tools percentage analysis, Correlation and linear regression analysis were used and comparative charts to assist in empirical analysis. As per study, the economic recession, economic growth, GDP of the country India and Europe, currency exchange rate of Euro in relation with Indian rupees, price of the tourism products, terrorism, wars between countries due to international political relation, inconvenient government policies, air service agreements (ASA), private sector participation and growth, knowledge about the tourist destinations, regional competitive disadvantage, working structure, social behavior of people, etc. factors became barriers to the bilateral tourism flow between India and Europe. There is pace of growth of inbound and outbound tourism between India and Euro.
Revision with unchanged content. This study seeks to determine which factors affect an ethnonational group's decision to utilize terrorism. Current political theories have proposed several answers, but the theoretical underpinnings of those answers are both disparate and weak. Thus, in answering this question, a new model of terrorism is necessary, one which spans the four primary levels of analysis but grounds it all in the actor: the individual. The book first examines the existing literature concerning the causes of terrorism. These threads are then woven into a single theory—based on the individual—explaining why the known correlates of terrorism increase the chance that an ethnic group will resort to terrorism: The Pressure Model. Several derivative hypotheses are then tested using modern statistical methods, including complementary log-log cross-sectional time-series regression. Finally, the book discusses several recommendations from the theory that should inform policy in both international and domestic spheres. Professionals in the field of terrorism policy as well as policymakers, academics, and students interested in the causes of a group’s path into terrorism should find much of interest in this book.
Terrorism has been an unending trouble in human history. It is obvious that with twenty first century, new age of terrorism has started. Terrorism is transnational, institutionalized, technologically advanced, and global. Today’s terrorist organizations are using Internet for different purposes. The Internet has become the new and main source of communication in terms of disseminating propaganda for terrorist activities. In this context, PKK terrorist organization, as part of terrorist community, is exploiting the Internet for its purposes and broadcasting propaganda through its websites. This study is focused on the exploitation of Internet by terrorist organizations for their activities and to examine PKK terrorist organization, as a case study.
In this groundbreaking book, Akbar Ahmed, one of the world’s leading authorities on Islam, who has worked in the Muslim world but lives in the West, explains what is going wrong in his society by referring to Islamic history and beliefs. Employing theological and anthropological perspectives, he attempts to answer the questions that people in the West are asking about Islam: "Why do they hate us?" "Is Islam compatible with democracy?" "Does Islam subjugate women?" "Does the Quran preach violence?" These important questions are of relevance to Muslims and to non–Muslims alike. Islam Under Siege points out the need for, and provides the route to, the dialogue of civilizations.September 11, 2001, underlined the role of Islam in our time. In its demographic spread, its political span, and its religious commitment, Islam will be an increasingly forceful presence on the world stage in the twenty–first century. While some scholars predict that there will be a clash of civilizations, others see a need for a dialogue of civilizations.This book will help students, scholars of politics, sociology, international relations, and cultural studies, and reporters as well as a more general audience interested in some of the most important issues of our time.
Secularization is a cement of the Turkish modernization and nation-state building process. Westernization and modernization were accepted side by side with secularization and different from other examples of secularization, Turkey developed an original definition and a process towards secularization. In the Turkish model, Islam was taken under state control as a result of historical and social developments. However, not only being controlled, Islam also has been manipulated by the state to reproduce the hegemonic statist ideology and to maintain the legitimacy of the state’s sovereignty over its subjects. These practices produce a contradictory understanding of laicism and a controversial position of the state in its relation to Islam. The difference between the constitutional definition of laicism and the institutional practices and policies which are non-laic according to the state’s definition of laicism, makes the masses more close to religion instead of secularism. Using only one religion (Islam) and one sect (Sunni-Hannifin) to strengthen the Turkish state’s legitimacy can damage the sovereignty of the state in the perception of the non-Muslim and non-Hannifin subjects.
How do modern Muslims adapt their traditions to engage with today's world? Charles Tripp's erudite and incisive book considers one of the most significant challenges faced by Muslims over the last sixty years: the challenge of capitalism. By reference to the works of noted Muslim scholars, the author shows how, faced by this challenge, these intellectuals devised a range of strategies which have enabled Muslims to remain true to their faith, whilst engaging effectively with a world not of their own making. The work is framed around the development of their ideas on Islamic socialism, economics and the rationale for Islamic banking. While some Muslims have resorted to confrontation or insularity to cope with the challenges of modernity, most have aspired to innovation and ingenuity in the search for compromise and interaction with global capitalism in the twenty-first century.
Terrorism is a one of the major challenges facing countries all over the world; However many states in their response to terrorism have overreacted the threat of terrorism and have adopted counterterrorism legislations that forfeited fundamental rights and freedoms in the name of protecting national security. Egypt, under President Mubarak’s Regime, has been one of those states that have exceedingly abused its counter-terrorism powers to vanquish many of the Egyptians’ constitutional rights and freedoms. This dissertation explores and analyzes the scope of fundamental rights and freedoms under Egypt’s counter-terrorism legal framework. It further undertakes a comparative study of the American and international anti-terrorism legal frameworks to examine how they have dealt with these issues and inquires into whether these legal systems have adequately reconciled national security with human rights. This work is intended to help enhance the rule of law and to ensure that human rights are respected in post-Mubarak Egypt by underscoring the limits with regard to human rights that the new counter-terrorism legal framework must respect.
The author tries to answer the question of whether the state theories in Islam could lead the Islamic societies towards implementation of the democratic values such as political participation, rationalism in legislation, implementation of the International norms and respect for Human Rights or not. In this respect, the author first analyzes the political theories in two big religions within Islam with a historic approach using the new texts and historic documents about the theories of Caliphate and Imamate. Afterwards issues such as,appointing the Muslim rulers, legislating in Islam, implementation of the Sharia law,Hudud and finally respect for the international orders and Human Rights are analyzed. The results of this analysis reveal that the political theories in Islam are not capable of presenting an efficient political system and Islam helped to create autocratic regimes. The other challenge is in the rigidity of Shaira law that led to resist against modern regulations, Human Rights and international orders. This study suggests that moving towards Secular democracy is an answer to solve these obstacles.
This book comes out of the desire to have a bizarre combination of ‘attachment’ and ‘detachment’ in order to objectively understand a subject at hand. Some of the basic concepts of Islam and perspectives about Muslims have been treated at length and in depth. A few authentic voices have also been presented for a broader perspective and to add further insight in the subjects dealt with in the current work. An extended bibliography of a wide variety has been especially suggested at the end in order to give an opportunity to the reader to related readings.
Revision with unchanged content. Jason Gatliff argues that some types of terrorism are permissible within a Just War framework. When evaluating any use of force, two questions need to be addressed: (1) was it appropriate to use force, and (2) was force used appropriately. It is within the scope of these two questions that most of the objections to terrorism arise. Gatliff argues that a terrorist act can meet the standards of a Just War. Gatliff shows how these standards can be met in response to two objections to terrorism, that terrorists lack the authority to make war, and that the random targeting of civilians renders terrorism unjustifiable. Gatliff approaches the first question from the perspective of a Lockean theory of individual sovereignty. Gatliff shows that the authority to use force rests with governments because that authority has been granted them by those individuals they govern. When governments fail to use their delegated authority appropriately, then individuals can once again exercise their rights. Gatliff deals with the second question, the appropriateness of intentionally targeting civilians, by arguing that many more members of the civilian population are combatants than most people realize.
In the years since 9/11, terrorism has been transformed into an issue of global significance. Terrorism and the war on terror has affected virtually every aspect of modern life, and a precise understanding of terrorism is now more important – and contentious – than ever.This innovative text provides a much-needed critical introduction to terrorism. Cutting-edge research on contemporary issues is combined with new insights into long-debated issues such as the definition of terrorism, the nature of the terrorist threat and counter-terrorism strategies. Showing that the methods we adopt as well as the material we study are vital for a clear understanding of the subject, this text goes beyond traditional IR approaches to rethink popular beliefs and assumptions about terrorism. Taking a genuinely global and integrated approach, this book is an ideal entry into the study of terrorism.The text is supported by:• International case studies from around the world• A detailed glossary introducing key actors, events and concepts relating to terrorism• Learning aids to stimulate critical thinking, including discussion questions, further readings and selected web resources
Terrorism is now a fact of life that has brought considerable uncertainty to the global economy. The financial impact of terrorism takes the form of risk premium for businesses, loss of business activity due to heightened security risks, change in consumption and production patterns, and shifts of resources towards combating terrorism. Understanding the losses incurred due to a terrorist attack is rapidly becoming an important area of risk analysis. This book is a start-to-finish guide to investigating the impact of international terrorism on commodity markets and if a diversified commodity portfolio provides investors with diversification benefits in such extreme politically uncertain environment.