The main goal of the research was to find-out barriers of bilateral tourism flow between India and Europe from 1981 to 2011 and suggest policies to these barriers to capture these lucrative markets for the potential development of bilateral tourism flow. The methodology used in this study combined a review of the literature with an analysis of tourist flow data and limited case study analysis. Statistical tools percentage analysis, Correlation and linear regression analysis were used and comparative charts to assist in empirical analysis. As per study, the economic recession, economic growth, GDP of the country India and Europe, currency exchange rate of Euro in relation with Indian rupees, price of the tourism products, terrorism, wars between countries due to international political relation, inconvenient government policies, air service agreements (ASA), private sector participation and growth, knowledge about the tourist destinations, regional competitive disadvantage, working structure, social behavior of people, etc. factors became barriers to the bilateral tourism flow between India and Europe. There is pace of growth of inbound and outbound tourism between India and Euro.
FDI play important role in the development of Pakistan. But during the lost decade certain factors decline FDI in Pakistan. One of the factor is Terrorism. Terrorism in Pakistan made the people homeless, injured and dead, beside these affects terrorism also impact the economic condition of Paksitan. A large number of schools have been damaged. Infrastructure are highly destroyed. Communication become disturbed. So due to these factors the market of Paksitan is not profitable for the investors. in the last decade the investors are trying to search for the safer economy where they make more investment and increased profit. This study highlights the same phenomenon.
In order to better understand and apply rational action theory to the terrorist actions of al Qaeda and associated groups, terrorist bombings conducted between 2002 and 2007 were analyzed and compared to those carried out by a far more traditional terrorist organization, the Euskadi Ta Askatasuna (ETA). As expected, attacks carried out by al Qaeda and their affiliates created casualties at a much higher rate than those conducted by the ETA, even when discounting the attacks of 9/11/01. The analyses evince the fact that the Islamic groups frequently carry out attacks in order to cause large numbers of casualties where other terrorist groups attempt to limit casualties, for political and ideological reasons. The rationality of traditional terrorist groups is well established in the literature and is reinforced by these analyses. However, they also suggest the application of rational action theory to religious Islamic terrorism. While mass-casualty and suicide terrorism may seem irrational, when one considers the goals of religious Islamic terrorism as well as the religious and political context in which those organizations operate, rational action serves as a sound explanation.
Since the attacks of September 11, 2001, law enforcement has focused a great deal of energy in deterring threats of terrorist’s attacks towards the United States and its interests. The majority of Americans agree that terrorism should be a top priority of federal and state law enforcement agencies. The issue that often arises and is heavily debated in the United States has been the way in which law enforcement agencies combat terrorist threats and the Constitutionality in which monitoring and prosecuting terrorist have been enforced. Law enforcement in the United States is learning how to defend itself against terrorist while balancing national security and civil liberties. Despite the perception that terrorism is an imminent threat to all American citizens, the reality is that federal and local law enforcement agencies are presenting, stopping and deterring terrorism internationally and domestically.
As a land between empires, Arabia was multi-faceted, intriguing and challenging to dominate. Winged by the Persians in the East and Greeks, later Romans in the West, trust and loyalty were often swayed by political interests and religious adherence for the population of pre-Islamic Arabia. In this study of a centuries old relation between Rome and Arabia, the author takes us through colorful personalities of vassals such as King Arethas of Nabataea and Odenathus of Palmyra, later succeeded by his ambitious and rebellious widow, the enigmatic Zenobia; to Arabs who adorned the imperial robe like Elagabalus, Philippus Arabicus and Septimus Severus. Vassals and kings, emperors and generals played inportant role in the construction of the Fertile Crescent before the advent of Islam from Hejaz, and the eventual dominance of Islam in these lands. They also brought with them to Rome exotic deities with misunderstood rites which later became part and parcel of the mainstream Roman faith. These issues are explored in a work that celebrates the epilogue of Europe's ever enduring fascination of the East.
This book explores whether “terrorism” can be defined non-ambiguously based on objective criteria and supplemented with a rules based labeling framework and application methodology. Furthermore, this book asks, if it is possible that “terrorism” can be defined, and a framework of application devised, then why is it that the international community has yet to do so? Along the way, there is a discussion about the theoretical workings of any label of deviance as well as the international system for labeling “terrorism”. And, there is an exploration into Objectives Analysis and how this can help us understand whether or not the “war on terror” is making positive or negative gains towards its espoused objectives of decreasing incidences of “terrorism” while increasing global stability. This book then posits a definition for “terrorism” along with an application methodology. Then lastly, it applies the framework to past and present examples of groups using violence towards larger political and ideological goals.
The work discusses the authenticity of local Islamic cultures and the practice of local Islamic cultures in Malabar. Historians had emphasized that the advent of Islam in Malabar was in its early years. The nine century long Arab interference from sixth century to the fifteenth century caused to the cultural exchange between Malabar and Arabia. When Islam spread in to the rural areas of Malabar many low caste and middle class Hindus converted to Islam and as a result many Hindu customs mixed with the Islamic culture. The local culture of Malabar had influenced Islamic culture to an extent. Thus there formed a local Islamic culture in Malabar which is different from the other Islamic cultures. This special Islamic culture will be received because the local customs had much consideration in Islam if it was not opposing the primary Islamic references.
Constitutionalism, Human Rights, and Islam after the Arab Spring offers a comprehensive analysis of the impact that new and draft constitutions and amendments - such as those in Jordan, Morocco, Syria, Egypt, and Tunisia - have had on the transformative processes that drive constitutionalism in Arabic countries. This collection of essays, written by an expert team of constitutional and comparative law scholars and practitioners, provides an overview of the recent constitutional experience of Arab countries, explores the potential and actual impact of Islam and Sharia on the notion of modern constitutionalism, and offers insight into the ways in which Western ideals may be reconciled with the Islamic tradition.
There is a moderate positive correlation between media agenda and public agenda on overall ten main national issues—'terrorism', 'energy crisis', 'economic crisis', 'corruption', 'Indo-Pak relations', 'US-Drone attacks', 'Pak-Taliban talks', 'education', 'unemployment' and 'health' during the phase of Parliamentary General Elections 2013 in Pakistan. On the other hand, it is found a significant strong positive correlation only on four out of ten national issues-'terrorism', 'energy crisis', 'US-drone attacks', and 'economic crisis' within media agenda and public agenda. Among all national issues-'terrorism' is considered significantly correlated in media agenda and public agenda. To explore the media agenda on national issues, the coverage of national press about the most important ten issues is examined through content analysis at the front and back pages of three leading national popular Urdu dailies of Pakistan; Jang, Nawa-i-Waqt and Express whereas public perception is evaluated through opinion surveys from 300 respondents.
Sufis had built not only a special relation with God but with human being and its environment as well. In relation to its environment, Sufis entered into the political arena and encourage the people to protest colonial domination. This also happened in Aceh, an area located in the northern part of Sumatra Island, Indonesia. This book tries to trace positive relationship between Sufism and the strong spirit of the Acehnese against the colonial imperialism which was approved by long holy war (1873-1942). This book elaborates three important aspects in detail. First, analyzing the Achehnese practice Sufism during the war with the Dutch. Second, interpreting the important role of Sufism in the context of strong protest to the Dutch colonial administration. Third, analyzing some factors that influenced the Achehnese to perform holy war. By analyzing the Sufi tradition, political protest, and local culture, this book is very useful for those who are interested in studying Islam, history, and cultural anthropology.
In a world without political freedom, personal freedom and precious little faith in anything comes a mysterious man in a white porcelain mask who fights political oppressors through terrorism and seemingly absurd acts. It's a gripping tale of the blurred lines between ideological good and evil. The inspiration for the hit 2005 movie starring Natalie Portman and Hugo Weaving, this amazing graphic novel is packaged with a collectable reproduction of the iconic "V" mask.
This dissertation argues that there is an ideological antagonism between the Islamic reformists and the Islamic fundamentalists, pertaining to the establishment of the Islamic Republic of Iran. The claim of this work is that the same elements of liberalism, the ideas of individualism and liberal rights and the same elements of communitarianism, the ideas of community and the common good are quite generally found within Islamic political discourses. The reformists rejected the fundamentalists’ religious dogmatism, intolerance and monopolistic policy, and they introduced liberal ideas of self-autonomy, tolerance and pluralism. The fundamentalists’ arguments built on rejection of what they called “Western freedom” and “American democracy”. The “Islamic democracy” and “Islamic freedom” of the fundamentalists were constructed by negation of the “West”, instead stating that God, the divine sources, and justice are the main principles. One of the most important results of this study is the demonstration of the battle between two hegemonic projects: “liberal Islam” of the reformists and the “communitarian Islam” by the fundamentalists.
The integrity of the international refugee protection regime is being shaken by the threat of terrorism. The lack of comprehensive legal definition of ‘terrorism’, while anti-terror legislations are being developed as framed by States domestic as well as foreign policies is the challenge. Albeit, terrorism is not a ground for exclusion in the 1951 Refugee Convention, States' reliance on national terrorism definitions is arguably contrasting the spirit of the Convention in which many who are indeed flying from persecution are being found ineligible for refugee protection, hence refouled. However, the absolute and non-derogable character of the non-refoulement obligation to the risk of torture and ill treatment within the human rights context and customary international law gives protection from refoulement. Although, the current overwhelming terrorism threats are compelling States to challenge its absolute and non-derogability obligation through the balancing approach as means of removal, this book argues that the absolute and the non-derogabiltiy of the non-refoulement protection must be upheld to counter such phenomena and extend non-refoulement as a complementary protection.
Statement Of Problem: As a body with focus and objectives, it is only natural that stakeholders and other societies will be willing to have accurate and adequate information about the Jama'at's activities and its legacies which as at now are not available in one volume. To fill the gap by providing a well documented work at a high level of research on a prominent Islamic Organization in Nigeria named Jama'at Nasril Islam. Abstract: A lot has been written about the advent and development of Islam in Nigeria. Not much attention has been given to the contributions of indigenous Organization that served as major vehicles for its propagation. The Jama'at Nasril Islam (JNI) which was founded in 1961 by late Sir Ahmadu Bello, the Sardauna of Sokoto, is One of such Organizations. The methodologies adopted in this work included the historical and descriptive Procedures. Also, Primary and Secondary sources were used, including Oral interviews of relevant stakeholders as well as Library and archival materials. This research were to evaluate the efforts of the JNI towards the development of Islam in Nigeria. Also, the work examined the impact of the activities of the JNI on the Muslim Ummah.
Political Islam has been criticized and condemned as a potential threat to the diversity and stability of the world peace, particularly within the Arab nations. The so-called Arab Spring brings about radical changes on political and social levels leading to the evolution of Islamic groups as newly and democratically elected entities. Western media lenses were not distant and voiceless, but they were omnipresent and very close to what was happening in the Arab world, especially in North Africa. This book is a humble attempt to provide a critical investigation and analysis of Western media discourse towards the ascendancy of political Islam in the Arab world, and to shed light on whether this discourse is partial or impartially regarding the new Islamic sovereignty.