Everyday Jihad – The Rise of Militant Islam among Palestinians in Lebanon (OISC)
After 7/7, there was a concern that some individuals could exploit the religious background of the bombers as an excuse for racist attacks and abuses against members of Muslim communities in British. The report confirms that in the immediate period after the attacks there was a temporary and disturbing increase in suspicion, discrimination, criticism and faith hate crimes across the UK. Understandably, this made British Muslims feel vulnerable and fear for their safety. The strong stand taken by political and Muslim community leaders both in condemning the attacks and defending the legitimate rights of Muslims saw a swift reduction in such incidents. As a result of the strong stand by Muslim political, Islamic scholar and community leaders there was a largely positive response from the media across the UK. In addition, Muslim community leaders reacted immediately and unequivocally by condemning the bombers. These factors together were decisive in countering incidents and prejudice against minorities, and preventing a trend of incidents and attacks from taking shape. The real test will be whether this initial encouraging response translates into effective long-term action that addre
When some scholars in the West speak of a clash of civilizations, they usually mean a contemporary conflict between Islam and the West. Both ‘Islam’ and the ‘West” are vastly sweeping categories and tell us little about the actual lives of people. Those who subscribe to the ‘clash of civilizations thesis’ find the distance between a hollow generalization of the sort that Samuel P. Huntington has proposed and the eventual caricature of Islam and Muslims to be a short one. Combined with Orientalist prejudices, they offer equally untenable theories that suggest that Islam is inherently and uniquely resistant to democracy, secularism and liberalism.The truth lies elsewhere.The most substantial majority of Muslims in the world live in two fairly stable democracies, namely India and Indonesia. Pakistan and Bangladesh also add up to a sizeable population of Muslims in the world.In the light of these debates and controversies, it is the South Asian experience that teaches us a significant lesson. It shows that that there is no single linear pattern to define Muslims or Islam in the world.
In the face of increasingly evident religiously driven conflicts around the globe, a necessity arises to understand the nature of such conflicts. This necessity emerges not only from pure scientific curiosity but also from practical concerns regarding the crucial question of how to manage and resolve these conflicts. This study is an attempt to explore such issues by focusing on political Islam in the Middle East. Three cases are examined, Turkey, Egypt, and Algeria, where political Islam has challenged, sometimes quite seriously, the secular state structure. Even though a three-case study is not sufficient enough to reach generable results, many policy implications, nevertheless, can be drawn from the study in terms of more effectively managing the religious challenge in the twenty-first century.
It is hard to imagine a more timely and readable contribution to the current debate over policy towards Iran and the Middle East. Said Shams provides the essential theoretical outlook and historical context, explaining and examining the specific nature of the power shift in the late 1970s and early 1980s of twentieth century in Iran. The Primary focus is on the rise of the Islamist oppositional movement that emerged as an alternative to the official discourse and westernising project of the Pahlavi regime. Oppositional forces as a whole comprised a heterogeneous allaince including radical left wing and Islamic populist, secular nationalists, and Islamic moderate trends, all opposed to the regime of the Shah whom they viewed as dependent on and a protector of USA interests in Iran. Few emerge with credit from a story of full of tragedy and mutual incomprehension of this heterogeneous allaince.
Political Islam has been criticized and condemned as a potential threat to the diversity and stability of the world peace, particularly within the Arab nations. The so-called Arab Spring brings about radical changes on political and social levels leading to the evolution of Islamic groups as newly and democratically elected entities. Western media lenses were not distant and voiceless, but they were omnipresent and very close to what was happening in the Arab world, especially in North Africa. This book is a humble attempt to provide a critical investigation and analysis of Western media discourse towards the ascendancy of political Islam in the Arab world, and to shed light on whether this discourse is partial or impartially regarding the new Islamic sovereignty.
Against Race – Imagining Political Culture Beyond the Color Line (COBEE)
This book is a real qualitative addition in the subject. It depends on tens of interviews of Political Islam leaders, long experience and deep knowledge of Political Islam Movements with a different methods and point of view. The study is an outcome of more than 20 years of research, follow-up and the experience of cohabitation of the Islamic Movements. Reading this book will lead to new approach toward Political Islam in particular, Muslim Brotherhood of Egypt. This book is far away from rhetoric and superficial reading of the phenomenon of political Islam. It offers a new vision of the concept of democracy from the Islamists viewpoint which may help in cooperation with the free world to bring about real change in the Islamic world and the Middle East.
The author tries to answer the question of whether the state theories in Islam could lead the Islamic societies towards implementation of the democratic values such as political participation, rationalism in legislation, implementation of the International norms and respect for Human Rights or not. In this respect, the author first analyzes the political theories in two big religions within Islam with a historic approach using the new texts and historic documents about the theories of Caliphate and Imamate. Afterwards issues such as,appointing the Muslim rulers, legislating in Islam, implementation of the Sharia law,Hudud and finally respect for the international orders and Human Rights are analyzed. The results of this analysis reveal that the political theories in Islam are not capable of presenting an efficient political system and Islam helped to create autocratic regimes. The other challenge is in the rigidity of Shaira law that led to resist against modern regulations, Human Rights and international orders. This study suggests that moving towards Secular democracy is an answer to solve these obstacles.
Sufis had built not only a special relation with God but with human being and its environment as well. In relation to its environment, Sufis entered into the political arena and encourage the people to protest colonial domination. This also happened in Aceh, an area located in the northern part of Sumatra Island, Indonesia. This book tries to trace positive relationship between Sufism and the strong spirit of the Acehnese against the colonial imperialism which was approved by long holy war (1873-1942). This book elaborates three important aspects in detail. First, analyzing the Achehnese practice Sufism during the war with the Dutch. Second, interpreting the important role of Sufism in the context of strong protest to the Dutch colonial administration. Third, analyzing some factors that influenced the Achehnese to perform holy war. By analyzing the Sufi tradition, political protest, and local culture, this book is very useful for those who are interested in studying Islam, history, and cultural anthropology.
This book is a powerful reading of Islamic history, and a provocative assessment of its consequences for the present. The book specifically treats, among others, the Arabs before Islam and early Islam. It interrogates the claims of those Islamists who contended that Islam carries with it a theory of political policies and the state which should be applied unquestioningly. In addition, special attention was given to the Islamic state of Iraq and Syria (ISIS), a newly caliphate state by the terrorist group.
Reforming Islam has been the contentious conundrum intellectually examined by numerous Muslim thinkers across the Muslim world. Abdurrahman Wahid (Gus Dur) –the fourth President of the Republic of Indonesia— is the leading figure of Muslim neo-modernist who combined the traditional Islam with the universal values of modernity. He has nevertheless well-grounded and sustained worldview dealing with the current malaise of Muslims world particularly Indonesian Islam. Despite his rigorous insights of reforming Islam, the agenda of Islamic awakening would destine to fail had we failed to attend to the epistemological groundings of the awakening attempts and his is no exception of which this book attempts to address. The book tries to shed light and engage with his religio-political thought thereby providing significant contribution in shaping future Islamic awakening in both Indonesia and Muslim world. However, it is may worthwhile for academia, politicians and general readers interested in the landscapes and development of Islamic thought in Indonesia.
This study examines the connection between Islamic religious education and terrorism. It looks at the curricula of the Azherite religious schools in Egypt. It examines how the curricula view the three themes of Jihad which are offensive Jihad, defensive Jihad, and Jihad for the purification of the soul besides the relations of Muslims with non-Muslims. Books which are used by violent Jihadist groups for membership acquisition and cadre training are also studied for Jihad themes and relations with non-Muslims. The analysis shows that the curricula are, generally speaking, a peaceful one in its principal direction, since it obviously calls for defensive Jihad and not offensive Jihad. Often, it deals with important concepts of Jihad within the confines of such subjects as the Jihad for the purification of the soul [the Greater Jihad]. Some textbooks included lessons on “Peace in Islam” and advocated the fact that peace is the origin in Islamic Shari’a and war is the exception and it is fought only for defensive reasons.