Now in its fourth edition, Psychology and Law is a comprehensive guide to the complex interactions between psychology and criminal law. Andreas Kapardis explores contemporary psycho-legal issues both in and out of the courtroom, from eyewitness testimony, investigative interviewing, jury decision making, and sentencing as a human process, to restorative justice, terrorism, police prejudice and offender profiling. The book draws upon sources from Europe, North America and Australia to investigate the subjectivity and human fallibility inherent in our systems of justice. It suggests ways of minimising undesirable influences on judicial decision making, and discusses procedures for dealing with witnesses and suspects. Fully revised and with greater emphasis on relevant law, Psychology and Law remains the leading text on legal psychology for students and practitioners in psychology, law, criminology, social work and law enforcement.
Pakistan is a frontline ally of the United States in the US war against terrorism in Afghanistan. After the 9/11 terrorist attacks, Pakistan was coerced by Washington to join the US effort to dismantle the Taliban-Al Qaeda terrorist infrastructure in Afghanistan and Pakistan. It is believed that Pakistan has employed a selective approach in the war against terrorism. It has targeted Al Qaeda and other militants but has remained reluctant to target the Afghan Taliban. The underlying reason for this inconsistent behaviour can be located in Pakistan’s conflicting interests in the war against terrorism in Afghanistan. By joining the war, Pakistan gained economic benefits, improved its international standing, and also denied India, an arch foe, an opportunity to use US engagement in the area against it. On the other hand, the removal of the Taliban regime after 9/11 deprived Pakistan of a pro-Pakistan regime in Afghanistan. Moreover, the emergence of an anti-Pakistan regime and the increasing involvement of India in Afghanistan added to Pakistan’s insecurities and Islamabad felt encircled from both eastern and western fronts.Pakistan thus has been reluctant to fight against the Taliban.
If we take two views of religion, the first as a positive component to peace and conflict resolution and secondly, as an important component of identity and turn the lens towards Islam specifically, then we have an approach in which to view some of the changes in regards to Islam in contemporary times. This line of inquiry advocates that the Islamic community is undergoing a transformation or a “new phase” where “new and effective forms for the continuing vitality of the Islamic message” are emerging. A Common Word is an example of the vitality of the Islamic message against militant activism with which Islam has often been associated. Although A Common Word may seem of concern to only a small group of people, it should in fact concern anyone who cares about peaceful co-existence among people of differing religious faiths.
Many African-American Muslims (who now constitute the biggest single ethnic group among U.S. Muslims) have been first introduced to Islam through the numerous NOI temples across the U.S.—thanks to the charisma and oratory skills of Malcolm X & later Louis Farrakhan. The author earnestly explores the origins of the NOI ideology and its impact on other Muslim and black nationalist groups in the US. This book, probably the first scholarly work ever on the NOI by an Arab-Muslim from a prestigious institution of higher learning such as Al-Azhar University, is instrumental in understanding the history, future, and progress of Islam in America & the African-American community. Dr. Leonard Swidler, Professor of Catholic Thought and Interreligious Dialogue, Temple University, believes this book is "Extremely helpful in understanding contemporary Islam in America and the history of 20th-century American social history.” Imam Taalib Abdul-Samad, Executive Director of IRHSCA, wrote, "As a former NOI member and being part of the Ministry at Muhammad's Temple #4 in Washington D.C., I found this book both informative and insightful. A must-read."
An engaging and accessible introduction to Christianity’s relationship with other world religions, addressing the questions of why the reality, and vitality, of other religions has become a challenge, and showing how Christianity is equipped to deal with religious plurality at both the doctrinal and social level. Timely and accessible, this book tackles the question of why the reality, and vitality, of other religions has become a challenge for Christianity Makes a decisive contribution to debates about the clash between Islam and the West, arguing that the major threat to religious freedoms come from secularism, and that Islam and Christianity both have the resources to develop a vibrant and pluralist public square; one informed by intellectual rigor and debate Considers the wider issue of how modernity has defined ‘religion’, and provides a substantial critique of secular ways of controlling religions Shows how Christianity is very well suited to deal with religious plurality at the doctrinal and social level Addresses the core issues and describes the various answers that have been proposed in recent years – making it an ideal introduction to the field, and one which will stimulate ideas and discussions
Defense spending of Pakistan remains high in order to sustain a credible deterrence, significant geopolitical position in Afghan wars and combat terrorism. The study analyzes the defense spending in light of perceived and real threats to Pakistan’s security and examines its linkages with economic growth. By developing a theoretical framework to explore the different dimensions of national security, the study empirically investigates the relationship between defense spending and economic growth. Econometric techniques such as Johansen Co-integration and Granger Causality test have been applied to obtain empirical results by using a time series data from 1980 to 2010. The results indicate that there exists a long-run relationship between defense spending and economic growth where economic growth granger causes defense spending. The study also assembles fifty structured interviews from armed forces officers, civil bureaucrats and experts to analyze and bargain the gap between theory and practice. The study recommends that Pakistan should focus more on social sector development, initiate trade with India to build trust and initiate dialogue process on political and local level Taliban.
Terrorist violence is no novelty in human history and, while government reactions to it have varied over time, some lessons can be learnt from the past. Indeed, the debate on when and how a state should use emergency powers that limit individual freedoms is nearly as old as the history of political thought. After reviewing some history of state responses to terrorist violence and their efficacy, this book sets out to assess the effects of contemporary counterterrorism law and policies on democratic states. In particular, it considers the interaction between national and international law in shaping and implementing anti-terror measures, and the difficult role of the judiciary in striking a balance between security concerns and fundamental rights. It also examines the strains this has caused on some democracies, especially a blurring in the separation of powers between the legislative, executive and judicial branches of government, giving reason to enquire afresh whether new paradigms are needed. Finally, the issue of whether the doctrine of constitutionalism can provide an appropriate frame of analysis to encapsulate current developments in international law in response to terrorism is broached. By drawing on the expertise of historians, political scientists and lawyers, this book promotes transdisciplinary dialogue, recognising that counterterrorism is an issue at the intersection of law and politics that has profound implications for democratic institutions and practices.
Declared a terrorist menace yet elected to government in a free election, Hamas now stands as the most important Sunni Islamist group in the Middle East. How did Hamas grow to be so powerful? Who supports it? What is its future? This essential insight into Hamas answers these questions. Milton-Edwards and Farrell have between them spent decades researching and reporting from the heartlands of the Hamas movement and gained unrivalled access to the world of Islamic resistance and radical Islam in its potent Palestinian form. Drawing on their frontline experiences of recent events, their access to secret documents from the western intelligence community and interviews with leaders, militants, and commanders of Hamas' armed battalions, they reveal the full story of Hamas and the future of political Islam in the Middle East. Milton-Edwards and Farrell show Hamas to be a broad and thus more powerful regional phenomenon than previously thought, and by doing so contend that it is now time to rethink the war and the nature of Islam and its role in the Middle East. Beverley Milton-Edwards is Professor in the School of Politics, International Studies and Philosophy at Queens University, Belfast. She is the author of books such as Contemporary Politics in the Middle East (2006) and The Israeli-Palestinian Conflict: a People's War (2009). Prize-winning journalist Stephen Farrell is Foreign Correspondent for the New York Times and was previously Middle East correspondent for The Times.
Sufis are the Muslims who represent the spiritual proportions of Islam. They are described mystics of Islam during their whole lives. Basically a Sufi saint in any religion is equal to a Sufi saint in any other religion because they are motivated by the same Divine Source. A Sufi doctrine contains many elements that go beyond the teachings of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). Islam is an external structure in which the individual exists while the internal search for enlightenment belongs to a realm of Sufi knowledge. After Prophet (PBUH), four caliphs and early followers of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) spread Islam in the world. Sufis became integrated and important central part of Islamic culture and society. This research aims at studying the 6 major Sufi saints came in district Jhang for the preaching of Islam on the orders of their religious teachers. The research was conducted in district Jhang on the tombs of Sufi saints and total 150 followers of these Sufi saints were interviewed for the purpose of the study.
Preventing violent conflicts and establishing comprehensive lasting peace in some of the world’s most turbulent regions has become the new global imperative. But to be effective, peacebuilding must be a multilateral, not a unilateral process. Even for the world’s sole surviving superpower, promoting and sustaining durable peace requires communication, co-ordination, co-operation, and collaboration between local, national and international actors, nongovernmental as well as governmental. In this book, Dennis Sandole explores the theory and practice of peacebuilding, discussing the differences and similarities between core aspects of peace processes, namely violent conflict prevention; conflict management; conflict settlement; conflict resolution and conflict transformation. Assuming no prior knowledge on the part of the student reader, the volume distinguishes between proactive and reactive peacebuilding as strategies to pre-empt or otherwise respond to global problems, such as identity conflicts, failing/failed states, terrorism, pandemics, poverty, forced migrations, climate change, ecological degradation, and their combined effects. Drawing on a wide range of conflicts such as Bosnia-Herzegovina, Cambodia, East Timor, Haiti, South Africa and Macedonia, the book debates the 'lessons learned' from past experiences of reactive as well as proactive peacebuilding, plus the challenges which lie ahead for those striving to bring about sustainable peace, security and stability to war-torn or otherwise fragile regions of the globe.
Revision with unchanged content. Jason Gatliff argues that some types of terrorism are permissible within a Just War framework. When evaluating any use of force, two questions need to be addressed: (1) was it appropriate to use force, and (2) was force used appropriately. It is within the scope of these two questions that most of the objections to terrorism arise. Gatliff argues that a terrorist act can meet the standards of a Just War. Gatliff shows how these standards can be met in response to two objections to terrorism, that terrorists lack the authority to make war, and that the random targeting of civilians renders terrorism unjustifiable. Gatliff approaches the first question from the perspective of a Lockean theory of individual sovereignty. Gatliff shows that the authority to use force rests with governments because that authority has been granted them by those individuals they govern. When governments fail to use their delegated authority appropriately, then individuals can once again exercise their rights. Gatliff deals with the second question, the appropriateness of intentionally targeting civilians, by arguing that many more members of the civilian population are combatants than most people realize.
This study attempts to show how translation contributes to the Orientalist project and to the past and present knowledge of the Orient as it has been shaped by various disciplines such as anthropology, history and literature. This study, which also looks at the translation shifts that the Arabic tales underwent in Galland and Burton''s translations, was born out of a personal interest in the way Arab culture and Islam have been portrayed in Western discourse. The events of September 11 and the American invasion of Iraq and Afghanistan in addition to the Israeli occupation of Palestine have endowed the traditional Western discourse on Islam and the Orient with an immediate currency and relevance. All these elements combined were behind my attempt to analyze French and English translations of The Arabian Nights in order to show that today''s biased and fragmented images of the Orient are but the natural outcome of a centuries- long scholarship of which translation is an essential part. In other words, this study tries to locate translation within the vast movement of Orientalism and to draw a parallel between translation and imperialism.
In the aftermath of the 9/11 attacks European states have utilised the full force of the law in order to target those persons and entities that are either associated or linked to Al Qaida and other terrorist organisations. As a result, sanction mechanisms have been implemented on both the UN and EU level against individuals and entities that lack fundamental human rights protection. Arguably, while fighting terrorism on their soil, EU member states have been willing to sacrifice due process guarantees in their urge to combat terrorism. As a result, the assets of sanctioned individuals have been frozen, thereby stripping these individuals of financial resources necessary for everyday life. Sanjeev Thavarajah pleads in his work for the introduction of the same due process rights that are normally provided for criminal trials, in order to enable the sanctioned individuals and entities to profit from the higher standards provided for in criminal cases. As indicated in the title, this book will discuss the EU counter-terrorism sanctions regime in the context of international human right law. A special focus will also be given to the UN sanctions regime.