Why have the strong winds of the ‘Arab Spring’ only spurred limited popular mobilization and political change in Morocco – a country deeply marred by the social injustice, pervasive corruption and lack of dignity and freedom which spurred popular uprisings in most of the neighboring countries in the Maghreb? This book adds to our understanding of the surprising stability of the authoritarian Moroccan regime by explaining the puzzling interplay between political liberalization and authoritarian resilience, the key characteristics of Moroccan politics. Based on an in-depth case-study of the process leading to the controversial 2004 reform of Moroccan family law (the so-called Moudawana), the book provides rich empirical insight into the multiple and conflicting interpretations of Islam and women’s rights in Morocco, including of various faith-based actors. As such, the book also provides a rich empirical introduction to the complex interplay between Islam, gender and politics, which have come to the fore across the Arab world in the aftermath of the ‘Arab Spring’.
The tenth parallel - the line of latitude seven hundred miles north of the equator - is the front line where Christianity and Islam collide. Here, from Nigeria, Sudan and Somalia to Indonesia, Malaysia and the Philippines, both religions are experiencing huge and sometimes violent reawakenings. Award-winning journalist Eliza Griswold has spent the past seven years travelling this area and meeting its people, asking where belief ends and secular conflict begins; and examining how encounters between faiths will shape the future.
The revival of Islam and the reform of Muslim societies is the subject of passionate debate and is vital to the social, cultural and political values of Muslim societies and of the non-Muslim world. This study analyses the work of Dr Muhammad Tahir-ul-Qadri, presenting key issues for the reconciliation of Islamic Revivalism within the Islamic world and between conflicting religious and political ideologies. The Revival of Islam has not been studied as a part of Islamic Sciences or educational institutions yet has become a burning issue for scholars in the light of secular and religious affairs. Dr Habib introduces the work of Dr Al-Qadri then addresses his thoughts on Islamic Revivalism. There follows a detailed analysis of the reconstruction of Political, Economic, Juristic and Spiritual thought. This work is for anyone concerned about Islamic Revival, as it analyses secular pragmatism, Islamic scripture and law, and the place of Islam in the world. It will be of vital interest to religious scholars of all faiths, and addresses many of the issues which currently appear as barriers to inter-faith relations.
This book is written in the context of the current Islamic extremist terrorism, its Pakistan based hotbed, its operational access in the central Asia, and Persian Gulf regions, and its global implication. We examine that the invention of Pakistan a few decades ago in the name of Islam from a fragmented, cross border ethnic and geographical arbitrations has inevitably forced all Pakistan’s successive governments to rely on a narrative based on Islamic ideology, and utilization of Islamic groups to keep Pakistan intact. The analysis in this book explains that this same utilization of Islamic narrative and Islamic groups has been the other side of the coin, which has been the fertile ground for extremism and terrorism recruitment and empowerment. The analysis concludes that the utilization of Islamic extremists as the reason for creation of Pakistan has been a slippery slope of empowerment of uncontrollable extremism and transnational Islamic extremist groups, which in turn has become the Achilles’ heel of the conception of Pakistan. The analysis in this book will point out that other Islamic nations have various elements of cultural and historical values in their national narrative.
This dissertation argues that there is an ideological antagonism between the Islamic reformists and the Islamic fundamentalists, pertaining to the establishment of the Islamic Republic of Iran. The claim of this work is that the same elements of liberalism, the ideas of individualism and liberal rights and the same elements of communitarianism, the ideas of community and the common good are quite generally found within Islamic political discourses. The reformists rejected the fundamentalists’ religious dogmatism, intolerance and monopolistic policy, and they introduced liberal ideas of self-autonomy, tolerance and pluralism. The fundamentalists’ arguments built on rejection of what they called “Western freedom” and “American democracy”. The “Islamic democracy” and “Islamic freedom” of the fundamentalists were constructed by negation of the “West”, instead stating that God, the divine sources, and justice are the main principles. One of the most important results of this study is the demonstration of the battle between two hegemonic projects: “liberal Islam” of the reformists and the “communitarian Islam” by the fundamentalists.
Lawik sati rantau batuah (ocean has fortune, land has sacredness) is a proverb that reflects how tribal community in Minangkabau perceive the nature. It has cultural and religious meaning that united a paradigm of life. Two contradictive mainstreams are transcendental representing Islamic value and naturalistic representing cultural value lives in harmony and balance. This mutual accommodation had completed each other that produce certain Islamic practices. It also enriches the Islamic pluralism that admits various interpretation and understanding. The research results showed the religious practice that is broken down from Islamic values could not separate from natural resources management practices and praxis. The culture-religious practices orient to face nature uncertainty has an influence to communality of community. Sustainability of natural resources depends on the capacity of community to sustain their culture-religious-ecological practices and praxis.
Education has played a critical role in the development of modern Egypt. Indeed, it has become a microcosm of Egyptian society, politics and culture--a stage in which Egypt has struggled to preserve and sustain its cultural integrity. Both external and internal forces continue to hamper the efficacy of Egypt’s educational system by producing inconsistent and incompatible cognitions. Using Cognitive Dissonance Theory, this thesis is designed to analyze these forces through multiple modes of enquiry. Using historical, ethnographic and textual evidence, this thesis examines the social dissonance caused by different social groups as they define the appropriate role of Islam in public institutions such as the university. Egypt’s educational dissonance can be traced to its long history of foreign intervention and a political leadership whose educational policies often run counter to the sentiment of the populace.
This user-friendly revised book on the origin, spread and impact of Islam on Nandi traditional religion and culture from 1850 to 2012, which has not been the subject of scholarly research, attempts to investigate the Islamization in Nandi County; apart from analyzing factors that contributed to the acceptance or rejection of the religion by the Nandi people and consequent challenges of its spread. Cross-cultural and Islamization theories were applied in collecting data and bridging the gap in knowledge. Further, the study utilized both qualitative design and the surveying data collection methods to arrive at the findings. It was revealed that the spread of Islamic religion in Nandi County involved various factors such as socio-cultural, economic, religious and doctrinal, among others. The book is replete with information on proselytism in a cross-cultural context and promotion of inter-faith dialogue, which government-policy-makers, students, researchers and professionals should find both stimulating and useful in addressing the development agenda for Nandi County in areas of education, cultural heritage and religion.
In order to better understand and apply rational action theory to the terrorist actions of al Qaeda and associated groups, terrorist bombings conducted between 2002 and 2007 were analyzed and compared to those carried out by a far more traditional terrorist organization, the Euskadi Ta Askatasuna (ETA). As expected, attacks carried out by al Qaeda and their affiliates created casualties at a much higher rate than those conducted by the ETA, even when discounting the attacks of 9/11/01. The analyses evince the fact that the Islamic groups frequently carry out attacks in order to cause large numbers of casualties where other terrorist groups attempt to limit casualties, for political and ideological reasons. The rationality of traditional terrorist groups is well established in the literature and is reinforced by these analyses. However, they also suggest the application of rational action theory to religious Islamic terrorism. While mass-casualty and suicide terrorism may seem irrational, when one considers the goals of religious Islamic terrorism as well as the religious and political context in which those organizations operate, rational action serves as a sound explanation.
A research about muslim employees to see how far religion plays a role in commitment towards the organization and the relationship with the work attitude and life satisfaction. The research is vital because Islam perceive work as part of deeds, thus employee must fulfill the job diligently and honestly. Generally, the muslim employees are committed to the organization, however their work behavior and life satisfaction varies though their belief is one. This phenomenon had caused an interest to the researcher to understand why it happens and to further see the linkage between each other.The research was done through quantitative method and analysed using the SPSS. The result obtained showed that the variables are positive but in a weak relationship. It is because the understanding and practice of the respondents towards Islam is not wholly, it is only the relationship between an individual and the creator or towards the compulsory deeds only. Thus, the exposure about the knowledge on religion that covers the organizational aspect and work must be explained throughout, as well as the steps towards loving their organization.
Islamic Fundamentalism in the West Bank & Gaza – Muslim Brotherhood & Islamic Jihad
The work deals with stepwise percolation of Islam in Indonesia vis-a-vis reaction of Indonesian societies which have primarily been seasoned in mix culture of Animism, Buddhism, Hinduism and other pre-existing tradition which they proudly call it as adaat. Islam being the major religion, religious forces have long been trying to enforce it in the political system of the country bringing modern pan-Islamic ethos by taking inspiration from Iranian Revolution to establish shariah as the basis of Indonesian Constitution ignoring the Pancasila, the basis of present Constitution of Indonesia. Islam as compared to other pan-Islamic countries has never been a fundamental basis of the lives of Indonesian people. However as a major political tool and various charities coming from outside Muslim world, few political parties have been able to generate more supports from Indigenous people to support the cause of establishing Indonesia as an Islamic state.
“Terrorism” becomes the number one concern for the world today. The necessity of fighting this heinous crime needs no invitation. But not by compromising the principles and norms of the human rights law because any derogation of such norms may result give rise to an irreversible result. After the incident of 9/11 how derogation of human rights in different countries increased and what are the consequences of such derogation. There are many misconceptions regarding different terms and norm in the international Human rights arena like; “armed conflict”; “self defence” and “self determination” which shows that invasion on other countries on plea of such terms are not valid though we can see that other countries are taking advantage of the current situation.
Medicine and health care were perhaps the highest scientific achievement of the Muslims during the Middle Ages. The author discusses the history of rainbow and attempts to provide a historical and scientific explanation for the rainbow phenomenon according to Muslim scientists generally and Hocazade especially. Marifetname deals with classical scientific subjects such as mathematics, astronomy, medicine and physics. It also offers discussions on modern scientific concepts and presents certain contradictory statements on Islamic sciences. Dr Ziaee also discuses the quality of representing the human values like freedom, liberality, tolerance, faith, certainty, and etc in the form of semantics. In the last chapter he criticizes Nasir Khusraw''s definition of the first intellect and then describes his position of ‘ibda'' or innovation. Ziaee tries to debate Nasir Khusraw''s relevant philosophical issues and contradictions in his works respect to these narrow field of study.