Russia occupies a unique position in the Muslim world. Unlike any other non-Islamic state, it has ruled Muslim populations for over five hundred years. Though Russia today is plagued by its unrelenting war in Chechnya, Russia's approach toward Islam once yielded stability. In stark contrast to the popular "clash of civilizations" theory that sees Islam inevitably in conflict with the West, Robert D. Crews reveals the remarkable ways in which Russia constructed an empire with broad Muslim support. In the eighteenth century, Catherine the Great inaugurated a policy of religious toleration that made Islam an essential pillar of Orthodox Russia. For ensuing generations, tsars and their police forces supported official Muslim authorities willing to submit to imperial directions in exchange for defense against brands of Islam they deemed heretical and destabilizing. As a result, Russian officials assumed the powerful but often awkward role of arbitrator in disputes between Muslims. And just as the state became a presence in the local mosque, Muslims became inextricably integrated into the empire and shaped tsarist will in Muslim communities stretching from the Volga River to Central Asia. For Prophet and Tsar draws on police and court records, and Muslim petitions, denunciations, and clerical writings-not accessible prior to 1991-to unearth the fascinating relationship between an empire and its subjects. As America and Western Europe debate how best to secure the allegiances of their Muslim populations, Crews offers a unique and critical historical vantage point.
The prospect of nuclear terrorism, terrorist acts with nuclear fission explosives, is analysed by means of rational choice theory, a methodology borrowed from economics which has hitherto not been systematically applied to nuclear terrorism. Four relevant decision situations are studied: The terrorist's choice of whether to embark on an ambitious and expensive nuclear project or to stay with tried and trusted conventional methods; The choice of fissile material for a terrorist bent on building a nuclear weapon; The government's choice of prioritising between branches of fissile materials security; and the strategic interplay between terrorist and government in the case where the terrorist has acquired a nuclear weapon and must decide whether to use it to attack, for extortion, or to deter an attack upon his own interests. In each case, the methodology of modelling allows a number of key conclusions to be drawn, informing policy makers on best responses to a threat which is notoriously difficult to estimate.
Islam is a religion of the soul's harmony and heart's intimacy, but most of the people do not know this reality. In the era of Muslim Caliphs, the freedom of non-Muslims, who had enjoyed with a free living status, protection and safety in Muslim states, was not in return for paying the capital tax. The taken tribute from them was not the price of their freedom, but was for the integrity of the Righteous justice between them and Muslims to protect them and their family members were living with Muslims side by side in the society and were not involved in military services to defend a nation believes in Islam. How they can defend a Muslim country and they do not believe in Islam? Jihad does not mean killing some one without any reason and right, but it is to recover the rights of vulnerable people from the harshness of powerful oppressors. Stoning of the adulterer and the adulteress in Islam is not an injustice or affront to human rights after the permission granted in polygamy. Islam is not a religion of men only, as some people think, because of their mental illness. The men and women both are created as being two sides of the one soul.
This book, edited by Dr. Oladokun Omojola, articulates some communication perspectives of terrorism and conflict resolution, their theoretical underpinnig and relevance. Chapters 1 and 2 emphasize the power of effective communication in resolving conflicts at indvidual and organizational levels. One finding of Chapter 3 helps to explain the relationship between mobile phones, conflict and peace-building. Chapter 4 focuses on conflict situations in Nigeria’s most notorious flashpoint – Jos - and identifies politics as a reason for the conflicts. Chapter 5 extends the discussion beyond Nigeria and embarks on the comparative analysis of the communication strategies involved. Chapter 6 calls for caution as media could become carriers of inaccuracies, which fuel terrorism. Chapter 7 advocates a reorientation in media coverage of terrorism while Chapter 8 unveils the economic effect of terrorism which media contents abet. Chapters 9 and 10 respectively discuss the culture of terrorism via the Internet and the promise of public relations as a resolution gizmo.The ten readings agree on one thing: The world will be suffused with peace when communication is accorded its rightful place.
No other religion is subject to as much debate and controversy as Islam. But who was Muhammad, and what did he teach? Does the Qur'an really preach holy war? What is the role of women within Islam? And what does the rise of Isil and militant Islam mean for Muslims and for the world?Explaining Islam's history, core beliefs and rituals, as well as current issues of political and social importance, this book covers everything you need to understand the world's fastest-growing religion. Written by renowned scholar and Professor of Islamic and Interreligious Studies, Mona Siddiqui, it addresses such varied concepts as the five pillars of Islam; the divisions between Sunni and Shi'a; the importance of Shari`a law; the significance of Mecca and the Ka'ba; the role of Ramadan, the veil, the mosque and the madrasa; and much more - all in 50 concise and expert essays.
Objective Troy tells the engaging and unsettling story of Anwar al-Awlaki, the once-celebrated American imam who called for moderation after 9/11, a man who ultimately directed his outsized talents to the mass murder of his fellow citizens. It follows Barack Obama's campaign against the excesses of the Bush counterterrorism programs and his eventual embrace of the targeted killing of suspected militants. And it recounts how the president directed the mammoth machinery of spy agencies to hunt Awlaki down in a frantic, multimillion-dollar pursuit that would end with the death of Awlaki by a bizarre, robotic technology that is changing warfare--the drone. Scott Shane, who has covered terrorism for the New York Times over the last decade, weaves the clash between president and terrorist into both a riveting narrative and a deeply human account of the defining conflict of our era. Awlaki, who directed a plot that almost derailed Obama's presidency and then taunted him from his desert hideouts, will go down in history as the first United States citizen deliberately hunted and assassinated by his own government without trial. But his eloquent calls to jihad, amplified by YouTube, continue to lure young Westerners into terrorism--resulting in tragedies from the Boston Marathon bombing to the murder of cartoonists at a Paris weekly. Awlaki's life and death show how profoundly America has been changed by the threat of terrorism and by our own fears. Illuminating and provocative, and based on years of in-depth reporting, Objective Troy is a brilliant reckoning with the moral challenge of terrorism and a masterful chronicle of our times.
The Globalization of Martyrdom – Al Qaeda, Salafi Jihad, and the Diffusion of Suicide Attacks
Many non-Muslims have no idea that Muslims worship the same God as Christians and Jews, and that Islam preaches compassion, charity, humility, and the brotherhood of man. And the similarities don't end there. According to Islamic teaching, Muhammad founded Islam in 610 CE after the angel Gabriel appeared to him at Mecca and told him that God had entered him among the ranks of such great biblical prophets as Abraham, Moses, and Christ. Whether you live or work alongside Muslims and want to relate to them better, or you simply want to gain a better understanding of the world's second largest religion, Islam For Dummies can help you make sense of this religion and its appeal. From the Qur'an to Ramadan, this friendly guide introduces you to the origins, practices and beliefs of Islam, including: Muhammad, the man and the legend; The Five Pillars of Wisdom; The Five Essentials beliefs of Islam; The different branches of Islam and Islamic sects; The Qur'an and Islamic law; Islam throughout history and its impact around the world. Professor Malcolm Clark explores the roots of Islam, how it has developed over the centuries, and it's long and complex relationship with Christianity. He helps puts Islam in perspective as a major cultural and geopolitical force. And he provided helpful insights into, among other things: Muhammad, the Qur'an and the ethical teachings of Islam; Muslim worship, customs, and rituals surrounding birth, marriage, and death; Shi'ites, Sunnis, Sufis, Druze, and other important Muslim groups; Islam in relation to Judaism and Christianity. In these troubled times, it is important that we try to understand the belief systems of others, for through understanding comes peace. Islam For Dummies helps you build bridges of understanding between you and your neighbors in the global village.
This study aimed to examine the changes in international relations after the events following the 11th September 2001 and to investigate the following the relationship of the West with Islam, the foundations, objectives and the content of this relationship, the role of the intellectual arguments in influencing this relationship Western strategic towards Arabs and Muslims and the Islamic movements, the attempt to link terrorism with Islam, and the impact on the Middle East. By using two methods, historical and analytical approaches, the study showed that after the events of September 11th, there has been an increase in the hostility of the West to Islam and Muslims, focuses On the Islamic movements, the argument against the backdrop of the West that Islam is the new enemy after the retreat of communism; accusing Islam and Islamic movements eleventh of September 2001, of initiating the subsequent events in the world. The study found a series of recommendations to improve the relationship between the West and the Arab and Islamic world, based on dialogue and the renunciation of violence.
The Venture of Islam has been honored as a magisterial work of the mind since its publication in early 1975. In this three-volume study, illustrated with charts and maps, Hodgson traces and interprets the historical development of Islamic civilization from before the birth of Muhammad to the middle of the twentieth century. This work grew out of the famous course on Islamic civilization that Hodgson created and taught for many years at the University of Chicago. Volume 1, The Classical Age of Islam, analyzes the world before Islam, Muhammad's challenge, and the early Muslim state between 625 and 692. Hodgson then discusses the classical civilization of the High Caliphate. The volume also contains a general introduction to the complete work and a foreword by Reuben Smith, who, as Hodgson's colleague and friend, finished the Venture of Islam after the author's death and saw it through to publication.
The paper discusses the logic foundation of terrorism: Terrorism is a method of asymmetric violent action and political logic, in essence motivated by the struggling for interests between individuals, organizations and nations. In nature, terrorism is not against certain persons, or a certain government, but public order and social stability. Even the religious terrorism in high-tech, which is viewed as the extreme violent and irrational with strong tendency of mass destruction, definitely demands more or less for a change of the current social order in its political protests and claims. To some extent, terrorism is often the irrational expressions of violence for some rational and lawful political requests by some weaker nation or organization in the international realm of politics. This paper focuses on the introduction of the modern development of the new features of terrorism, these new features foretells a new problem: the combination of high-tech terrorism and what it means? How should we respond? Review of terrorism at home and abroad academics on the main results of this paper on the technical design of terrorism on the main methods of the study.
This book interrogates the relationship between a number of factors and the emergence and sustenance of terrorism in the world. We argue that terrorism is a product of inherent contradictions in the Great Power oppression and illegal exploitation of the Weak that has defied all legitimate or conventional solution. it is not all about religion, Israel, the United States or the Taliban.It is a threat to humanity and must receive the positive attention of all in this age of neuclear technology. Anti-Terrorist wars are not the appropriate solution. Find out the scientific opinion of contributors to this book on how to abolish terrorism.
This book analyses the Ambon conflict, and discussed the reconciliation process by which the conflict was resolved. It argues that there were two significant factors in the conflict. First, ethno-religious segregation existed in the Ambonese islands from pre-colonial times until the present. Second, a culture of premanism existed whereby gangs, thugs, and laskars with the support of State elements (including security forces) were able to incite ethno-religious conflict. Both ‘state premanism’, played a pivotal role in instigating and continuing the conflict by provoking both the Muslim and Christian communities to attack each other. Mainstream Ambonese Muslims and Christian were eager to forge a reconciliation. They had attempted to do so from the early stages of the conflict in January 1999 up until the Malino II agreement in February 2002. Muslims and Christians proposed the strategy of re-implementing the Pela Gandong tradition as a basis for inter-ethnic or inter-religious harmony. Measures to ensure equality of public access to political positions and economic resources for both the Muslims and Christians communities had to be negotiated.
This book explores the idea of terrorism as represented in three contemporary American novels. Communist, religious, and environmental models of terrorism are given to account for the never-ending struggle between the strong nation-states and the marginalized groups that use terrorism as a way of resistance. Different methodologies that include cultural, civilizational, and psychoanalytical theories are used to describe the nature of terrorism in the selected novels. Don DeLillo's Mao II (1992) is used along with Jurgen Habermas's theory of the public sphere to account for the Maoist terrorism. John Updike's Terrorist (2007) is also applied to account for religious terrorism through Samuel Huntington's The Clash of Civilizations. Gary Hansen's Wet Desert (2007) was finally used to approach the environmental terrorism by applying Manuel Castells' The Power of Identity.
Esibo Simon Omaada has captured the experience of asylum seekers in Uganda in the wake of global terrorism. The experience of asylum seekers is a mixture of the rights that asylum seekers have and the security threats that come along with their predicament, especially today when terrorism is rising. This book attempts to help any state forge a balance between protecting the right to asylum as well as ensuring security concerns of its people. It is a must read book.